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The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
The Rise Of The Modern Nation State
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The Rise Of The Modern Nation State

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  • 1. The Rise of the ModernThe Rise of the Modern Nation-StateNation-State AA transitiontransition in politicsin politics toward the modern politicaltoward the modern political statestate
  • 2. The development of theThe development of the modern nation-state was amodern nation-state was a departure from the feudaldeparture from the feudal model of the Middle Agesmodel of the Middle Ages Feudal kingdoms and kingsFeudal kingdoms and kings Lords and knights (vassals) providedLords and knights (vassals) provided support and protectionsupport and protection Vassalage/ChivalryVassalage/Chivalry Powerful ChurchPowerful Church
  • 3. Major CharacteristicsMajor Characteristics of theof the Modern Nation-StateModern Nation-State  CentralizationCentralization of powerof power  Strong monarchsStrong monarchs  Rising sense ofRising sense of nationalismnationalism – national identity and loyaltynational identity and loyalty  Monarchs and the nation-states began toMonarchs and the nation-states began to challenge the authority of the Catholicchallenge the authority of the Catholic ChurchChurch in its dominions (territories)in its dominions (territories)
  • 4.  The establishment of largeThe establishment of large standing armiesstanding armies –– financed by the nation-statefinanced by the nation-state – National army and navyNational army and navy  Development of stateDevelopment of state bureaucraciesbureaucracies to handleto handle the running of governmentthe running of government – Civil servantsCivil servants served the state and the monarchyserved the state and the monarchy bureaucrats- often middle classbureaucrats- often middle class  Nation-states moved toNation-states moved to control the nobilitycontrol the nobility and aristocratic influenceand aristocratic influence and powerand power  States moved toStates moved to stop political oppositionstop political opposition
  • 5. EnglandEngland
  • 6. BackgroundBackground  1066- Norman Conquest1066- Norman Conquest of Britainof Britain – Britain moved toward a more centralized government established aBritain moved toward a more centralized government established a common law and tax systemcommon law and tax system  1215-1215- Magna Carta-Magna Carta- Great CharterGreat Charter – established the principle ofestablished the principle of limited government in Englandlimited government in England – TheThe monarch did NOT have “absolute” power in state mattersmonarch did NOT have “absolute” power in state matters  1337-1453- Hundred Years’ War1337-1453- Hundred Years’ War – England’s loss allowed for its further political developmentEngland’s loss allowed for its further political development  1455-1487- War of the Roses-1455-1487- War of the Roses- – English civil war for control of the crownEnglish civil war for control of the crown – AA new line of very powerful English monarchs (Tudorsnew line of very powerful English monarchs (Tudors) came to) came to powerpower
  • 7. 1215- Magna Carta-1215- Magna Carta- Limited GovernmentLimited Government King John signs the charter limiting the monarch’s powerKing John signs the charter limiting the monarch’s power
  • 8. Hundred Years’ WarHundred Years’ War
  • 9. The War of the RosesThe War of the Roses  Civil war fought between two noble familiesCivil war fought between two noble families – Lancasters and YorksLancasters and Yorks  Struggle for control of the English crownStruggle for control of the English crown  Henry TudorHenry Tudor (associated with the Lancasters) led his(associated with the Lancasters) led his forces to victory over the Yorksforces to victory over the Yorks  Henry assumed the throne and becameHenry assumed the throne and became Henry VIIHenry VII – Henry then married a YorkHenry then married a York  New family line of monarchs (New family line of monarchs (the Tudorsthe Tudors) would) would lead England through the 16lead England through the 16thth centurycentury – Henry VIII and Elizabeth IHenry VIII and Elizabeth I
  • 10. War of the RosesWar of the Roses Lancasters vs. YorksLancasters vs. Yorks
  • 11. First Tudor MonarchFirst Tudor Monarch Henry (Tudor) VIIHenry (Tudor) VII
  • 12. Political Trends in EnglandPolitical Trends in England 1515thth and 16and 16thth centurycentury  Limited governmentLimited government (Magna Carta 1215)-(Magna Carta 1215)- – the monarch’s power was NOT absolutethe monarch’s power was NOT absolute  Establishment of aEstablishment of a common lawcommon law throughoutthroughout the landthe land  Establishment of aEstablishment of a parliamentparliament (usually(usually controlled by the nobility)- concept ofcontrolled by the nobility)- concept of representative governmentrepresentative government  Strong monarchs still held great power andStrong monarchs still held great power and influence in Englandinfluence in England
  • 13.  Government gained support ofGovernment gained support of the middlethe middle classclass  Government moved toGovernment moved to control aristocraticcontrol aristocratic oppositionopposition – TheThe Star ChamberStar Chamber  TheThe Church in EnglandChurch in England was ultimatelywas ultimately brought under the control of the governmentbrought under the control of the government and the monarchyand the monarchy – Act of Supremacy 1534-Act of Supremacy 1534-  monarch became head of the Churchmonarch became head of the Church
  • 14. The Star ChamberThe Star Chamber  the accused could notthe accused could not see evidence againstsee evidence against themthem  sessions were secretsessions were secret  torture was applied attorture was applied at timestimes  juries were not called.juries were not called.
