Ed ass ammar 2013
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  • 1. ‫بلقيهجفريﮐجروترأنﻣﮐتب‬ MAKTAB KEJURUTERAAN JEFRI BOLKIAH KUALA BELAIT NEGARA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM ASSIGNMENT 1 SESSION 2012/2014  Please Tick (  ) First Attempt: Re-Do: TITLE: ENGINEERING DRAWING FUNDAMENTAL,GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION, ORTHOGRAPHIC & PICTORIAL PROJECTIONS AND PATERN DEELOPMENTUNIT TITLE: ENGINEERING DRAWINGNAME/ID CARD NUMBER: Abd Ammar Ar-rasyid bin Razali(01-061196)GROUP/LEVEL: Diploma Year 1 Marine Engineering (A)DATE GIVEN: 6TH/ FEB/ 2013 DATE SUBMITTED: ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 1
  • 2. TABLES OF CONTENT  INTRODUCTION PG.3  ENGINNEERING DRAWING PG.4  ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION PG.5  TYPES OF LINES USED IN ENGINEERING DRAWING PG.6  PICTORIAL DRAWING PG.7  ISOMETRIC PROJECTION PG.8  OBLIQUE PROJECTION PG.9  PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION PG.11  CONCLUSION PG.12 ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 2
  • 3. IntroductionEngineering drawing is not only the province of the draftsperson. It is thelanguage of the engineer. It is their means of developing and recording theirideas, and conveying them to others. Every engineer will be using and referring tosome form of drawings almost daily. They will often be producing or directing thepreparation of drawings. Usually, they make the preliminary sketches and designdrawings in accordance with principles of engineering drawing. Because this is themost unambiguous way of to convey and record information. It is also likely thatevery engineer at sometime will be checking the work of designer drafters andapproving drawings before they are sent to manufacturing. When engineers signoff the final approval of a drawing, they take responsibility for it. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 3
  • 4. Engineering Drawing All forms of engineering and technical work require that a two dimensional surface(paper) be used to communicate ideas and the physical description of a variety of shapes.Here projections have been divided in to two basic categories; pictorial and multi view.This simple division separates single view projections (oblique, perspective and isometric)from multi view projections (orthographic). Theoretically, projections can be classified asconvergent and parallel, or divided in to three systems of projection: perspective,oblique, and orthographic. Division of types based on whether the drawing is a one view ormulti view projection sufficiently separate projection types in to those used forengineering working drawings (orthographic) and those used for display (architecturalrendering, technical illustrations etc.) In short, one of the best ways to communicate ones ideas is through some form ofpicture or drawing. This is especially true for the engineer. The purpose of this chapter isto give you the basics of engineering sketching and drawing. We will treat "sketching" and"drawing" as one. "Sketching" generally, means freehand drawing. "Drawing" usually, meansusing drawing instruments, from compasses to computers to bring precision to thedrawings. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 4
  • 5. Orthographic ProjectionOrthographic projections are a way of describing what an object looks like from severaldifferent views. Orthographics are also called engineering drawings or plan views. Using aset of orthographics an Illustrator can easily draw the three-dimensional object from anyangle and in perspective, isometric or any number of other drawing systems. 3D modelersoften use orthographics to accurately create an object in a 3D application.An orthographic is one way to describe a three dimensional object in two-dimensionalspace. Typically an orthographic will have the top, side and front views of an objectdrawn together with some kind of scale However, three views are shown in order to clarify internal and external detail.The views are known as:  FRONT VIEW  TOP VIEW  SIDE VIEW (left and/or right hand view)  (And at times) BASE/SECTIONAL VIEWS A comparisons of first angle projection and third angle projection First angle Third angle The plan is BELOW the front view.  The plan view is ABOVE the front view. The right-hand side view is on the left-  The right-hand side view is on the right- hand side of the front view. hand side of the front view. The left-hand side view is on the right-  The left-hand side view is on the left-hand hand side of the front view. side of the front view. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 5
  • 6. Type of Lines used in Engineering DrawingA variety of line styles graphically represent physical objects. Types of lines include thefollowing:  Object or visible lines are used to represent the outline or contour of the object being drawn.  Center lines are used to represent the center of round or cylindrical features, or the symmetry of a feature  Center marks are used to represent the center points of a radius (arc) or circle.  Hidden lines represents edges and outlines that are visible features of an object in a particular view.  Phantom lines represent the outline of an adjacent part, show alternate positions of a moving part, or replace repetitive details such as gear teeth and threads.  Break lines represents an area of an object that has been removed for clarity or convenience.  Cutting-plane lines represent an imaginary cut through a part to show a cross- section.  Viewing-plane lines represents the direction of sight used to view particular feature.  Section lines are used to show where material has been cut away in a section view. A cutting-plane or break lines may used to expose the material. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 6
