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The Middle Ages-  Introduction
 

The Middle Ages- Introduction

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    The Middle Ages-  Introduction The Middle Ages- Introduction Presentation Transcript

    • THE MIDDLE AGES AN INTRODUCTION
    • @ 476 AD-1350 PERIOD FROM THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE TO THE RENAISSANCE
    • MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE AGES
    • CULTURAL  A BLEND OF THREE CULTURES  GERMAN  CHRISTIAN  GRECO-ROMAN (CLASSICAL)
    • RELIGIOUS  POWERFUL CHURCH AND PAPACY DOMINATED THE MIDDLE AGES  LATIN WAS THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT AND THE CHURCH  MONKS HELPED TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY AND PRESERVE CLASSICAL AND BIBLICAL KNOWLEDGE
    • SOCIAL  MOST PEOPLE LIVED IN SMALL VILLAGES AND RURAL SETTLEMENTS  FEW PEOPLE COULD READ AND WRITE  HIGH INFANT MORTALITY RATE  LOW LIFE EXPECTANCY  FEUDALISM WAS THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE
    • POLITICAL  POWERFUL FEUDAL KINGS RULED  EUROPE WAS DIVIDED INTO KINGDOMS NOT NATION-STATES  KINGS RULED WITH THE LOYALITY AND SUPPORT OF THEIR LORDS AND KNIGHTS (Vassals)  CONFLICTS AND WARS BETWEEN KINGDOMS WERE COMMON
    • MAJOR DIVISIONS OF MEDIEVAL HISTORY
    • EARLY MIDDLE AGES  POWERFUL ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND PAPACY  GERMANIC (FRANKISH) KINGS CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY  CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY  CHARLEMAGNE  FEW PEOPLE COULD READ OR WRITE  LIMITED ACCESS TO BOOKS AND LITERATURE- NO PRINTING PRESS  MOST PEOPLE LIVED IN SMALL VILLAGES  SUBSISTENCE FARMING- GREW JUST ENOUGH TO LIVE ON  ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
    • ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
    • Charlemagne
    • THE TREATY OF VERDUN CHARLEMAGNE’S KINGDOM IS DIVIDED
    • FEUDALISM
    • HIGH MIDDLE AGES CITIES AND TOWNS (BURGS) BEGAN TO GROW (URBANIZATION)  GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE EMERGED  LITERACY AND LEARNING EXPANDED  UNIVERSITIES DEVELOPED  OXFORD  CAMBRIDGE  LITERATURE BEGAN TO BE WRITTEN IN THE COMMON LANGUAGES , NOT JUST LATIN  CANTURBURY TALES  THE DIVINE COMEDY  BUSINESS PRACTICES DEVELOPED AND TRADE EXPANDED  BANKING  MIDDLE CLASS BEGAN TO EMERGE  BURGHERS- CITIZENS OF THE TOWN- (BURG)
    • GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
    • Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer
    • LATE MIDDLE AGES  THE POWER AND PRESTIGE OF THE CHURCH AND PAPACY BEGAN TO DECLINE  IMPACT OF THE CRUSADES      THE BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY  GREAT SCHISM PERIODS OF CROP FAILURE AND FAMINE THE BLACK DEATH KILLED NEARLY HALF OF EUROPE’S POPULATION FEUDAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE WAS CHALLENGED AS NEW ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPPORTUNITIES AROSE (MIDDLE CLASS) NATION-STATES BEGAN TO EMERGE WITH POWERFUL MONARCHS  ENGLAND  FRANCE  SPAIN
    • MEDIEVAL MONASTICISM “THE MONASTIC ORDERS CIVILIZED EUROPE WITH CROSS, BOOK, AND PLOUGH.”
    • THE MONASTIC ORDERS OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD  ST. BENEDICT  ITALIAN MONK  STARTED A NEW CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS ORDER  FOCUSED ON  WORK  PRAYER  SCRIPTURE  HOSPITALITY
    • ST BENEDICT
    • THE MONKS CIVILIZED MEDIEVAL EUROPE WITH
    • CROSS  EARLY MISSIONARIES  SPREAD THE GOSPEL  STARTED CHURCHES
    • BOOK  STARTED SCHOOLS  COPIED THE ANCIENT (CLASSICAL LITERATURE) MANUSCRIPTS AND THE BIBLE
    • PLOW  MONASTARIES OFTEN WERE LARGE FARMS  MONKS WORKED TO DEVELOP NEW FARMING TECHNIQUES  IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
    • THE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION
    •  URBANIZATION- GROWTH OF CITIES  RISE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS  UNIVERSITIES AND HIGHER EDUCATION  BUSINESS PRACTICES AND THE EXPANSION OF TRADE  LITERATURE WRITTEN IN THE VERNACULAR- NO JUST LATIN  CONCEPT OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT  (MAGNA CARTA 1215- ENGLAND)