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9th Grade Western Civ.  Scientific Revolution
 

9th Grade Western Civ. Scientific Revolution

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    9th Grade Western Civ.  Scientific Revolution 9th Grade Western Civ. Scientific Revolution Presentation Transcript

    • THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Toward the modern worldview
    • How did the Scientific Revolution reflect the values and ideals of the Renaissance? In what ways did the Scientific Revolution impact traditional views about the natural world? What was the Copernican Revolution? What was the Newtonian synthesis?
    • MAJOR FACTORS LEADING TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION -rise of universities in the High Middle Ages -broadening of the curriculum to include the study of mathematics and the sciences -growing community of intellectuals (educated elite)  Renaissance quest for knowledge- notion of human potential and progress
    •  the recovery of ancient classical texts (math, science, and philosophy) Renaissance system of patronage allowed individuals to pursue scientific investigation Galileo was supported by the Medici family
    • The Medieval Worldview Geocentrism
    • Aristotle’s View of the Universe
    • THE COPERNICAN REVOLUTION A SHIFT TO HELIOCENTRISM
    • NICOLAUS COPERNICUS 1473-1543 -Polish astronomer – he was a monk proposed a sun centered solar system (heliocentric) planets and stars revolved around a fixed sun On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres published in 1543 (after his death)
    • JOHANNAS KEPLER (1571-1630) -German astronomer -Three laws of planetary motion  -orbits of the planets are elliptical not circular  -speed of the planets orbits are not uniform  -the time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is  related to its distance from the sun -Kepler provided mathematical support for Copernicus’ heliocentric theory
    • JOHANNAS KEPLER THE THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
    • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) -Italian philosopher and astronomer Medici family was a patron of his work Galileo lived and worked in Florence -viewed the physical universe as a “Book of Nature…written in mathematical characters.” Improved on the telescope  this allowed him to observe the motion of the planets and the surface of the sun and moon
    • Galileo came to accept Copernicus’ idea of a heliocentric universe This was based on his observations of Jupiter and its moons  Dialogue- Galileo’s book on his ideas regarding helio-centrism It was written in Italian
    • Galileo’s views were challenged by the Catholic Church The Church feared that helio- centrism would undermine its authority and theology with humans being at the center of God’s universe
    • Galileo was brought before the Inquisition Charged with heresy -His works were banned and his teachings were condemned His writings were placed on the Index of Prohibited Books -he was threatened with torture and excommunication and placed under house arrest -Galileo recanted his views shortly before his death in 1642 (the year Sir Isaac Newton was born)
    • GALILEO EVIDENCE FOR HELIOCENTRICISM (OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOONS OF JUPITER)
    • GALILEO OBSERVED JUPITER AND THE ROTATION OF ITS MOONS
    • THE DIALOGUE
    • Galileo before the Inquisition
    • The Newtonian Synthesis
    • SIR ISAAC NEWTON
    • Isaac Newton (1642-1723) -English mathematician – Cambridge University -Newton built on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo (Newtonian synthesis) -In 1686 he formulated the mathematics for the universal law of gravitation (every physical body (object) in the universe exerts a force on every other body) -This provided evidence that the universe was governed by precise mathematical relationships
    • -Newton was deeply Christian (theistic) in his thinking the physical order “can be the effect of nothing else than the wisdom and skill of a powerful ever-living agent.”
    • UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION NEWTONIAN SYNTHESIS-RATIONAL PROOF FOR THE HELIOCENTRIC MODEL
    • NEWTON’S LAW OF GRAVITY
    • Newton’s view of the universe- more mechanical
    • Newton also came to better understand the properties of light
    • SIR FRANCIS BACON EMPIRICISM (SCIENTIFIC METHOD)
    • Sir Francis Bacon (1561- 1626) -English politician and writer (he was not a trained scientist) Bacon believed that knowledge comes through observation and experimentation  (SCIENTIFIC METHOD) We must allow the “facts” to speak for themselves and draw conclusions based on those facts  (inductive reasoning-EMPIRICISM)
    • EMPIRICAL MODEL ALL KNOWLEDGE HAD TO BE EMPIRICALLY (SCIENTIFICALLY) VERIFIED TO BE VALID Science Data “proof” TRUTH CLAIMS NEEDED EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION
    • INDUCTIVE MODEL
    • RENE’ DESCARTES “I think, therefore, I am.”
    • Rene’ Descartes 1596-1650 French mathematician Invented analytical geometry Developed a method based on rational deduction rather than empirical induction Stressed rational speculation and reflection Descartes believed that he could rationally prove the existence of God He begins by “doubting” everything – skepticism Does not begin with faith
    • DEDUCTIVE MODEL
    • THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION WOULD IMPACT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TWO 18TH CENTURY MOVEMENTS THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE INDUSTIRAL REVOLUTION