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Congressofviennaandnewideologiespp 1200428779118935-2
 

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    Congressofviennaandnewideologiespp 1200428779118935-2 Congressofviennaandnewideologiespp 1200428779118935-2 Presentation Transcript

    • THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND NEW IDEOLOGIES EARLY 19 TH CENTURY EUROPE
    • IMPACT OF NAPOLEON NAPOLEON HAD ATTEMPTED TO CREATE A FRENCH EMPIRE USED FRENCH NATIONALISM TO GAIN SUPPORT THIS WAS PERCEIVED AS A THREAT TO THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE NAPOLEON’S DEFEAT AT WATERLOO USHERED IN AN ATTEMPT TO RETURN TO POLITICAL CONSERVATISM AMONG THE EUROPEAN STATES (POWERS)
    • NAPOLEON CROWNED HIMSELF EMPEROR OF FRANCE
    • NAPOLEON USED MILITARY CONQUEST AND ALLIANCES TO BUILD A FRENCH EMPIRE
    • NAPOLEON FINALLY DEFEATED AT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO
    • THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1814-1815  THE TREATY OF PARIS ESTABLISHED THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA IN 1814  THE FRENCH (BOURBON) MONARCHY WAS RESTORED - LOUIS XVIII  NAPOLEON WAS DEFEATED IN1815 AND EXILED FROM EUROPE
    • LOUIS XVIII FRENCH MONARCHY RESTORED
    • PURPOSE OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA  THE CONGRESS ATTEMPTED TO “UNDO” THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE NAPOLEONIC PERIOD  AIM WAS TO RESTORE POLITICAL ORDER IN EUROPE  RESTORE THE BALANCE OF POWER AMONG THE EUROPEAN STATES  CREATE AN “INTERNATIONAL EQUILIBRIUM”  RESTORE THE “OLD ORDER” OF MONARCHY AND ARISTOCRATIC POWER
    • MAJOR PARTICIPANTS IN THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA
    •      PRINCE METTERNICH OF AUSTRIA ARISTOCRATIC FOREIGN MINISTER OF AUSTRIA OPPOSED NATIONALISM  SAW IT AS A THREAT TO THE BALANCE OF POWER IN EUROPE OPPOSED THE POLITICAL LIBERALISM REJECTED THE NOTION OF EQUALITY AND LIBERTY  FEARED VIOLENCE, WAR, AND BLOODSHED FAVORED A RETURN TO CONSERVATISM THE OLD ORDER OF MONARCHY AND ARISTOCRATIC RULE WITH A STRONG BUREAUCRACY
    • ROBERT CASTLEREAGH OF BRITAIN     BRITISH FOREIGN MINISTER WANTED TO MAKE SURE THE POWERS IN EUROPE WERE BALANCED FEARED RUSSIAN, PRUSSIAN, AND FRENCH POWER “ENGLAND HAS NO PERMANENT FRIENDS, ONLY PERMANENT INTERESTS.”
    • PRINCE CHARLES TALLEYRAND OF FRANCE  FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER  SOUGHT TO PRESERVE FRENCH TERRITORY GAINED BY NAPOLEON
    • ALLIANCES BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN STATES Secure national interests and agendas
    • THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE  BRITAIN  PRUSSIA  AUSTRIA STILLED RULED BY HABSBURGS  BRITAIN WANTED PRUSSIA TO BALANCE THE POWER AGAINST FRANCE  RUSSIA AGREED TO GIVE PRUSSIA PART OF SAXONY FOR ITS SUPPORT
    • THE HOLY ALLIANCE 1815  FORMED TO CHECK THE SPREAD OF POLITICAL LIBERALISM AND REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITY IN EASTERN EUROPE  AUSTRIA  PRUSSIA  RUSSIA CZAR ALEXANDER I SOUGHT COMPLETE POWER OVER POLAND
    • THE GERMAN CONFEDERATION  ESTABLISHED BY THE VIENNA PEACE SETTLEMENT  MADE UP OF 38 INDEPENDENT GERMAN STATES  (INCLUDED AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA)  DOMINATED BY METTERNICH’S POLICIES
    • THE CARLSBAD DECREES IN THE GERMAN CONFEDERATION  ISSUED IN 1819  SUPPRESSED ANY OPPOSITION TO METTERNICH’S CONSERVATIVE POLICIES  PRESS CENSORSHIP WAS IMPOSED  A SECRET POLICE AND SPY NETWORK KEPT TRACK OF AND ROOTED OUT OPPOSITION  THE GOVERNMENT CRACKED DOWN ON UNIVERSITIES (STUDENTS AND TEACHERS) WHICH OFTEN CHALLENGED GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND TENDED TO FAVOR A MORE LIBERAL COURSE
    • THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY CONTINUED TO BE DOMINATED BY
