The Impact of the Reformation
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The Impact of the Reformation

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The Impact of the Reformation The Impact of the Reformation Presentation Transcript

  • THE IMPACT OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION 16 th CENTURY EUROPE
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  • RELIGIOUS IMPACT
    • THE UNITY OF EUROPE AS A CHRISTIAN SOCIETY WAS SHATTERED
    • CHRISTENDOM (the institution of the Church) WAS NOW DIVIDED IN EUROPE AND THE WEST
      • (Catholic and Protestant- With its many denominations)
    • VERNACULAR TRANSLATIONS
      • The authority of the Church and papacy was again challenged as people now had opportunity to read and interpret the scriptures for themselves.
    • PROTESTANTISM GAVE PEOPLE A NEW SENSE OF COMING TO GOD WITHOUT THE MEDIATION OF THE CHURCH AND PRIESTS
      • THE PRIESTHOOD OF THE BELIEVERS (Luther)
    • INTOLERANCE FOR THOSE WHO DID NOT ADHERE TO ESTABLISHED BELIEFS CONTINUED
      • Persecution of perceived heretics
        • Both Catholic and Protestant
      • Use of the Inquisition courts by the Catholic Church
      • The banning of books that were perceived to be heretical or a challenge to the Church
        • Example: Galileo, Luther, Erasmus, etc.
      • Violent religious wars in France, Germany, and Bohemia
        • French Wars of Religion
        • Thirty Years’ War
      • Civil war in England
        • Puritan Revolt against the monarchy would lead to the execution of the king.
  • Luther’s Impact
    • Congregational singing and the use of hymns
    • Expanded education for men and women
    • Focus on expository preaching and teaching people the scriptures
    • Encouragement of marriage and family (even for members of the clergy)
    • Revision of the sacraments to three
      • Holy communion, baptism, marriage
  • POLITICAL IMPACT
    • EUROPE BECAME POLITICALLY FRAGMENTED ALONG RELIGIOUS LINES
    • NATIONS ALIGNED THEMSELVES AS CATHOLIC OR PROTESTANT
      • England – Protestant (Anglican)
      • Spain- Catholic
      • France- Catholic ( Protestant minority)
      • Holy Roman Empire
        • Catholic with some northern kingdoms being Protestant
        • Peace of Augsburg- religious fragmentation in the Holy Roman Empire
    • POWERFUL MONARCHS BEGAN TO REJECT THE IDEA OF BEING SUBORDINATE TO RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY
    • SECULARIZATION OF POLITICAL POWERS
      • Act of Supremacy - England
      • Peace of Augsburg - the Holy Roman Empire
      • Pragmatic Sanctions and the Concordant of Bologna- France
      • THE CLERGY (Church officials) BECAME INCREASINGLY SUBORDINATE TO AND DEPENDENT ON THE STATE
      • MANY PEOPLE BEGAN TO CHALLENGE THE NOTION THAT MONARCHS RULED BY “ DIVINE RIGHT” (God appointed)
      • THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (HABSBURG RULE) BEGAN TO WEAKEN AS IT STRUGGLED TO MAINTAIN POWER IN A RELIGIOUSLY AND POLITICALLY FRAGMENTED EMPIRE
        • Germany, parts of the Netherlands, and Spain
        • France saw an opportunity to benefit from this weakness (Thirty Years’ War)
      • THE NEW NATION-STATES GREW IN POWER AND WEALTH AND WOULD COMPETE WITH ONE ANOTHER TO EXTEND THEIR POWER AND INFLUENCE IN EUROPE AND THE NEW WORLD
  • SOCIAL IMPACT
    • RISING SENSE OF INDIVIDUALISM AS PEOPLE SOUGHT TO CREATE A BETTER LIFE FOR THEMSELVES
      • Economic, political, and social
    • RELIGIOUS INDIVIDUALISM COINCIDED WITH THE INTELLECTUAL INDIVIDUALISM OF THE RENAISSANCE
    • THE MIDDLE CLASS BECAME STRONGER AND CONTINUE TO EXPAND BOTH ECONOMICIALLY AND POLITICALLY
    • THE LOWER CLASSES STARTED TO EXERT THEMSELVES IN THE QUEST FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE (EXAMPLE: THE PEASANT’S REVOLT IN GERMANY)
    • THE NEW ECONOMIC MODEL OF CAPITALISM BEGAN TO TAKE SHAPE
  • THE 16 TH CENTURY AND THE MODERN AGE
    • GROWING SENSE OF SKEPTISM ABOUT TRADITIONAL IDEAS AND INSTITUTIONS
    • RISING SENSE OF INDIVIDUALISM AND THE POWER OF THE INDIVUDUAL
    • GROWING TREND TOWARD SECULARISM AND THE PURSUIT OF WORLDLY INTERESTS
    • RATIONALISM ( RISE OF MODERN SCIENCE)
    • RISING TIDE OF NATIONALISM