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  • 1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION18th and 19th CENTURY EUROPE
  • 2. Key Questions How did the Industrial Revolution develop in Britain? What were the major technological innovations that allowed industrialization to develop? What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on labor, social class, and standard of living? Why did industrialization occur later in continental Europe (after 1815)? How did governments in Europe attempt to address issues created by rapid industrialization? What is meant by the sexual division of labor?
  • 3. MAJOR GENERALIZATIONS THE INDUSTRIALIZATION REVOLUTION BEGAN IN ENGLAND IN THE 1780’S IT SPREAD TO THE CONTINENT AFTER 1815 IT CHANGED THE WAY PEOPLE WORKED IT INFLUENCED SOCIAL CLASS DIVISIONS  WORKING CLASS - PROLETERIAT  UPPER MIDDLE CLASS - BOURGEOISIE
  • 4.  IT ALTERED THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE  CAPILTALISMAND INDUSTRY GREW  NEW CLASS OF WEALTHY BUSINESS PEOPLE EMREGED – BOURGEOISIE  A CONSUMER SOCIETY DEVELOPED AS INDUSTRY GREW  NEW LAWS WOULD BE ENACTED TO ADDRESS THE ABUSES OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY THE 1800’S EXPERIENCED RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 5.  DURING THE EARLY 1800’S, THE STANDARD OF LIVING CHANGED VERY LITTLE FOR MANY IN EUROPE DUE TO POPULATION PRESSURES  NOT ENOUGH JOBS  LOW WAGES
  • 6. THE EARLY BEGINNINGS OFINDUSTRIALIZATION
  • 7. TEXTILE PRODUCTION THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION GREW OUT OF THE EARLIER PUTTING-OUT SYSTEM AND COTTAGE INDUSTRY THE ENCLOSURE SYSTEM HAD INCREASED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND CHANGED WORK PATTERNS IN FARMING  MORE PEOPLE WERE NOW LOOKING FOR JOBS
  • 8.  ENGLAND HAD A YOUNG AND MOBILE WORKFORCE INDUSTRIALIZATION CENTERED AROUND THE PRODUCTION OF THREAD AND CLOTH  COTTON CLOTH BECAME MORE POPULAR AS COTTON ARRIVED FROM THE COLONIES  America and India
  • 9. PRE-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION - PUTTING-OUT SYSTEM AND COTTAGE INDUSTRY
  • 10. JAMES HARGREAVESSPINNING JENNY-1765
  • 11. THE PRODUCTION OF MORE THREAD MEANT MORE AND CHEAPER CLOTH
  • 12. JAMES WATTTHE STEAM ENGINE-1769
  • 13. IMPROVEMENTS ON THE STEAM ENGINE ALLOWED MECHANIZATION TO DEVELOP
  • 14. COAL SUPPLIED THE FUEL (POWER) FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • 15. FACTORIES DEVELOPED IN AND AROUND URBAN CENTERS SUCH AS MANCHESTER, LIVERPOOL, BIRMINGHAM, AND LONDON
  • 16. THE FACTORY SYSTEM
  • 17. WOMEN INITIALLY MADE UP A LARGE PART OF THE WORK FORCE
  • 18. CHILDREN WERE ALSO A CHEAP AND ABUNDANT SOURCE OF LABOR
  • 19. Young boys working in the coal mines
  • 20. Dangerous working condition, long hours, and little pay
  • 21. IMPROVED TECHNIQUES ALLOWED THE IRON INDUSTRY TO DEVELOP
  • 22. BUILDING ON THE IRON INDUSTRY AND STEAM POWER RAILROADS DEVELOPED
  • 23. NEGATIVE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION OVERCROWDED CITIES UNSANTIARY LIVING CONDITIONS LACK OF SCHOOLS AND PROPER CARE FOR YOUNG CHILDREN POVERTY AND DISEASE DANGEROUS AND ABUSIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTS DEGRADATION OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT WITH INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION
  • 24.  Watt Allegory Etching of James Watt lamenting the impact of his steam engine on industrial development
  • 25. Bradford, England In 1846, George Weerth, a young German on vacation in England, described Bradford, England in an article he wrote for a German newspaper: "In Bradford, however, you think you have been lodged with the devil incarnate. If anyone wants to feel how a poor sinner is tormented in Purgatory, let him travel to Bradford."