  • 7. Lines can also be classified by a letter classification in which each line is given aletter. Type A lines show the outline of the feature of an object. They are the thickest lines on a drawing and done with a pencil softer than HB. Type B lines are dimension lines and are used for dimensioning, projecting, extending, or leaders. A harder pencil should be used, such as a 2H. Type C lines are used for breaks when the whole object is not shown. They are freehand drawn and only for short breaks. 2H pencil Type D lines are similar to Type C, except they are zigzagged and only for longer breaks. 2H pencil Type E lines indicate hidden outlines of internal features of an object. They are dotted lines. 2H pencil Type F lines are Type F[typo] lines, except they are used for drawings in electro technology. 2H pencil Type G lines are used for Centre lines. They are dotted lines, but a long line of 10–20 mm, then a gap, then a small line of 2 mm. 2H pencil Type H lines are the same as Type G, except that every second long line is thicker. They indicate the cutting plane of an object. 2H pencil Type K lines indicate the alternate positions of an object and the line taken by that object. They are drawn with a long line of 10–20 mm, then a small gap, then a small line of 2 mm, then a gap, then another small line. 2H pencil. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 7
  • 8. Pictorial DrawingEvery person cannot understand the orthographic projection. Its execution requires athorough understanding of the principles of projection and its reading requires a goodpractice of constructive imagination. Pictorial drawing is the drawing of a picture ingraphic language of engineers, to represent a real thing by means of picture views. Itshows the appearance of the object by one view only. Following three methods of pictorialprojections are commonly used in engineering drawing:(a) Isometric projection(b) Oblique projection(c) Perspective projection Isometric, Oblique and Perspective Drawing ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 8
  • 9. ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONIsometric projection is a method for visually representing three-dimensional objects intwo dimensions in technical and engineering drawings. An isometric view of an object canbe obtained by choosing the viewing direction in a way that the angles between theprojection of the x, y, and z axes are all the same, or 120°. Isometric ProjectionIsometric projection is a type of pictorial projection. Isometric means equal measure. Inthis isometric projection, all the plane surfaces and the edges formed of these planesurfaces should be equally inclined to the metric plane. Metric plane is the samehorizontal plane which is used in orthographic projection. To represent the three dimensions (length, breadth and height) of the object,there are three axes known as ISOMETRIC AXES. To start an isometric drawing, a referenceline (horizontal line) and the three axes (X, Y Z) are drawn by taking an angle of 30° fromthe reference horizontal line as drawn in Fig 7.2. Z axis is a vertical line to the horizontalline drawn from intersection point of X and Y axes. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 9
  • 10. OBLIQUE PROJECTIONOblique projection is a simple type of technical drawing of graphical projection used forproducing pictorial, two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. In an obliquepictorial drawing, the angles displayed among the axes, as well as the foreshorteningfactors (scale) are arbitrary. More precisely, any given set of three coplanar segmentsoriginating from the same point may be construed as forming some oblique perspective ofthree sides of a cube. Oblique Projection O O Third Axis of the Oblique Projection may be Inclined at 30 or 45 ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 10
  • 11. Inclination of Inclined Axis Oblique projection of a cubePerspective Projection Perspective projection or perspective drawing is the representation of an object ona plane surface, called the picture plane, as it would appear to the eye, when viewedfrom a fixed position. It may also be defined as the figure formed on the picture planewhen visual rays from the eye to the object cut the picture plane. Perspective is mainlyused in architecture. By means of perspective, the architecture is able to show how anobject would appear when constructed. ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 11
  • 12. ConclusionWith my skills and what I have studied about engineering so far, I have finished all thedrawings given neat and clean. I also did research on the internet to look for moreinformation about engineering drawing. I used all my engineering materials such aspencils, tee-rule, Set Square, compass, drawing board and etc. It is a good engineeringpractice to review what we have studied before, there were so many difficulties, but inthe end I encountered the problems through more research since we were given lots oftime.Referencehttp://www.csee.umbc.edu/~rheingan/435/pages/res/view/view2-4.gifhttp://draftingmanuals.tpub.com/14276/img/14276_304_1.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oblique_projectionhttp://draftingmanuals.tpub.com/14040/img/14040_38_3.jpghttp://engineerharry.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/lines.png ABD. AMMAR AR-RASYID, MRE A 12