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  • 1. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • 2. LOS SISTEMAS CIRCULATORIOS http://recursostic.educacion.es/secundaria/edad/3esobiologia/3quincena9/ventanas/organizacion_circulatorio.htm
  • 3. The circulatory system transports nutrients and oxygen around the organism, and, at the same time, takes the cellular residues and carries them to the organs responsible for their elimination.
  • 4. COMPONENTS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • Blood. • Blood Vessels. • Heart.
  • 5. THE BLOOD
  • 6. WHAT IS IN THE BLOOD? red blood cell platelets white blood cell plasma
  • 7. 55% corresponds to blood plasma In every 100 mL of blood... 2% corresponds to white blood cells 43% corresponds to red blood cells Blood Plasma is a yellowish substance made up of: Water Mineral Salts Proteins Hormones Nutrients Waste products
  • 8. BLOOD CELLS Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets White Blood Cells
  • 9. Red Blood Cells A biconcave disc, round and flat, without a nucleus. Contain haemoglobin, a protein specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it. It gives them their red colour. Can change shape to an amazing extent, without breaking, as it squeezes single file through the capillaries.
  • 10. White Blood Cells There are many different types and all contain a big nucleus. They protect us and defend us from infections and eliminate cell debris. There can be between 5.000 and 9.000 per cubic mm.
  • 11. Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. They don’t have a nucleous. There are between 150.000 and 300.000 per cubic mm. Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net, and take part in blood coagulation, preventing haemorrhages.
  • 12. BLOOD FUNCTIONS • Nutrition: transport nutrients from the digestive system to the cells. • Respiration: transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. • Excretion: transport waste products from the cells to the excretory system. • Defensive: it contains defensive cells. • Thermical Control: it takes part in controlling the body’s temperature. • It transport hormones.
  • 13. BLOOD VESSELS Ducts through which the blood circulates to all the parts of the organism.
  • 14. BLOOD VESSELS STRUCTURE
  • 15. Arteries Carry blood away from the heart, to the organs. Veins Take blood back to the heart from the organs. Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels which connect arteries and veins.
  • 16. Arteries • Transport the blood from the heart to the organs. • They suffer a big blood pressure. • Their walls must be thick and elastic. • As they get further away from the heart, they divide into smaller vessels called arterioles.
  • 17. Veins • Transport the blood from the organs to the heart. • Their walls are thinner and less elastic than arteries’. • Inside them there are valves to prevent the blood backward movement. • They divide to form venules.
  • 18. Capillaries • Very small vessels that join arteries and veins endings. • They have a very thin epitelial wall. • Through their walls, substances exchange with the body cells .
  • 19. Intercambio de sustancias en el capilar Desechos CO2 Nutrientes O2 Desechos CO2 O2 Nutrientes Una pequeña porción de plasma también sale de los capilares, y va penetrando en el sistema linfático, que posteriormente lo devuelve a la circulación. Representación de la cantidad de oxígeno que lleva la sangre a su paso por los alvéolos pulmonares.
  • 20. THE HEART
  • 21. • It is a muscular, hollow organ that pumps the blood through the blood vessels. • Its walls are made up of a muscular tissue called Myocardium. • The inside is covered by a thin layer of cells, the Endocardium. • The outside is covered by a double membrane, the Pericardium.
  • 22. Heart Structure
  • 23. Veins arrive to the atriums, and arteries leave from ventricles. Superior Vena Cava Aorta Artery Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Veins Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Myocardium
  • 24. Recorrido de la sangre en el corazón Sangre rica en oxígeno 1 Sangre pobre en oxígeno 2 3 4
  • 25. EL FUNCIONAMIENTO DEL CORAZÓN DIÁSTOLE AURICULAR SÍSTOLE VENTRICULAR SÍSTOLE AURICULAR
  • 26. LA DOBLE CIRCULACIÓN SANGUÍNEA Circuito general o mayor Arterias Circuito pulmonar o menor Circuito pulmonar o menor Venas Vena Circuito general o mayor Arteria
  • 27. THE LYMPHATI C SYSTEM It collects excess interstitial plasma, and returns it to the blood.