  • 26. Over 200 mill chimneys in Bradford
  • 27.  From 1801-1851 Bradford’s population grew from 13,000 to 104,000There were- 80 worsted thread (cloth) mills 8 corn mills 16 dye works 250 stuff and woolen mills 40 underground coal mines 22 stone quarries
  • 28. In 1876- 2,000 of Bradford’s children under the age of 5 died - only 30% of children lived to reach the age of 15 For textile workers in Bradford, the life expectancy was just over 18 years. The lowest rate in the England
  • 29. CRITICS OFINDUSTRIALIZATION AND SOCIAL REFORMERS
  • 30. WILLIAM WILBERFORCE 1759-1833 MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT PASSIONATE AND DEEPLY COMMITTED CHRISTIAN KEY FIGURE IN ENDING THE SLAVE TRADE IN THE BRITISH COLONIES
  • 31. ROBERT OWEN SCOTTISH MANUFACTURER WORKED TO ADDRESS LABOR PROBLEMS AND ABUSES FOCUSED ON CHILD LABOR ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH BRITISH UTOPIANISM AND SOCIALISM
  • 32. FRIEDRICH ENGELS HIGHLY CRITICAL OF WORKING CONDITIONS LATER WORKED WITH KARL MARX TO DEVELOP A MODEL OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM 1844- THE CONDITION OF THE WORKING CLASS IN ENGLAND
  • 33. WILLIAM BLAKE- POET ASSOCIATED WITH THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT CRITICAL OF THE ABUSES AND DEGRADATION CAUSED BY INDUSTRY CALLED FACTORIES “SATANIC MILLS”
  • 34. JERUSALEM BY WILLIAM BLAKE And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon Englands mountains green? And was the holy Lamb of God On Englands pleasant pastures seen? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills? And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic mills? Bring me my bow of burning gold! Bring me my arrows of desire! Bring me my spear! O clouds unfold! Bring me my chariot of fire! I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand Till we have built Jerusalem In Englands green and pleasant land. -- William Blake
  • 35. OPPOSITION TO INDUSTRY THE LUDDITES THE LUDDITES WERE HANDICRAFT WORKERS THEY ATTACKED FACTORIES IN NORTHERN ENGLAND IN 1812 SMASHED MACHINES THAT WERE PUTTING THEM OUT OF BUSINESS
  • 36. ATTEMPTS TO ADDRESSISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • 37. FACTORY ACT OF 1833 LIMITED THE HOURS THAT CHILDREN COULD WORK IN THE FACTORIES CHILDREN UNDER 9 WERE ENROLLED IN SCHOOL
  • 38. MINE ACT OF 1842 STOPPED WOMEN AND BOYS(UNDER THE AGE OF 10) FROMWORKING UNDERGROUND IN THE COAL MINES
  • 39. LABOR MOVEMENTS THE BRITISH  COMBINATION GOVERNMENT AND ACTS -1799 THE BUSINESS  OUTLAWED LABOR ESTABLISHMENT UNIONS AND FEARED LABOR STRIKES ORGANIZAITONS’ IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH
  • 40. EARLY LABOR MOVEMENTS WERELARGELY UNSUCCESSFUL WORKERS REMAINED HOPEFUL AND ACTIVE MANY JOINED THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT- SOUGHT UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE
  • 41. THE POWER OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ENGLAND BECAME THE “WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD” THE SUPREMACY OF BRITISH ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT WAS SYMBOLIZED IN THE GREAT EXPOSITION OF 1851 AND THE CRYSTAL PALACE BRITAIN’S GDP GREW BY 400% POPULATION PRESSURES, HOWEVER, KEPT MANY FROM ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT
  • 42. THE CRYSTAL PALACE
  • 43. THE ECONOMICS OFINDUSTRIALIZATION THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS ADAM SMITH’S MODEL OF FREE MARKET CAPITALISM
  • 44. THOMAS MALTHUS ENGLISH POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER 1766-1834 ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULATION PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
  • 45. MAJOR IDEAS BELIEVED THAT  PROPOSED SOLUTION POPULATION WOULD  POPULATION HAD TO ALWAYS GROW BE CHECKED FASTER THAN THE  LOWER BIRTH RATES FOOD SUPPLY  WAR, DISEASE, BASED HIS THEORY ON LOWER STANDARD TWO RATIOS OF LIVING  POPULATION  DELAY IN MARRIAGE INCREASES AT A  MORAL RESTRAINT GEOMETRIC RATIO AND DECREASE IN  FOOD PRODUCTION SEXUAL ACTIVITY INCREASES AT AN ARITHMETIC RATIO
  • 46. DAVID RICARDO ENGLISH STOCK BROKER 1772-1832 BUILT ON MALTHUS’ THEORIES BELIEVED POPULATION PRESSURES WOULD ALWAYS DRIVE WAGES TO SUBSISTENCE LEVELS ‘IRON LAW OF WAGES” FAVORED FREE MARKET COMPITION AND VERY LITTLE GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE OR ASSISTANCE
  • 47. BOTH THEORIES PROVEDTO BE INCORRECT IN THE LONG RUN
  • 48. THE IMPACT OFINDUSTRIALIZATION
  • 49. POLITICAL GROWTH OF POLITICAL LIBERALISM THROUGHOUT EUROPE EMERGENCE OF SOCIALISM AS AN ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS THE EXCESSES OF FREE MARKET CAPITALISM MOVE TO EXPAND THE RIGHT TO VOTE MOVE TO ENACT LEGISLATION TO PROTECT WORKERS NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL COMPETITION DEVELOPED BETWEEN THE NATIONS OF EUROPE
  • 50. ECONOMIC CAPITALISM WOULD CONTINUE TO GROW A CONSUMER SOCIETY DEVELOPED IMPROVEMENTS IN THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR MORE PEOPLE BEGAN TO OCCUR BY 1850 SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM WOULD CHALLENGE CAPITALISM’S EXCESSES
  • 51. SOCIAL INCREASED URBANIZATION THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE CHANGED  MOVE TOWARD WOMEN STAYING HOME AND CARING FOR FAMILY AND CHILDREN  “SEPARATE SPHERES” – WOMEN’S WAGES DID NOT MATCH THAT OF MEN  MEN VIEWED WOMEN WORKING IN FACTORIES AND BUSINESS AS UNDIGNIFIED NEW SOCIAL STRATIFICATION  WORKING CLASS –PROLITARIAT  MIDDLE CLASS- BOURGEOISIE
  • 52. PORLITARIAT
  • 53. BOURGEOISIE
  • 54. Queen Victoria