• A sentence is a word
or word group that
contains a subject
and a verb and that
expresses a complete
• Ex. The students are
• A sentence is comprised of
a complete subject and a
The simple subject is
always found in the
The verb is always found in
the complete predicate.
The simple subject may be a
noun or a pronoun.
The verb may be LV or AV.
• The complete subject is the
noun/pronoun and all its
• Ex. Middle division exams
(at our school) require
• The complete predicate is
the verb, its modifiers and
complements, if any. It
often begins with the verb.
• Exams (at our school) are
a real experience (for
• When looking for the parts of a sentence,
follow these steps:
– Look for and place parentheses around
prepositional phrases because neither the
simple subject nor simple predicate can be in
a prep phrase.
– Find the verb—AV or LV.
– To find the subject, ask “who/what”
and repeat the verb.
Middle school exams (at Berkeley) are
a real experience (for everyone.)
• The predicate of a sentence may also
contain a complement.
• There are four kinds of complements:
• 1. Direct object - a noun/pronoun that
comes after an action verb and answers
the questions “whom” or “what” after an
S S AV DO
• Ajay and Mike told a joke (to us).
• 2. Another complement that comes after an
action verb is an indirect object.
• The indirect object is also a noun/pronoun and
must come between an AV and the DO.
• It answers the questions “to whom,” “to what,”
“for whom,” and “for what.”
IO IO DO
• Taylor brought Amber and Hannah one (of
Mr. Johnson’s famous cookies.)
• There can only be an IO if there is a
• 3. One complement that must follow a LV is a
predicate nominate (PN).
• A PN is a noun/pronoun that follows a LV and
renames the subject.
S LV PN S
• Speros is a football player, and Hannah and
S LV PN
Andreas are swimmers.
• A PN sentence can be turned around without
changing the meaning of the sentence.
S LV PN
• A football player is Speros.
• 4. The fourth complement is a
predicate adjective (PA).
• It is an adjective in the predicate
that follows a LV and modifies
the subject noun.
S LV PA
• All students are very talented
(in many different ways.)
• All parts of a sentence may
• compound subject
• compound verb
• compound DO
• compound IO
• compound PN
• compound PA
S S AV
Alex and Alexis have similar
names and backpacks.
S S S S LV
• Amanda, Eddie, Peter, and Michael are
always extremely quiet but love English.
• The complete subject of both verbs
(are and love) is Amanda, Eddie, Peter,
• When identifying the verb, you must
include the helping verb(s), or your answer
will be considered wrong.
S HV HV AV
Ex.: All students have been studying and
preparing (for exams).