  • 28. • It is made up of: o Lymph Vessels. o Lymph Capillaries. o Lymph Nodes: located in various parts of the body, they release lymphocytes, which protect us from infections.
  • 29. • The lymphatic system also: o Maintains the fluid balance in the internal milieu. o Collects the products of fat digestion from the small intestine.
  • 30. ENFERMEDADES DEL APARATO CIRCULATORIO
  • 31. ARTERIOESCLEROSIS Endurecimiento de las arterias por deposición de placas de grasa y colesterol. A estas placas se adhieren plaquetas y forman coágulos que pueden obstruir la arteria. Coágulo Luz de la arteria Tasa de mortalidad por enfermedad cardiaca (por 1.000 habitantes) 16 12 8 6 5 4 Pared de la arteria INFARTO DE MIOCARDIO 0 1,8 2 2,2 2,5 2,6 2,8 Tasa de colesterol en sangre (g/L) El infarto se produce cuando un coágulo tapona una arteria coronaria y una parte del corazón deja de funcionar.
  • 32. Enfermedades de la sangre La mayoría de las enfermedades relacionadas con la sangre, como la anemia o la leucemia, tienen su origen en un mal funcionamiento de la médula ósea roja. Médula ósea roja ANEMIA • Sus principales síntomas son la fatiga y la pérdida de energía. • La sangre contiene una baja cantidad de hemoglobina. • La anemia más común se produce por la falta de hierro, un componente esencial de la hemoglobina. LEUCEMIA • Es un cáncer que afecta a las células de la médula ósea. • Se produce un aumento de glóbulos blancos incapaces de luchar contra las infecciones, y disminuye el número de glóbulos rojos y plaquetas.
  • 33. HEMOFILIA • Se manifiesta por la aparición de hemorragias, debido a problemas de coagulación de la sangre. • Para que se produzca la coagulación se necesita la colaboración de doce sustancias diferentes llamadas factores de coagulación. En el plasma de los hemofílicos falta alguno de estos factores. • Se debe inyectar a la persona el factor del que carece. En la mayoría de los casos en los hemofílicos, se dan antecedentes familiares.
  • 34. EXCRETORY SYSTEM It is responsible for eliminating waste products produced by our cells.
  • 35. • It is made up of the urinary system and other organs and systems which contribute to the excretion of waste products: o Respiratory System. o Sweat Glands. o Liver.
  • 36. THE URINARY SYSTEM • It has two parts: the Kidneys and the Urinary Tracts. http://www.bioygeo.info/Animaciones/Nefrona.swf
  • 37. THE KIDNEYS MEDULLA Renal Vein RENAL PELVIS Renal Arterie Ureter RENAL CORTEX
  • 38. • Each kidney is made up of nephrons, small tubes with one open end sorrounded by a blood capillary. • Nephrons filter the blood in the glomerulus, and produce urine.
  • 39. LA SALUD DEL APARATO URINARIO Para no sobrecargar de trabajo a nuestros riñones, debemos adquirir ciertos hábitos que ayudan a mejorar su funcionamiento. Ingerir cantidades moderadas de ciertos alimentos que provocan la formación de productos tóxicos, como el marisco o la carne de caza. Ingerir como mínimo dos litros de agua al día. Consumir con moderación carnes y pescados, ricos en sustancias nitrogenadas cuya eliminación puede alterar el funcionamiento del riñón.
  • 40. LA HEMODIÁLISIS El riñón artificial Los enfermos cuyos riñones no funcionan, deben depurar regularmente su sangre por medio de la hemodiálisis. La sangre se pone en contacto con una solución similar al plasma sanguíneo a través de una membrana semipermeable, que deja escapar la urea y otros productos de desecho, pero impide el paso a moléculas grandes y células sanguíneas.