8. origin of life & evolution
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8. origin of life & evolution

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8. origin of life & evolution 8. origin of life & evolution Presentation Transcript

  • THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE UNIT 8
  • 1. The beginning of life Francesco Redi, 1668 Theory of spontaneous generation
  • 1. The beginning of life Louis Pateur, 1859 Theory of spontaneous generation
  • 1. The beginning of life Oparin’s theory, 1922 Methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water vapour were the components of the primitive atmosphere Electricity from storms, volcano eruptions and UV radiation provided energy to start chemical reactions As a result, organic molecules were formed and fell with the rain to the primitive ocean Bigger organic molecules were formed in the ocean and isolated form the water in a kind of spheres called coacervates that were the ancestor of cells Oparin’s theory
  • 1. The beginning of life Miller’s experiment
  • 1. The beginning of life Panspermia theory Life came form extra terrestrial spores transported by meteorites
  • 1. The beginning of life Hydrothermal vents provided energy Muddy soils provided minerals Vesicles with organic molecules were formed Self reproduction of vesicles started at a certain rate RNA was supposed to be the first nucleic acid Current theory
  • 2. Evolutionary theories Carl von Linné S. XVIII George Cuvier S. XVIII CREATIONISM Species are static Fossils are due to catastrophes
  • 2. Evolutionary theories Lamarck Animals develop structures and organs they need to adapt to the environment Those characteristics are transmited to the offspring LAMARCKISM
  • 2. Evolutionary theories Charles Darwin Individuals in a population are different Organisms produce more offspring than needed They struggle for existence Individuals with the most advantageous characteristics will survive Those favourable variations will be transmited to the offspring DARWINISM
  • 3. Evidences of evolution HOMOLOGOUS ORGANS
  • 3. Evidences of evolution ANALOGOUS ORGANS
  • VESTIGIAL ORGANS 3. Evidences of evolution
  • 3. Evidences of evolution FOSSILS
  • 3. Evidences of evolution EMBRYOS RESEMBLANCE
  • 3. Evidences of evolution BIOGEOGRAPHY
  • 3. Evidences of evolution MOLECULAR SIMILARITIES
  • 3. Evidences of evolution CONVERGENCE
  • 4. Present-day theories SYNTHETIC THEORY Mutations Theodosius Dobzhansky
  • 4. Present-day theories THE SELFISH GENE THEORY Richard Dawkins
  • 4. Present-day theories ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY Lynn Margulis
  • 4. Present-day theories PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM THEORY
  • 4. Present-day theories NEUTRAL THEORY Motoo Kimura
  • 5. Speciation
  • 5. Speciation MICROEVOLUTION AND MACROEVOLUTION
  • 6. The appearance of human beings
  • 6. The appearance of human beings
  • 6. The appearance of human beings
  • 6. The appearance of human beings
  • 6. The appearance of human beings A. Africanus H. erectus h. sapiens