Introduction To World War I
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Introduction To World War I

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  • Hi, Thanks for sharing this great slideshow! Since my husband & I are teachers too, we have a question about slide 20. Can you tell us your source of the photo and/or information? We're both guides on battlefield tours in Belgium, but we've never heard about reprisals of the Austrians for the assassination, so we would like to find out more about this. Can you help? Thanks very much! Kind regards!
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Introduction To World War I Introduction To World War I Presentation Transcript

  • World War I“The Great War” 1914-1918
  • Key Questions What impact did rising nationalism and imperialism have on the outbreak of WWI? Why did Bismarck’s alliance system fail? Why did WWI become a stalemate and war attrition? How did the European nations mobilize for war? What impact did the war have on the civilian population? How did the Treaty of Versailles lead to WWII?
  • Long Range Causes Prelude to war
  • Nationalism- Post 1848 The unification of Germany and Italy changed the balance of power in Europe Growing sense of national identify, pride, ambition, and loyalty Nationalistic tensions in the Balkans increased tensions with the Austro- Hungarian Empire The French loss of the Alsace and Lorraine region (Franco-Prussian War) to Germany increased tensions between France and Germany
  • Militarism Industrialization was put to work building up military capabilities- militarism Growth of peace time armies  with conscription –the draft Military competition among the European powers intensified New military technologies  Machine guns, chemical warfare, planes, large shell guns, tanks, battle ships, submarines
  • Imperialism European nations competed with one another to by creating colonies Asia, Africa, Middle East, North Africa  Territorial expansion was seen as an expression of power  Colonies were seen as sources of raw materials for industry and business at home  Trade and expansion of markets would create new wealth for the homeland  Political influence would grow with the expansion of colonies (empire building)
  • Industrialization and Urbanization Industrialization gave rise to increased urbanization in Europe Millions of Europeans moved into its cities in search of a better life Many Europeans, however, felt increasingly isolated and disenfranchised as the gap between the “haves and the have nots” widened
  • Rising Socialism moderate  Jean Jaures socialists sought  French Socialist social and  Respected voice of moderation and peace economic reform to promote peace and a better life for Europe’s growing working class
  • Radical Socialism radical and  Vladimir Lenin revolutionary socialists promoted revolution in (Marxists) promoted Russia drastic reform and violent revolution Many European governments feared the rise radical socialism
  • Radical Socialism in Germany Rosa Luxemburg Murdered for her revolutionary views
  • The Alliance System A system of international alliances was initiated by Bismarck in the 1870’s  Germany was concerned about growing tensions and unrest Bismarck wanted to secure the balance of power and secure peace in Europe (Germany)  deter a “war of revenge” after the German defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War- 1871 Secret alliances were made which created distrust and paranoia among the various European powers The obligation of alliances would also draw all of the European powers into war
  • By 1914 Europe was divided into two rival camps
  • The Triple Alliance The Central Powers of WWI Germany Austria-Hungary ItalyBulgaria and Turkey (the Ottomans) would later join to make up the Central Powers during WWI
  • The Triple Entente The Allied Powers WWI Britain France Russia  Russia withdrew from the war in 1917 due to devastating losses and increasing political unrest at home-  Russian RevolutionAllied Powers of WWI
  • The “Spark”“Some damn foolish thing in the Balkans”…… Otto von Bismarck’s prophetic statement
  • Trouble in the Balkans In 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina This angered the independent state of Serbia 1912 Serbia wanted to expand into territory held by the Ottoman Turks In July of 1914, the Austrian Archduke and his wife were assassinated during a state visit to Bosnia and Herzegovina  Assassinated by Serbian nationalists War between Serbia and Austria resulted
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo right before the assassination
  • The Funeral of the Archduke
  • Austrian reprisals against Serbian nationalists for the assassination
  • WW I Begins: August 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia in August of 1914 Germany supported Austria in its war effort Russia ordered a mobilization against Austria and Germany in support of Serbia Germany invaded Belgium and France Britain joined the war in support of France – declared war on Germany
  • WW I Alliances
  • A small conflict became an international world war German aggression was a reflection of the failure of Bismarck’s alliance system Some leaders in Germany may have seen war as a way of building German nationalism and unity at home in the face of growing political tensions and rising socialism Nationalism built up a “war fever” and created a romantic notion of war, national honor, and self- sacrifice
  • WWI Postcard - Central Powers
  • The Schlieffen PlanGermany’s plan to invade France through Belgium
  • Russia pulled out of the war in 1917 as it struggled with a revolution at home
  • Major Battles of WWI Battle of the Marne Verdun The Somme Most of the major battles were fought in France and Belgium
  • The war would continue for four long years
  • Ultimately WW I became a warof attrition and stalemate with no real gains on either side
  • “I am staring at a sunlit picture of Hell.” British poet Siegfried Sassoon
  • German painter Otto Dix images of war
  • The Trenches
  • New Weapons and Technologies
  • War Propaganda
  • Injuries
  • “Grieving Parents” by German artist Kathe Kolliwitz WWI Cemetery
  • War’s End Germany began to experience military losses  (the United States had entered the war in 1917) Many in Germany called for an end to the war Food shortages and labor issues plagued much of Europe Revolution broke out in Germany as many demonstrated for peace November 11, 1918 - the war ended as Germany accepted the terms of surrender
  • The Treaty of Versailles would establish the post war terms andlay the ground work for a second conflict in the 1930’s