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Ancient Rome- Introduction
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Ancient Rome- Introduction

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  • 1. ANCIENT ROME AN INTRODUCTION
  • 2. DIVISIONS OF ROMAN HISTORY
  • 3. THE REPUBLIC 509 BC-28 BC
  • 4. THE ROMAN EMPIRE 27 BC-476 AD
  • 5. MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF ROME TO WESTERN CIVILIZATION
  • 6.  LATIN LANGUAGE  JULIAN CALENDAR- 365 ¼ days a year NAMES OF THE MONTHS – July and August named for Roman emperors ROMAN NUMERALS ROMAN ALPHABET
  • 7.  LITERATURE- major writers and poets  PUBLIC WORKS AND CIVIL ENGINEERING  REPUBLICAN MODEL OF GOVERNMENT (ELECTED SENATE)  CIVIL LAW CODE (JUSTINIAN CODE)  INSTITUTION OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
  • 8. GEOGRAPHY  MILD CLIMATE  FERTILE PLAINS- good for farming  HILLS  SMALLER RIVERS USED FOR TRADE, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION  NATURAL BARRIERS  MOUNTAINS TO THE NORTH (THE ALPS)  SURROUNDED BY WATER ON THREE SIDES (PENINSULA)
  • 9. ALPS
  • 10. COAST
  • 11. GEOGRAPHY DID NOT PREVENT POLTICAL UNITY IN ITALY
  • 12. EARLY PEOPLE OF ITALY
  • 13. LATINS  SETTLED ALONG THE TIBER RIVER FOUNDED ROME IN 753 BC RELATED TO THE ANCIENT GREEKS
  • 14. EARLY SETTLEMENT ALONG THE TIBER
  • 15. ETRUSCANS  APPEARED IN ITALY AROUND 800 BC  GAINED CONTROL OF THE LATINS  RULED BY KINGS  SOPHISTICATED AND ARTISTIC CULTURE
  • 16. ETRUSCAN ART
  • 17. CARTHAGINIANS  A MAJOR TRADING POST IN NORTH AFRICA  ROME’S GREATEST RIVAL IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN  ROME WOULD FIGHT THREE WARS WITH CARTHAGE OVER CONTROL OF THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION – TRADE AND MILITARY DOMINANCE  PUNIC WARS  CARTHAGE WAS DEFEATED BY ROME
  • 18. LEGEND OF ROMULUS AND REMUS  TWIN BROTHERS  UNCLE ATTEMPTED TO KILL THEM  FEARED THEY WOULD THREATEN HIS POWER AS RULER  HE TOSSED THE BABIES INTO THE TIBER RIVER  LEGEND SAYS THE BABIES WERE RESCUED AND RAISED BY A FEMALE WOLF  ROMULUS LATER KILLED REMUS  BECAME THE SOLE RULER OF ROME
  • 19. ROMAN SOCIETY
  • 20. TWO MAJOR SOCIAL CLASSES
  • 21. PATRICIANS UPPER CLASS- WEALTHY CONTROLLED THE LAND HAD POLTICAL POWER COULD VOTE AND HOLD POLITICAL OFFICE
  • 22. PLEBEIANS  COMMONERS (NOT NOTILITY)  ARTISANS  WORKING CLASS  FARMERS  MERCHANTS  LOWER CLASS - POOR  DID NOT USUALLY OWN LAND  HAD LITTLE POLITICAL POWER
  • 23. PATERFAMILIAS THE FATHER  HEAD OF THE FAMILY  MALE DOMINATED SOCIETY  FATHER HELD ABSOLUTE POWER OVER HIS WIFE AND CHILDREN  STRESSED STRONG FAMILY VALUES  SERIOUSNESS  DIGNITY  LOYALTY
  • 24. PATERFAMILIAS
  • 25. PATERFAMILIAS
