Rome unites a vast empire

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  • 1. R O MA N R E P U B L I C & E M P I R E
    5.3: ROME UNITES
    A VAST EMPIRE
  • 2. Augustus Caesar
  • 3. CHAP 3: ROME UNITES A VAST EMPIRE
    • Octavian becomes emperor
    • 4. Triumph over Marc Antony ended a century of political murder and civil war
    • 5. All over the Mediterranean, people hoped for peace and an orderly government
    • 6. Rome needed a strong ruler to unify them, the people realized that the Republican system no longer worked.
  • CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Octavian won the support of the Senate by allowing it to keep its powers and encouraging the senate to give him advice, some powers over the provinces and its own treasury
    • 7. 27 BC, the Senate grants Octavian a new name--Augustus Caesar—August meaning “honored, majestic” and Caesar an honorary title w/c was became title of honor in other countries; kaiser (Germany) and czar (Russia)
  • CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Augustus restores order by:
    Dismantled private armies of the generals and took control of the army
    Improved gov’t in the provinces by making governors accountable and the Senate to oversee the provinces that might cause trouble
    Granted citizenship to outsiders earning their loyalty
  • 8. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Augustus restores order by:
    Giving benefits to old, retired or former soldiers & their families
    Restored—tried—to restore the qualities that made the Roman people great: devotion to Roman state, close family ties, hard work, simple living, discipline.
    Infrastructure projects
  • 9. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Augustus restores order by:
    Incentives to those who marry and raise families
    Free or low-cost grain to the poor to alleviate hunger for the poor & unemployed
  • 10. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • The PaxRomana
    • 11. means “the Roman Peace”
    • 12. period in Roman history known for peace, stability & a just and orderly government.
    • 13. lasted for 200 years, from 27 BC – 180 AD
    • 14. Augustus died in 14 AD
  • CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Augustus’ successors
    • 15. the Empire had no law of succession, most rulers just pick their heirs from members of their family
    • 16. 1st 4 emperors after Augustus were related to him or to his second wife Livia—Julio-Claudian dynasty. All 4 lacked Aug’s statesman skills
    Tiberius – Augustus’ stepson (AD 14-37), during his reign plot & violence again became the norm
  • 17.
    • Augustus’ successors
    Caligula – Tiberius’ stepson (AD 37-41), assassinated by the Praetorian Guard due to maniacal and perverted behavior
    Claudius– Caligula’s uncle, last adult male in the family, made Emperor at the insistence of the Praetorian Guard (AD 41-54)
    Nero– Claudius’ stepson (AD 54-68) noted for his tyranny and extravagance. Said to have “fiddled while Rome burned” in AD 64. Blamed fire on the Christians and began to persecute them. Committed suicide 4 years later after the army rebelled
  • 18. Tiberius Claudius Nero Tiberius Julius Caesar Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
    Gaius Julius Caesar GermanicusGaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • 19. Tiberius Claudius DrususTiberius Claudius Nero GermanicusTiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
    LuciusDomitiusAhenobarbusNero Claudius Caesar Drusus GermanicusNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • 20.
  • 21. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • Military leaders become emperors
    After Nero’s death, lawlessness shook Rome and military officers competed for the throne. After 3 more dead emperors—2 by execution, 1 by suicide—Vespasian took the throne (AD 69-79)
    Restored discipline in the army and the administration of the Empire.
  • 22.
    • The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule
    Titus – son of Vespasian, went to war against rebels of Judaea. Captured Jerusalem and burned the Temple
    Domitian – brother of Titus, assassinated in AD 96
    Nerva – a respected senator, introduced the “adopt-a-son-and-make-him-heir” policy and named a successor that had a proven ability to lead. This practice was later adapted by future rulers to avoid conflict, succession of competent rulers and power vacuums
  • 23. CHAP 2: THE REPUBLIC COMES TO AN END
    • The “Good Emperors” bring stable rule
    Trajan – (AD 98-117) Nerva’s adopted son, Spanish born governor of the northern region of Italy.