    • Nationalism  Promoted national and cultural unity that could become a political “reality”  Language  Ethnicity  Territory  Religion  Focused on national interests and agendas  Industrialization and improved communication impacted the development and spread of nationalism in
    • Impact of Nationalism  The conservative old order (Metternich and the Congress of Vienna) feared nationalism’s threat to the balance of power in Europe  The emergence of new nation-states and the re-drawing of national borders was seen as a threat to the major powers of Europe  Nationalism’s focus on democratic and liberal reforms also worried Europe’s power elite  Rising nationalism would create an environment of “aggression and conflict ”
    • THE MAJOR EUROPEAN POWERS CONTINUED TO WORK OUT THEIR NATIONALISTIC AGENDAS NATIONALISM WOULD ALSO FUEL INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN THE 19H CENTURY
    • LIBERALISM(POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC )  DEMAND FOR GREATER POLITICAL LIBERTIES  FREE SPEECH  FREEDOM OF THE PRESS  FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY  EXPANSION OF VOTING RIGHTS  THE CHARTIST MOVEMENT IN BRITAIN WORKED TO ENSURE THAT ALL MALES COULD VOTE  REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT  EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW  PROTECTION FROM ABUSIVE AND TYRANNICAL GOVERNMENT
    • AFTER 1 815 LIBERALISM BECAME MORE OF A CONSERVATIVE MIDDLE CLASS (BOURGEOISIE) DOCTRINE WORKING CLASS AND LOWER CLASSES WERE OFTEN EXCLUDED FROM GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS
    • THE RISE OF SOCIALISM  SOCIALISM PLACED A GREATER EMPAHSIS ON COMMUNITY (THE COLLECTIVE ) AND LESS ON THE INDIVIDUAL  SOCIALISM PUSHED FOR GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS TO ASSURE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EQUALITY  IT SUPPORTED LEGISLATION TO PROTECT WORKERS AND GIVE THEM MORE POWER IN THE WORK PLACE
    • KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS
    • Karl Marx  1818-1883  German philosopher  From a Jewish family that converted to Christianity  Marx was an atheist  Studied philosophy at the university  Influenced by early French socialists  Marx built his ideas on the dialectical model of the German philosopher Georg Hegel  Thesis, antithesis, synthesis  Dialectical materialism - all history is driven by material forces - Marx- class struggle
    • THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO 1848 KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS
    • MAJOR IDEAS  MARX INTERPRETED HISTORY AS NOTHING BUT THE HISTORY OF CLASS STRUGGLE  Dialectical Materialism- class struggle driven by material forces - goods, land, money, etc.  INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY WAS NOTHING BUT THE MIDDLE CLASS BOURGEOISIE EXPLOITING THE WORKING CLASS PROLETARIAT  “ STEALING” THE WAGES OF THE WORKERS  MARX PREDICTED THAT VIOLENT REVOLUTION WOULD OVERTHROW CAPITALISM AND USHER IN A NEW AGE OF COMMUNISM
    • “WORKERS OF THE WORLD UNITE.”
    • BY 1848 EUROPE WAS AT A POINT OF TRANSITION Revolutions would erupt in Austria, France, and Prussia as various political groups sought political and social reform
    • IMPACT OF MARX THE RISE OF COMMUNISM
    • RUSSIAN REVOUTION- 1917 RISE OF THE SOVIET UNION
    • THE LAST CZAR OF RUSSIA
    • THE BERLIN WALL
    • THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND CHAIRMAN MAO
    • CUBA AND FIDEL CASTRO
    • THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
    • NORTH KOREA
    • VIETNAM
    • CENTRAL AMERICA NICARAGUA
    • LA CARPIO, COSTA RICA
    •   Maria de Trinidad Calderon, 85, known as the grandmother of La Carpio, is seen in the La Carpio slum near the capital of San Jose Costa Rica's low-skilled immigrants work in agriculture, at construction sites and as domestics and security guards; jobs Costa Ricans, better educated and settled in the middle class, prefer not to do.
    • THE ISSUES AND DEBATE CONTINUE