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The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
The French Revolution 1
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The French Revolution 1

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  • 1. The French Revolution “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” A Tale of Two Cites
  • 2. Impact of the Enlightenment
    • Direct challenge to traditional
    • -political models
    • - divine right absolutism
    • - Christianity and religions
    • institutions (Roman Catholic Church and traditional Christian teaching and theology)
    • - traditional social order and status
    • - economic models (mercantilism)
  • 3. The Philosophes Voltaire
    • Challenged religious intolerance
    • Challenged traditional Christianity (deist)
    • Challenged social mores and social convention
    • Supported some political reform but retained monarchy as the best model
  • 4. John Locke
    • Government based on natural rights (life, liberty, property)
    • Government ruled with the consent of the people
    • Government was responsible for protecting the rights and liberties of the people
    • Second Treatise on Civil Government
  • 5. Montesquieu
    • Proposed that the powers of government needed to be separate and balanced
    • Protection of liberties
    • Guard against tyranny
    • The Spirit of Laws
  • 6. Rousseau
    • Government ruled with the consent of the people
    • Government ruled by popular sovereignty
    • General will of the citizens was absolute
    • The Social Contract
  • 7. The structure of French Society The Three Estates
  • 8. The First Estate Clergy and Church Leadership
  • 9. The Second Estate The Aristocracy (nobility)
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. The Third Estate Commoners: merchants, craftsmen, professional people, working class, farmers, peasants
  • 13. French Monarchy Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
  • 14.  
  • 15. Palace of Versailles
  • 16. Palace of Versailles Hall of Mirrors
  • 17. Problems on the eve of the Revolution
      • Debt brought on by war
      • Inability to raise sufficient taxes
        • Peasants had been overtaxed and the aristocratic class had not been taxed
      • No central bank or paper currency to bolster the French economy and move it toward recovery
      • Bankrupt monarchy- tremendous excess and spending
      • Grain shortages and bread shortages
      • Inflation
  • 18. Social Tensions A call for liberty and equality
  • 19. Social tensions between the three Estates
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. The Estates Revolt 1789
  • 23. A call for political reform among many within the French nobility and the Third Estate The Third Estate declared itself the new National Assembly
  • 24. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes What is the Third Estate?
    • “ What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order to present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.”
  • 25. The National Assembly The Oath of the Tennis Court June 1789
  • 26. The Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789
  • 27. The Declaration of the Rights of Man a new constitution
    • Based on man’s natural rights (John Locke)
    • “ Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights.”
    • Liberty, property, security
    • Resistance to oppression
    • Due process under the law
    • Equitable taxation
    • Freedom of religion
  • 28.  
  • 29. Women of Paris marched on Versailles demanding that the king address their demands
  • 30. A New Government was established 1789
    • France became a constitutional monarchy
    • Power rested with the Assembly
    • The Second Estate was abolished
    • The Assembly seized church lands
      • New currency backed up by money gained from church lands
    • Many in France fled the country
  • 31. The king and his family attempted to flee France but were intercepted and returned to Paris
  • 32. The King and Queen were arrested and returned to Paris
  • 33. The Second Phase of the Revolution 1792-1795
  • 34. The Establishment of the French Republic 1792 “Liberty, equality, brotherhood”
  • 35.  
  • 36. The Establishment of the Commune
    • Ruling factions struggled for control of the government
    • Girondists- moderate political group
    • Jacobins- political radicals
      • “ War against tyranny.”
    • Creation of a new popular culture
      • Monarchy was abolished
      • No Church
      • No aristocracy
  • 37.
    • Louis was forced to wear the hat of the Revolution
  • 38. Many in Europe were highly critical of the Revolution and its violent excesses.
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. Edmund Burke spoke out against the Revolution from England
  • 42.  
  • 43. Louis XVI was executed 1793
  • 44. Several months later, Marie Antoinette was tried and executed
  • 45. A new religion was established The Cult of the Supreme Being
  • 46. A new national calendar was put in place. Names of the months were changed to reflect revolutionary values
  • 47. France at war with Europe 1793
    • France declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain
    • Attempted to create a greater sense of national pride and unity within France to draw the people together
    • The draft was instituted
    • France created the largest fighting force in Europe
    • French nationalism and patriotic loyalty grew
    • A young Napoleon Bonaparte began to make a name for himself as a military commander
  • 48. The Committee of Public Safety Robespierre 1793
  • 49. The Committee of Public Safety policies
    • Government controlled and planned economy
    • Price controls
    • Rationing of food
    • Quality controls
    • Government control of small manufacturing (nationalization of small industry)
    • Control and requisitioning of raw materials
  • 50. Robespierre and The Reign of Terror (Paris and the Provinces) 1793-1794
    • Thousands were accused of being enemies of the Republic and were executed
    • Attempt by Robespierre to eliminate any opposition to his power and vision for France
  • 51.  
  • 52. The Thermidorian Reaction 1794
    • Robespierre’s tactics and policies were called into question
    • A group of political moderates plotted his death
    • Robespierre attempted to commit suicide but failed
    • Executed in July 1794
  • 53.  
  • 54. 1794-1795
    • Economic controls collapsed
    • Revolts and riots broke out
    • Many in France called for a return to traditional Christianity and the Church
  • 55. The Directory 1795-1799 A new government
    • New government was established
    • Five leaders were elected by electors
    • War efforts expanded in Europe
    • Growing discontent with government policies
    • Economic hardships continued as economic controls were abolished
    • Move back toward a more conservative government
  • 56. The End of the Directory 1799-1804
    • The Directory failed to restore order and calm to France
    • A consulate of leaders was established
    • Napoleon was elected first consul
    • He began to repeal civil liberties and build a powerful French empire
  • 57. The Legacy of the French Revolution
    • Political liberalism continued to grow in Europe
    • Nationalism continued to increase throughout Europe would dominate the 19 th and 20 th century
    • European society continued its move toward secularism
    • Members of the middle class will come to dominate European politics and society

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