Post Wwii  And The Cold War
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Post Wwii And The Cold War

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Post Wwii  And The Cold War Post Wwii And The Cold War Presentation Transcript

  • Post WW II and the Origins of Cold War An Overview
  • World War II Ends 1945
    • There was no final treaty with Germany ending the war
    • Separate treaties were made with other Axis powers
    • Disagreement between the Allies and USSR emerged
    • Germany was to pay reparation to the USSR
    • Loss of some German territory
  • Demographic Impact of the War
    • Casualties (military and civilian)
      • USSR @ 23 million
      • Poland @ 4.5 million
      • Germany @ 7 million
      • Italy @ 450,000
      • Britain @ 450,000
      • France @ 560,000
      • Jewish population @ 6 million
      • 50-70 million deaths globally (civilian and military)
    View slide
  • Population Relocation
    • Deportation of 12-14 million Germans from the countries of Eastern Europe
    • Poles were removed from Soviet territory
    • 2 million Soviet refugees relocated to Siberia
    • Many Jews and Europeans immigrated to the US and South America (and Israel)
    View slide
  • Impact of the War Continued
    • The war initiated boundary changes in Europe and Asia
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    • Tremendous destruction of
      • Cities and towns
      • Industry
      • Industrial and transportation infrastructures
      • Agriculture
    • Food shortages and food rationing
    • Loss of jobs
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    • Allied bombing
    • of Dresden,
    • Germany
  • Influence of John Maynard Keynes
    • Keynesian economic policies stimulated economic growth and recovery
      • Focus was on deficit spending and large government programs designed to put people back to work and stimulate economic growth
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  • Major War Conferences The Allied Powers and Growing Tensions Between East and West 1943-1945
  • Tehran (Iran) 1943
    • Established an alliance between the USSR and the Allied Powers
    • Agreement was made that the USSR would attack Germany on the Eastern front
      • Winston Churchill – Britain
      • Franklin Roosevelt- United States
      • Joseph Stalin- USSR
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  • Yalta 1945 (Crimean Peninsula- Black Sea Coast)
    • Germany would be divided into occupation zones with the major Allied powers controlling specific regions
    • Germany would pay heavy reparations to the USSR
      • Churchill
      • Roosevelt
      • Stalin
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  • Post WW II Occupation Zones
  • Potsdam 1945 (city south of Berlin)
    • Alliance between East (USSR) and West (Britain and the US) began to break down
    • Tensions increased between the Allied Powers
    • President Truman wanted the Eastern European states to hold free elections to establish new governments
    • Stalin refused to allow free elections
      • Insisted on having communist governments in Eastern Europe
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  • Division Between East and West Cold War
    • The Western powers feared Stalin and his plan to export communism to the countries of Eastern Europe
    • United States cut off aid to the Soviet Union
  • The Truman Doctrine- 1947
    • US policy designed to CONTAIN the spread of communism
    • The policy was initiated as a direct response to Soviet pressure in
      • Turkey
      • Greece
      • Iran
  • Truman delivering his proposal to Congress
  • Soviet threat to Greece
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  • The Marshall Plan- 1947
    • Economic aid to postwar Europe
    • Approximately $13 billion
    • “… do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace."
      • George Marshall- Secretary of State
    • Stalin refused aid to the countries of Eastern Europe
  • Posters promoting the Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan Aid
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  • The Berlin Blockade June 1948 to May 1949
    • The Soviet Union blocked Western aid coming into Berlin
    • The United States airlifted supplies and aid to Berlin in defiance of the Soviets
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  • Communists took control of Czechoslovakia 1948
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  • NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949 Anti-Soviet military alliance between the US and Western Europe
  • NATO NATIONS (in blue) 1949
  • Truman signing the NATO Alliance
  • The Warsaw Pact The Soviet Response to NATO USSR and the communist satellite states of Eastern Europe united in a defensive league
  • Cold War East and West Division NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • 1958 Soviet troops invaded Hungary putting down a revolt against communism
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  • “ Prague Spring” 1968 Socialism with a “human face” Soviet troops occupied Czechoslovakia putting down the reform movement
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  • Yugoslavia , under the leadership of Josep Tito, remained independent of Stalin
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  • Global Division between East and West
  • The “Iron Curtain”
    • Winston Churchill delivering the speech where he used the term “iron curtain” to describe the growing tensions and divisions between East and West
    • “ From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. “
      • Winston Churchill
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  • The Berlin Wall (built by the USSR in 1961)
  • Berlin Wall Divided the city of Berlin between “free” West Berlin and Communist East Berlin
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  • President Kennedy speaks at the Berlin Wall. “I am a Berliner”
  • Arms Race –Nuclear Proliferation
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  • The Cuban Missile Crisis
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  • The Cold War would dominate most of the last half of the 20 th Century In the 1980’s communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe began to be challenged and a policy of Détente began.
  • “ Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.”
  • President Reagan and President Gorbachev Détente
  • Détente
  •