  • 26. ROMAN RELIGION  ROMAN RELIGION WAS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE FAMILY  ORIGINALLY INVOLVED ANCESTOR WORSHIP  ROMAN GODS OFTEN RELATED TO ASPECTS OF NATURE  BLENDED (syncretism) ROMAN GODS WITH GREEK AND ETRUSCAN GODS AND GODDESSES  12 MAJOR ROMAN GODS
  • 27.  ROMANS SACRIFICED TO THEIR GODS TO APPEASE THEM AND GAIN FAVOR IN THIS LIFE  LITTLE EMPHASIS AN THE AFTER-LIFE  ROMAN RELIGION DID NOT PROVIDE ANY REAL MEANING OR PURPOSE FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE-  NOR DID IT PROVIDE THE MORAL BASIS FOR ROMAN SOCIETY
  • 28. ROMAN GODS
  • 29. JUPITER
  • 30. EDUCATION  ROMAN EDUCATION CENTERED ON MEN  SONS WERE USUALLY TAUGHT AT HOME  ROMAN MOTHERS TAUGHT THEIR DAUGHTERS ABOUT RUNNING A HOUSEHOLD- LITERACY WAS TAUGHT  WEALTHY FAMILES HIRED AN EDUCATED GREEK SLAVE (PEDAGOGUE)  STUDENTS WERE TAUGHT BOTH LATIN AND GREEK  STRESSED RHETORIC, LITERATURE, HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY
  • 31. ROMAN SCHOOL
  • 32. GOVERNMENT  FROM 753-509 BC ROME WAS RULED BY ETRUSCAN KINGS  KINGS WERE SELECTED FROM POWERFUL PATRICIANS IN THE ASSEMBLY  ASSEMBLY CARREID OUT GOVERNMENT DUTIES  SENATE (ELECTED LEADERS) WHO ADVISED THE KING
  • 33. THE BEGINNING OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC (RES REPUBLICA)
  • 34. THE REPUBLIC 509 BC  IN 509 BC THE ETRUSCAN KING, TARQUIN THE PROUD WAS OVERTHROWN  A REPRESENTATIVE (ELECTED) FORM OF GOVERNMENT WAS ESTABLISHED  REPUBLIC  CITIZENS VOTED FOR LEADERS (SENATE)
  • 35. LEADERSHIP DURING THE REPUBLIC CONSULS  POWER WAS DIVIDED BETWEEN TWO CONSULS  CO-LEADERS  ONE YEAR TERM  OVERSAW GOVERNMENT AND MILITARY
  • 36. DICTATOR  DURING A TIME OF CRISIS A DICATOR (SINGLE LEADER) WOULD BE APPOINTED TO LEAD  LIMITED TO A SIX MONTH TERM
  • 37. ROMAN SENATE  MOST POWERFUL GOVERNING BODY WAS THE SENATE  300 MEMBERS  MADE LAWS AND GUIDED THE GOVERNMENT  SENATORS WERE LAND OWNING WEALTHY PATRICIANS- UPPER CLASS  SERVED IN THE SENATE FOR LIFE
  • 38. SENATE
  • 39. TRIBUNE  PLEBEIANS HAD BEEN BARRED FROM HOLDING ELECTED OFFICE  493 BC AN OFFICIAL OFFICE FOR PLEBEIANS WAS ESTABLISHED  THE TRIBUNE- ELECTED PLEBEIAN OFFICIALS  POWER OF VETO
  • 40. ROMAN LAW  IN 450 BC ROME ESTABLISHED A WRITTEN LAW CODE FOR ITS CITIZENS  LAW OF THE TWELVE TABLES  ROMAN LAW FOR ALL CITIZENS PATRICIANS AND PLEBEIANS NOW HAD ACCESS TO ROMAN LAW AND ITS PROTECTIONS
  • 41. ROMAN EXPANSION  MILITARY CONQUEST GAINED NEW TERRITORY  TRADE WITH OTHER REGIONS SPREAD ROMAN CULTURE AND INFLUENCE  POLTICAL AGREEMENTS AND ALLIANCES EXPANDED ROME’S INFLUENCE
  • 42.  ROME OFTEN OFFERED ACCESS TO BENEFITS TO ENCOURAGE COMPLIANCE  OFFERED ROMAN CITIZENSHIP AND ACCESS TO ROMAN LAW  GAVE ACCESS TO MILITARY SERVICE  MEN COULD SERVE IN THE LEGIONS  EARN MONEY AND POSSIBLY LAND  CHANCE TO BE A PART OF ROME’S GLORY  OFTEN ALLOWED CONQUERED REGIONS TO KEEP THEIR RELIGION AND CUSTOMS