  • 15. English ParliamentEnglish Parliament
  • 16. Westminster Abbey LondonWestminster Abbey London
  • 17. FranceFrance
  • 18. BackgroundBackground  Hundred Years’ WarHundred Years’ War – England against FranceEngland against France  Political divisions within France among thePolitical divisions within France among the ruling class- nobilityruling class- nobility  Economic ruin as a result of the warEconomic ruin as a result of the war – Food shortagesFood shortages – Disruption of trade and commerceDisruption of trade and commerce – War debtWar debt
  • 19. New Rulers EmergeNew Rulers Emerge  Charles VII (r. 1422-1461)Charles VII (r. 1422-1461)  Revived the monarchy in FranceRevived the monarchy in France  Used theUsed the middle class for supportmiddle class for support  Created the firstCreated the first standing armystanding army in Europein Europe – supported by the statesupported by the state
  • 20.  TheThe French state took control of theFrench state took control of the appointment of high Church officials andappointment of high Church officials and the collection of Church revenues (taxes) inthe collection of Church revenues (taxes) in FranceFrance – Pragmatic SanctionsPragmatic Sanctions of the Bourgesof the Bourges (1438)(1438)
  • 21. Charles VIICharles VII
  • 22. Louis XILouis XI  r. 1461-1483r. 1461-1483  Expanded royal authority in FranceExpanded royal authority in France  Promoted economic growthPromoted economic growth  Strengthened the armyStrengthened the army  Moved to control any opposition from theMoved to control any opposition from the nobility and aristocratic classnobility and aristocratic class
  • 23. Louis XILouis XI
  • 24.  Francis I (r. 1515-1547)Francis I (r. 1515-1547)  Saw himself as a true “Saw himself as a true “Renaissance” princeRenaissance” prince  Patron of the artsPatron of the arts – (financed the works of Leonardo da Vinci)(financed the works of Leonardo da Vinci)  Sought to reconcile with the Church after theSought to reconcile with the Church after the Pragmatic SanctionsPragmatic Sanctions
  • 25.  Concordant of BolognaConcordant of Bologna – 1516-– 1516- – rescinded (ended) the Pragmatic Sanctionsrescinded (ended) the Pragmatic Sanctions – French monarchy wouldFrench monarchy would keep the right tokeep the right to appoint Church officials in Franceappoint Church officials in France – butbut the Church would receive income from highthe Church would receive income from high church offices (bishops and abbots)church offices (bishops and abbots)  Taxes and tithesTaxes and tithes
  • 26. Francis IFrancis I
  • 27. Pope Leo X (Medici)Pope Leo X (Medici)
  • 28. Political Trends in FrancePolitical Trends in France  The monarchy moved toThe monarchy moved to restrain and controlrestrain and control aristocratic power and influencearistocratic power and influence – TheThe power of the monarchy was morepower of the monarchy was more “ABSOLUTE” in France“ABSOLUTE” in France  nono Magna CartaMagna Carta to limit the power of the kingto limit the power of the king  FrenchFrench parliamentparliament remainedremained very weakvery weak  A largeA large national armynational army increased the power ofincreased the power of the monarchythe monarchy
  • 29.  Taxes were used to expand royal authorityTaxes were used to expand royal authority – TheThe nobility were often exempt from taxesnobility were often exempt from taxes – Controlled land and retained noble titles andControlled land and retained noble titles and the ability to tax their land holdingsthe ability to tax their land holdings  the Church increasingly came under thethe Church increasingly came under the influence and control of the French monarchyinfluence and control of the French monarchy (example-(example- Pragmatic Sanctions)Pragmatic Sanctions)  The state promoted national industries andThe state promoted national industries and commercial interests to build the economycommercial interests to build the economy
  • 30. SpainSpain
  • 31. Medieval Spain was ruledMedieval Spain was ruled by feudal kingdomsby feudal kingdoms
