The structure of ecosystems


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The structure of ecosystems

  1. 1. Autora: Marta García T.
  2. 2. THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>It refers to all biotic and abiotic (physical and chemical) conditions at a certain place. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Factores Limitantes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rango de Tolerancia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zona Óptima. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  4. 4. BIOTIC FACTORS Autora: Marta García T.
  5. 5. BIOTIC RELATIONS <ul><li>Are interactions among the living things in an ecosystem. There are two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Intraspecific Relations : among organisms of the same species. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intersepecific Relations: among organisms of different species. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Intraspecific Relations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familial : groups of related individuals which live together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gregarious : groups of individuals which live together for some time to get a benefit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial : related individuals live physically fixed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social : groups of organisms organised to do different jobs for the comunity. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  7. 7. <ul><li>What kind of intraspecific relation…? </li></ul><ul><li>Familial </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Gregarious </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Interespecific Relations : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depredation : predator kills and eats the prey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism : parasite lives at the expense of the host, and harms it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism : two individuals get mutual benefit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism : one individual gets benefit, but the other is not affected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquilinism : one species, the inquiline, makes use of a host's nest or habitat without causing any detriment to the host. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition : the interaction between two or more organisms, or groups of organisms, that use a common resource in short supply. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  9. 9. <ul><li>What kind of interespecific relation….? </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism Depredation Mutualism Commensalism </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Parasitism Inquilinism Competition Commensalism </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  11. 11. Autora: Marta García T.
  12. 12. WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM? <ul><li>Ecosystem = Biotope + Biocenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Biotope : is the inorganic part (non living things) in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Biocenosis : is the set of living things in an ecosystem. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Biomes are the large-scale ecosystems of the world (desert, rainforest, tundra, taiga, grassland, mediterranean forest and deciduous forest). </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere includes all the living things of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosphere includes all the ecosystems of the world. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  14. 14. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS <ul><li>Are ecosystems where organisms can live on land, surrounded by air. They can be natural or man-made. </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of organisms depends on abiotic factors, which are related to the climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  15. 15. <ul><li>There are three large climate zones in each hemisphere, and we can find different biomes in them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frigid Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torrid Zone </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  16. 16. Match the columns <ul><li>CLIMATE ZONES </li></ul><ul><li>ECOSYSTEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Frigid Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Torrid Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Dessert </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><li>Decidous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Forest </li></ul> Autora: Marta García T.
  17. 17. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS <ul><li>They are ecosystems where organisms live sorrounded by water. The main abiotic factors are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Movements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  18. 18. <ul><li>How do you think these factors vary with depth? </li></ul><ul><li> Ligth __________ with depth. </li></ul><ul><li> Pressure __________ with depth. </li></ul><ul><li> Temperature __________ with depth. </li></ul><ul><li> Oxygen __________ with depth. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  19. 19. <ul><li>There are two types of aquatic ecosystems: </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Ecosystems : with less salinity. Ex: rivers, lakes, marshes. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  20. 20. <ul><li>2. Marine Ecosystems : more salty. We can find three types of organisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plankton : tiny plants and animals of the ocean that serve as food for ocean creatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necton : animals that can move freely up and down in the water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bentos : plants and animals who live on the ocean floor. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Plankton, bentos or necton? </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  22. 22. Flippers to help it swim. Streamlined shape. Thick layer of body fat to keep it warm. Strong teeth to catch fish. Forward-facing eyes for clear vision ahead. Hind legs have evolved into a a strong rudder-like tail. How is the seal adapted to its environment? Autora: Marta García T.
  23. 23. Which is the Habitat for each organism? <ul><li>Artic Bear </li></ul><ul><li>Camel </li></ul><ul><li>Parrot </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit </li></ul><ul><li>Crab </li></ul><ul><li>Marmot </li></ul><ul><li>Ilex </li></ul><ul><li>Shark </li></ul><ul><li>Trout </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Coastland </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>River </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  24. 24. Autora: Marta García T.
  25. 25. HOW DO LIVING THINGS OBTAIN FOOD? <ul><li>All living things can be classified according to the way they obtain food. These are the Trophic Levels (3). </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they obtain their food from?: </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  26. 26. 1. Producers <ul><li>Producers make their own food organic matter) from carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts. They have autotrophic nutrition. Plants, algae and some bacteria are producers. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  27. 27. 2. Consumers <ul><li>Consumers eat (consume) food provided by plants or other animals. They have heterotrophic nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of consumers. Can you guess? </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Herbivores are called Primary Consumers . They only eat producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Consumers can be carnivores or omnivores . </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Consumers feed on primary and secondary consumers. Some of them feed on producers, as well. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  29. 29. Some animals are predators, some are prey, some are both. The predator eats the prey, and the prey gets eaten by the predator. Autora: Marta García T.
  30. 30. 3. Decomposers <ul><li>They decompose organic matter (dead animals and plants) into inorganic matter. This inorganic matter (mineral salts) is used again by producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and fungi are decomposer. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  31. 31. Food Chains <ul><li>A food chain shows which plants or animals eat or get eaten by others, in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The _______ gets eaten by the _______. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  32. 32. The _______ is eaten by the _____, the ____ is eaten by the ____. The _______ is eaten by the _____, the ____ is eaten by the ____. Autora: Marta García T.
  33. 33. Autora: Marta García T.
  34. 34. <ul><li>A set of food chains is a Food Web . </li></ul><ul><li>1. Take three food chains </li></ul><ul><li>from this food web. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  35. 35. <ul><li>When a member of the trophic web varies in number, the others organisms get affected as well. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  36. 36. Autora: Marta García T.
