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Islam Overview - Universe Next Door Chapter 10
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  • 1. Islam The Universe Next Door Chapter 10“A View from the Middle East”
  • 2. “There is no God but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God”
  • 3. Basic Vocabulary• Islam- means submission or surrender - obedience (peace)• Allah - Arabic for God – the one true and ultimate supreme being• Abraham- patriarch of Islam (monotheism)• Hagar - handmaid of Abraham’s wife, Sara (mother of Ishmael)• Ishmael- first born son of Abraham and Hagar - associated with the Arabs - Ishmael means God hears
  • 4. • Muhammad - prophet of Islam- Arabian merchant• Mecca –birthplace of Muhammad (Saudi Arabia) – Site of the kaaba and the hajj• Medina - burial place of Muhammad• Jerusalem - site of the Dome of the Rock (mosque built on the Jewish temple mount)
  • 5. • Hajj- annual pilgrimage to Mecca • It is one of the five pillars of Islam• Kaaba- holiest site in Islam – located in Mecca – associated with Abraham - establishment of monotheism in the region of Arabia
  • 6. Pilgrims on hajj
  • 7. • Shi’a- (Shiites) smaller more radical group - - associated with Iran• Sunni- largest group within Islam - – @80 %of Muslims are Sunni – More moderate in their beliefs and practices• Sufi- mystical branch of Islam• Jihad-”holy war” - literally means struggle - – can refer to one’s personal struggle with God – Or the struggle for the spread of Islam
  • 8. • Qur’an- it is believed to be the revelation of God to the prophet (angelic visit by Gabriel) - must be in Arabic to be fully authoritative - Qur’an means recitation
  • 9. • Mullah (Imam) - Islamic leader and or teacher• Mosque - Islamic place of worship• Minaret - prayer tower• Mahdi- associated with the “second coming and final judgment of God – Some Muslims believe that Jesus may be the Mahdi who will return to establish peace and justice before God’s final judgment
  • 10. The great mosque and kaaba in Mecca
  • 11. Saudi Arabia – royal family
  • 12. The kaaba
  • 13. The Five Pillars of Islam• There is no God but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God• Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca – (the kaaba)• Hajj- make the annual pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one’s lifetime- – the hajj- weeklong event• Give to poor – 2.5% of one’s wealth• Fast from dawn to dusk during the holy month of Ramadan
  • 14. Some Facts About Islam• Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in world (120 million)• Approximately 25% of the world’s population is Muslim• @11 million Muslims live in the United States
  • 15. • Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world today• The state of Israel is the major “flash point” between the Muslim world and the West• @80 % of Muslims are NOT Arabic – (do not speak Arabic- different culture) – Arab regions and countries – • Middle East, North Africa, Iraq – Non-Arab regions – • Parts of Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Indonesia, etc.
  • 16. Hajj pilgrimage – spiritual journey• Hajj takes place in and around Mecca – population of 1 million• Kaaba means “house of God” – Believed to be the original site of worship to the one true God established by Abraham and reestablished by Muhammad• Hajj seeks to retrace the pilgrimage (journey) of Abraham - the worship of the one true God
  • 17. • Ihram – state of ritual purification during hajj – Pure state of mind – peace, patience, brotherhood• 2 million pilgrims come to Mecca for hajj each year• Only Muslims may participate in hajj• Muslim women must be accompanied by a male family member or be given written permission from a male family member to attend
  • 18. Stages of hajj• Worship at the kaaba- circle the kaaba 7 times (prayer) – - ihram- ritual state of purification• The Striving- reenactment of Hagar’s desperate search for water for her son Ismael – God provides a spring• Walk to the Valley of Mina (Plain of Arafat) – Day of reckoning before God - seek God’s grace and forgiveness
  • 19. • Ritual stoning of Satan to defy temptation (3 stone pillars) – “Abraham threw stones at Satan” when he tempted him to not sacrifice his son Ishmael• Animal sacrifice made for each pilgrim• Return to the kaaba – circle and prayer
  • 20. How does Islam address themajor worldview questions? The Universe Next Door Chapter 10 Basic Islamic Theism
  • 21. Prime Reality• God (Allah) is the one and only supreme being – The ultimate reality• Allahu akbar-”God is greater than all others” – Infinite – Transcendent – Personal – Omniscient – Immanent – Sovereign – Good
  • 22. • Allah reveals himself through human history• Reveals himself through the Qur’an• The Qur’an is believed to be God’s word given directly to the prophet Muhammad• The Qur’an can be likened to the Christian teaching of the “Word” becoming a human being• However, Muslims reject the teachings that Jesus was the “Son of God” - God as a human being
  • 23. External Reality- Physical Reality• Allah created the physical world- universe – ex nihilo- from nothing• The physical world is a – cause and effect system- ordered and controlled by God – The system is CLOSED- it is a determined system • Nothing happens outside of Allah’s “divine decree” or will- he controls all aspects of his creation – Allah not only knows everything that happens, he also controls everything – “God’s will sets the boundary for what any creature can do as a causal agent.” (257)
  • 24. Human beings• Humans are God’s highest creation – possess special abilities and responsibilities• Humans are both physical and spiritual beings• Adam and Eve were the first humans• Humans are God’s representatives on earth• Humans are born “pure” and uncorrupted – This differs with the Christian view of the sin nature- or the idea of “original sin”• The goal of Muslims is to live out that purity in the world
  • 25. Satan• Iblis – Iblis was an angelic being who refused to bow down to Adam (God’s highest creation) – “Bow down to Adam;” and they bowed down: Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.” (Qur’an 3:34) – Iblis’ rebellion - refused to acknowledge the superiority of human beings
  • 26. Death• A period of “transition” between this physical life and the eternal state of being• Heaven - “paradise”• Hell - place of punishment and eternal torment where God punishes those who have refused to follow and obey him• All human beings will stand before God’s judgment – Deeds will be judged – A Muslim has no definite assurance of salvation • Exceptions- martyrs, young children, people who are mentally impaired – Allah alone determines a person’s ultimate eternal destiny
  • 27. Heaven (Paradise)• “gardens of perpetual bliss” – An oasis, rivers, lush gardens, etc.• People will enjoy the pleasures of this world without the any of the negative aspects – Eating and drinking – Sex - Allah will provide virgins for those who are in paradise – Women will presumably receive whatever men are given
  • 28. Knowing- Knowledge• Allah has given human beings the ability to think and reason• God revealed himself through the prophet Muhammad (Qur’an) – God’s other prophets (messengers) • Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus• “God’s sovereign decree limits human knowledge” (263)
  • 29. God’s revelation• God alone is sovereign in determining who will be open to his revelation• “Those who God willeth to guide- he opens their breast to Islam; those whom he willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast closed and constricted…… thus does God (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.” (6:125)
  • 30. Right and Wrong Morality is based on the teachings of the Qur’an• Islamic law- the shari’a• Muslim life is strictly regulated by law – A person must live his or her life in strict accordance to Islamic law• Islam focuses more on how one lives than on God’s grace• Obedience to the law – devotion to God – avoid punishment
  • 31. Human History• History is a reflection of God’s absolute sovereignty• Human history provides people with the opportunity to “demonstrate their submission” to Allah (269)• Goal: bring the entire world under the Islamic community - creation of a unified Islamic state• Muslims believe in a “second coming” when the Mahdi comes to establish peace and justice before God’s final judgment – Some Muslims believe that Jesus Christ is the Mahdi