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Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
Interaction and coordination
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Interaction and coordination

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  • 1. INTERACTION AND COORDINATIO NAutora: Marta García T.
  • 2. What do you remember? 1. What senses does a predatory animal use when it hunts? 2. What body part does the chameleon use to catch its prey? 3.What type of living being moves more quickly: a plant or an animal? 4. Which of the following are involved in interaction? heart – roots – runners – brain - kidneys - bones Autora: Marta García T.
  • 3. What is interaction?Interaction enables living beings to receive andrespond to a stimulus. It involves differentelements:1. Stimuli.2. Receptors.3. Coordination Systems.4. Effectors. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 4.  Stimuli → Detectable changes in the internal or external environment, which provoke responses. Stimuli can be Physical, Chemical or Biotic. Receptors → Sensory structures which detect external and internal stimuli.  In Animals, receptors are the sense organs.  In Plants, repectors are found in cells. Coordination Systems → Organs which process information received by the receptors and produce a response. Effectors → Structures which produce responses, such as muscles and glands in animals. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 5. How do receptors work? SENSE SENSE ORGAN WHAT STIMULI DO THEY DETECT? HOW DO THEY WORK? They detect light. SIGHT EyesSMELL Vertebrates: nose They detect chemical substances Arthropods: appendage dissolved in air or water. TASTE Tongue It detects chemical substances dissolved in water.HEARING Ears They detect sound, from very loud noises to soft musical notes.TOUCH Fish: lateral line They detect pressure, touch, pain and Arthropods: appendage temperature changes Most animals: skin Autora: Marta García T.
  • 6. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 7. Coordination System: The Nervous System The nervous system receives information, interprets it, and transmits a response to the effectors. It is different for invertebrates and vertebrates. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 8.  In vertebrates, the nervous system includes:  The Central Nervous System (CNS ) → The Brain and the Spinal Cord.  The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS )→ Nerves originated in the brain and in the spinal cord. Nerves can be:  Sensory: go from the receptors to the CNS, carrying information.  Motor: go from the CNS to the effectors, carrying a response. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 9. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 10.  Invertebrates have simpler nervous systems, for example:  Ganglia system (nerve cells are joined by the nerve cord).  Nerve Net system (nerve cells form a nerve net extending throughout the animal). Autora: Marta García T.
  • 11. EffectorsThey are organs which produce a response.There are two types of responses to stimuli:  MOTOR RESPONSES →The response is movement. They are controlled by the motor system  ENDOCRINE RESPONSES → The response is the release of hormones into the blood. Hormones control and coordinate activities throughout the body. They are controlled by glands. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 12. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 13. Coordination In Plants Plants do not have a nervous or an endocrine system. Responses to stimuli in plants are coordinated by HORMONES , which act as chemical messengers to respond to factors such as light, gravity, water and temperature. Cells inside the organism detect stimuli Autora: Marta García T.
  • 14.  There are two types of responses to external stimuli: 1) Tropism → Permanent responses which produce changes in the direction of the plant’s growth. Types:  Geotropism: The response is caused by gravity.  Phototropism: The response is caused by light. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 15.  Hydrotropism: The response is caused by water. Thigmotropism: The response is caused by contact. Autora: Marta García T.
  • 16. 2) Nastic Movements: are temporary responses of particular parts of a plant to external stimuli. Autora: Marta García T.

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