The Crusades- Overview
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The Crusades- Overview

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The Crusades- Overview The Crusades- Overview Presentation Transcript

  • The Medieval Crusades
  • Major Trends and Events The Church and Papacy   The power and prestige of the Church and papacy increased during the High Middle Ages Pope Gregory   worked to reform the Church and increase its power Pope Urban   Continued to increase papal power Called the First Crusade promising forgiveness of sins and salvation to all pilgrims
  •     The Crusades from the Latin for cross – crux series of military campaigns to recapture the Holy Land and Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks Four official Crusades Only one was successful – 1 st Crusade Act of religious devotion and pilgrimage to gain God’s favor
  • Major Motivations and Objectives Take control of the Holy Land and Jerusalem from the Muslims (Turks) Forgiveness of sins by participating in a holy pilgrimage Economic gain – increased trade and commerce Political power and prestige for the kings and knights of Europe Personal glory and honor Expansion of Church power into Asia Minor
  • Background     Emperor Alexius of the Byzantine (Christian) Empire requested help in protecting his kingdom from the Muslim Turks The Emperor asked Pope Urban to send some Christian knights to Constantinople Pope Urban saw this as an opportunity to expand Church power in the East The first official Crusade - 1096
  • Emperor Alexius of the Byzantine Empire
  • Pope Urban called the First Crusade in 1096
  • Pope Urban calls the First Crusade
  • The Peasant’s Crusade (the first unofficial Crusade)   Many peasants followed Peter the Hermit in his pilgrimage to the Holy Land Thousands of peasants marched across Europe     They killed and looted as they traveled thousands of Jews were killed- anti-Semitism Emperor Alexius did not allow the peasants to enter Constantinople Once the peasants crossed into Asia Minor they were attacked and most were killed or enslaved by the Turks
  • Peter the Hermit and his followers
  • The Four Crusades
  • The First Official Crusade
  • Christian knights came from all over Europe
  • The First Crusade Capture of Jerusalem -1099   The crusaders attacked Jerusalem and captured the city The Christian crusaders massacred the city’s inhabitants (Jews, Christians, and Muslims)
  • The Second Crusade   The Christian crusaders lost control of Jerusalem The Muslim leader, Saladin recaptured the city from the Christians in 1187
  • The Third Crusade the Crusade of Kings     Several kings participated in the Third Crusade Richard the Lionheartking of England fought in this Crusade Crusaders failed to recapture Jerusalem Saladin allowed Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem
  • Richard the Lionheart King of England
  • The Fourth Crusade - 1204   The Fourth Crusade left from Venice but only made it to Constantinople The Crusaders invaded and sacked the city and returned to Venice without ever going to the Holy Land
  • Only the First Crusade was successful Christians took control of Jerusalem
  • The Children’s Crusade   This crusade involved thousands of children who were sent off on pilgrimage to the Holy Land It was a complete failure resulting in the death or enslavement of the participants
  • Major Outcomes of the Crusades         Feudalism began to decline across Europe Anti-Semitism continued to be a problem Trade and commercial increased with the East A money economy began to develop Growth in the middle class Towns and cities revived and grew The power and prestige of the Church and papacy began to decline Expansion of knowledge as contact with the East increased