    Hadrian – (AD 117-138) devoted reign to making Empire more secure instead of adding more provinces. Built Hadrian’s Wall, a defensive barrier on the frontlines of Britain.
  • 24.
  • 25.
    • The PaxRomana Ends
    • 26. Marcus Aurelius – last of the emperors chosen by the adoptive system; scholarly man who followed Stoic principle of life
    • 27. Commodus – son of M.A. and heir, he was not a fit ruler and his succession to the throne ended PaxRomana
    • 28. Feats of engineering – Colosseum, Pantheon, arch, Basilica, aqueduct, Appian Way, Forum/plaza
  • 29.
  • 30. CHAP 4: ROMAN SOCIETY CHANGES
    • Roman cities are centers of culture – urbane and cosmopolitan connected to other cities with a network of roads. Public amenities include: schools, libraries, theaters, & public baths
    • 31. Class divisions now based mainly on wealth – most distinguished families were from the old senatorial families; poor people were unemployed & depended on free food from gov’t and lived in slums
    • Roman societies include slaves
    • 32. Republic era slaves were poorly treated
    • 33. Empire era slaves had some form of protection/rights due to laws passed by some Emperors
    • 34. Some slaves became respected teachers, some were skilled artisans. Others still suffered harsh/brutal treatment in Roman navy, latifundas and stone quarries
    • Paterfamilias – the father, head of the household; had absolute authority over every person in the family
    • 35. By 2nd c. AD, family discipline was much laxer, resulting in spoilt and less disciplined children. Also more freedom for Roman women
    • 36. Could no longer be forced into marriage
    • 37. Could own property and keep money if divorced
    • Could make business dealls and wills w/o consulting husband
    • 38. Could no longer be forced into marriage
    • 39. Could own property and keep money if divorced
    • 40. Could make business dealls and wills w/o consulting husband
    • 41. Could go out shopping or visiting
    • 42. Had more opportunities for education
    • Prominent Senatorial Wives, Mothers, Daughters
    Cornelia – Gracchus Bros’ mother, influenced Roman politics
    Livia - dynamic wife of Augustus, advised him on decisions
    Julia Domna– mother of Emperor Caracalla, in charge of govt while son was at war
    Julia Mamaea– neice to #3 & mother to Emperor Alexander Severus, also made decisions during son’s reign
  • 43.
    • Litterator– teacher who taught young boys to read and write
    • 44. Calculator – teacher who taught young boys arithmetic
    • 45. Roman values and attitudes were taught at home
    • 46. Older boys went to grammar school to learn music, geometry, astronomy, literature and oratory
    • 47. Circus Maximus and Colosseums provide entertainment
    • 48. Chariot races, gladiator fights and animals pitted against one another or against slaves
  • CHAP 5: ROMANS BUILD ON GREEK CULTURE
    • Greco-Roman Culture – blended Greek and Roman influences
    Virgil – Augustus’s propagandist & pastoral writer
    - glorified the Roman talent for governing by writing the Aeneid (Carthage also destroyed in epic)
    Horace – son of a freed slave, another great poet during Augustus’ time, also a pastoral writer
    Ovid – writer, contrast to previous 2 was a city-dweller; spoke for the upperclass
  • 49. - wrote of fashion, wealth, romance, Metamorphoses is a retelling of R & G myths
    Juvenal – last great Roman writer
    • Roman architecture and engineering is practical
    • 50. Roman’s take practical approach to science
    Galen – a Greek whose theories dominated the world of Roman medicine
    Ptolemy - a mathematician, geographer and astronomer who worked in Alexandria, he wrote Amalgest
  • 51.
    • Roman thinkers follow Stoic tradition
    • 52. Marcus Aurelius – wrote the book Meditations in which he expressed the Stoic belief that Romans should live simple lives
    • 53. Romans have a knack for law making
    • 54. Cicero – writer and orator, said, “law should not be bent by influence or broken by power or spoiled by money”
  • SEATWORK
    What was Greco-Roman culture? How did it develop?
    According to Virgil, what quality set the Romans apart from other people?
    On what did Horace blame the fall of the Republic?