  • 43. ROME COULD ALSO BE CRUEL  TOOK WHAT IT WANTED FROM THE PROVINCES  TOOK LAND  TOOK WEALTH  TOOK GOODS  TOOK AGRICULTURE/FOOD  ENSLAVED PEOPLE WHO RESISTED  FORCED MANY INTO SLAVERY AND HARD LABOR  KILLED OPPOSITION-  USED TORTURE AND PUBLIC EXECUTION AS A WARNING TO ANY WHO CHALLENGED ROME’S AUTHORITY
  • 44. ROMAN SLAVES
  • 45. ROMAN SLAVES
  • 46. ROMAN GLADIATORS WERE OFTEN SLAVES
  • 47. GLADIATORS
  • 48. PUNIC WARS  THREE WARS FOUGHT WITH CARTHAGE FOR CONTROL OF THE MEDITERRANEAN  218 BC-146 BC MILITARY SUPREMACY CONTROL OF TRADE CONTROL OF TERRITORY
  • 49. HANNIBAL AND THE SECOND PUNIC WAR  THE CARTHAGINIAN GENERAL ATTEMPTED TO INVADE ITALY  TOOK ELEPHANTS OVER THE ALPS
  • 50. ROME DESTROYED CARTHAGE IN THE THIRD PUNIC WAR
  • 51. IMPACT OF ROMAN EXPANSION  GROWING WEALTH  EXPANSION OF GREEK AND ROMAN CULTURE  EXPLOITATION OF THE PROVINCES  ROMAN SOCIETY BECAME MORE DIVIDED- SOCIAL TENSIONS AND UNREST  RICH  POOR
  • 52. ROME AND THE TIBER RIVER
  • 53. ROMAN AQUADUCTS BROUGHT FRESH WATER TO THE CITIES
  • 54. ROMAN BATHS
  • 55. THE ROMAN FORUM
  • 56. ROMAN CHARIOT RACES
  • 57.  ROME STRUGGLED TO MAINTAIN ITS REPUBLIC AS POWERFUL MILITARY GENERALS MANUEVERED FOR GREATER CONTROL  FIRST TRIUMVERATE – 3 RULERS  JULIUS CAESAR  CRASSUS  POMPEY
  • 58.  STRUGGLE FOR POWER BETWEEN THE THREE GENERALS  ROMAN SENATE BEGAN TO FEAR JULIUS CAESAR’S POWER AND LEGIONS  CAESAR DEFIED THE SENATE’S ORDERS AND BROUGHT HIS LEGIONS INTO ROME- “CROSSING THE RUBICON”  CAESAR WAS DECLARED SOLE RULER OF ROME –MADE DICTATOR FOR LIFE
  • 59.  FEARING CAESAR’S GROWING POWER, 60 MEMBERS OF THE SENATE PLOTTED TO ASSASSINATE HIM –  JULIUS CAESAR WAS STABBED TO DEATH ON MARCH 15, 44 BC IN THE SENATE  “BEWARE THE IDES OF MARCH”
  • 60. ROME BECOMES AN EMPIRE  A STRUGGLE FOR POWER WOULD RESULT – CIVIL WAR  THE SECOND TRIUMVERATE  OCTAVIAN  MARK ANTONY  LIPIDUS  OCTAVIAN WOULD BECOME THE EMPEROR OF ROME (CAESAR AUGUSTUS) AFTER DEFEATING HIS OPPOSITION
  • 61.  The base of statue includes the image of the Greek god Cupid riding a dolphin. This expresses Augustus’ supposed ancestry to the goddess Venus (Cupid's mother) by way of his adopted father Julius Caesar.
  • 62. THE END OF THE REPUBLIC  ROME WAS WEAKENED BY INTERNAL CONFLICTS  THE SENATE’S LEADERSHIP AND POWER DECLINED  POWERFUL POLITICIANS WERE WILLING TO USE VIOLENCE TO ACHIEVE THEIR GOALS  LEGIONS BECAME LOYAL TO INDIVIDUAL COMMANDERS RATHER THAN TO ROME  POVERY GREW  THERE WAS A DECLINE IN TRADITIONAL VALUES AND ROMAN VIRTUES

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