  • 32. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of CastileFerdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile the union of two kingdomsthe union of two kingdoms created a confederationcreated a confederation
  • 33. The marriage of Ferdinand andThe marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella brought about a moreIsabella brought about a more politically united Spainpolitically united Spain
  • 34. TheThe ReconquistaReconquista  The move toThe move to retake political and religiousretake political and religious control of southern Spain from the Moorscontrol of southern Spain from the Moors (Muslims)(Muslims)  Muslims and Jews were either expelled orMuslims and Jews were either expelled or forced to convert to Christianityforced to convert to Christianity  TheThe Spanish InquisitionSpanish Inquisition was used to dealwas used to deal with perceived hereticswith perceived heretics  The reconquista was completed in 1492The reconquista was completed in 1492
  • 35. ReconquistaReconquista
  • 36. ConversosConversos Jews and Muslims forced to convert to CatholicismJews and Muslims forced to convert to Catholicism
  • 37. Spanish MonarchsSpanish Monarchs  Philip (German HabsburgPhilip (German Habsburg)) – married Joanna (daughter of Ferdinand andmarried Joanna (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella)Isabella) – Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)  son of Philip and Joannason of Philip and Joanna  Charles V presided over the Diet of Worms – MartinCharles V presided over the Diet of Worms – Martin Luther was called to recant his viewsLuther was called to recant his views  The Holy Roman EmpireThe Holy Roman Empire effectively ruledeffectively ruled Spain (Habsburg family)Spain (Habsburg family)
  • 38. Philip and JoannaPhilip and Joanna
  • 39. The Escorial PalaceThe Escorial Palace
  • 40. HabsburgHabsburg controlled lands early 16controlled lands early 16thth centurycentury  GermanyGermany  SpainSpain  Part of thePart of the NetherlandsNetherlands
  • 41. Charles V- Holy RomanCharles V- Holy Roman Emperor and King of SpainEmperor and King of Spain r. 1519-1556r. 1519-1556 Son of Philip and JoannaSon of Philip and Joanna
  • 42. Philip IIPhilip II  Son of Charles VSon of Charles V  Brief marriage to Mary TudorBrief marriage to Mary Tudor of Englandof England – daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine ofdaughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of AragonAragon – brief rule as queen of England- died soon after thebrief rule as queen of England- died soon after the marriagemarriage – Mary attempted to return England to CatholicismMary attempted to return England to Catholicism  Philip II joined together Spain and Portugal inPhilip II joined together Spain and Portugal in 15801580
  • 43. Political Trends in SpainPolitical Trends in Spain  VeryVery strong central monarchystrong central monarchy (Habsburgs)(Habsburgs) – Kingdoms were still administered separatelyKingdoms were still administered separately thoughthough  Move to control aristocratic and religiousMove to control aristocratic and religious oppositionopposition  Maintained a strong alliance with the ChurchMaintained a strong alliance with the Church and papacyand papacy
  • 44.  Used theUsed the middle classmiddle class to serve in theto serve in the governmentgovernment bureaucracybureaucracy  Tremendous amounts ofTremendous amounts of gold and silvergold and silver fromfrom the Americas went to support the monarchythe Americas went to support the monarchy and the state (and the state (mercantilist economy)mercantilist economy)  Created and maintained aCreated and maintained a large militarylarge military – (example: Spanish Armada)(example: Spanish Armada)
  • 45. The Renaissance initiated a Europe ofThe Renaissance initiated a Europe of conflicting national, political, economic,conflicting national, political, economic, religious, and territorial interestsreligious, and territorial interests

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