  37. 37. <ul><li>So, matter describes a closed cycle in the ecosystem. It is recycled, but not lost. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  38. 38. HOW IS ENERGY TRANSMITTED IN THE ECOSYSTEM? <ul><li>Energy gets into the food chain from the sun, and pass through the trophic levels. But it cannot be recycled, because all living things consume energy. So, some energy gets lost as heat. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Where do energy come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it go back? </li></ul><ul><li>So, does it describe a closed cycle? </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  40. 40. TROPHIC PYRAMIDS <ul><li>A trophic pyramid is a graphic representation of a particular characteristic at each trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Each trophic level is represented by layers of equal height. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  41. 41. <ul><li>Number Pyramid : represents the number of individuals at each trophic level: </li></ul><ul><li>In this ecosystem there are…: </li></ul><ul><li>______ Secondary Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>______ Producers </li></ul><ul><li>______ Primary Producers </li></ul><ul><li>______ Tertiary Consumers </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  42. 42. <ul><li>Draw this ecosystem’s number pyramid: </li></ul><ul><li>Grass and trees: 10.000 </li></ul><ul><li>Butterflies and Grasshoppers: 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbits: 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Rats: 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes: 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Eagles: 2 </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  43. 43. <ul><li>Biomass Pyramid : shows the biomass at each trophic level of a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid : shows the energy contained in each trophic level. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of ecosystems where…: </li></ul><ul><li>Number Pyramid could be inverted? </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Pyramid could be inverted? </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid could be inverted? </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  44. 44. HÁBITAT VS NICHO ECOLÓGICO <ul><li>El Hábitat es el lugar en el que habita una especie. </li></ul><ul><li>El Nicho es el papel que desempeña una especie en un ecosistema, considerando: </li></ul><ul><li>- Relaciones tróficas. </li></ul><ul><li>- Relaciones con el ambiente. </li></ul><ul><li>- Funciones ecológicas. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  45. 45. Autora: Marta García T.
  46. 46. <ul><li>Es la capa más superficial de la corteza terrestre, interfase entre la geosfera, la atmósfera, la hidrosfera y la biosfera. </li></ul><ul><li>Componentes: </li></ul><ul><li>Inorgánicos: agua, gases, arenas, gravas, arcillas, y sales minerales. </li></ul><ul><li>Orgánicos: seres vivos y humus (materia orgánica en descomposición). </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  47. 47. FORMACIÓN DE UN SUELO <ul><li>Etapa inicial: meteorización de la roca madre. Formación del &quot;manto de alteración&quot;. Colonización biológica. </li></ul><ul><li>Etapa de maduración: la actividad de los seres vivos proporciona materia orgánica que se transforma, dando lugar al humus . La evolución del suelo permite la instalación de comunidades biológicas más complejas. </li></ul><ul><li>Etapa climácica: el suelo queda estructurado en niveles horizontales denominados horizontes . </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  48. 48. Autora: Marta García T.
  49. 49. FACTORES EDAFOGENÉTICOS <ul><li>Clima: agentes geológicos externos. </li></ul><ul><li>Topografía. </li></ul><ul><li>Características de la Roca Madre. </li></ul><ul><li>Actividad Biológica. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiempo: 1 cm – 500 años. </li></ul><ul><li>Actividades Humanas. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  50. 50. PERFIL DEL SUELO <ul><li>Horizontes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizonte A: de lixiviado, pobre en minerales, rico en humus y materia orgánica viva. Oscuro. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizonte B: de precipitación. Color pardo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizonte C: de transición. Fragmentos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedentes de la alteración de la roca madre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roca Madre inalterada. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  51. 51. Autora: Marta García T.
  52. 52. DEGRADACIÓN Y PÉRDIDA DEL SUELO: DESERTIFICACIÓN. <ul><li>Deforestación. </li></ul><ul><li>Prácticas Agrícolas no Sostenibles. </li></ul><ul><li>Sobrepastoreo. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  53. 53. Autora: Marta García T.
  54. 54. Autora: Marta García T.
  55. 55. Autora: Marta García T.
  56. 56. BOSQUE ATLÁNTICO <ul><li>Clima moderado, abundantes lluvias. </li></ul><ul><li>Caducifolio (hayedos, robledales). </li></ul><ul><li>Sotobosque muy desarrollado. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna variada. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  57. 57. BOSQUE MEDITERRÁNEO <ul><li>Clima mediterráneo de interior. </li></ul><ul><li>Plantas adaptadas a la sequía estival. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna variada. </li></ul><ul><li>Dehesa. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  58. 58. Autora: Marta García T.
  59. 59. LOS RÍOS <ul><li>Diferenciación de flora y fauna: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curso Alto. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curso Medio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curso Bajo. </li></ul></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  60. 60. LOS LAGOS <ul><li>Masas de agua profundas. </li></ul><ul><li>Origen glaciar. </li></ul><ul><li>Dinámica Lacustre. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  61. 61. LOS HUMEDALES <ul><li>Ecosistemas frágiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Zonas inundadas. </li></ul><ul><li>Recarga subterránea. </li></ul><ul><li>Salinidad. </li></ul><ul><li>Zonas ZEPA. </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  62. 62. ZONAS MARINAS <ul><li>Litoral Cantábrico </li></ul><ul><li>Litoral Mediterráneo </li></ul>Autora: Marta García T.
  63. 63. PRADERAS DE POSIDONIA Autora: Marta García T.