DONALD SUPER’S THEORY OF CAREERDEVELOPMENT• Career decision making as adevelopmental process that spans one‘sentire lifetime• The degree to which a given individual‘scareer development is successfuldepends—at least in part—on how wellthat person is able to identify andimplement her or his career self-concept
DONALD SUPER’S THEORY OF CAREERDEVELOPMENT• Career self-concept is directly influencedby your personality, abilities, interests,experiences, and values
Super‘s Stages of CareerDevelopment• Growth• Exploration• Establishment• Maintenance• Disengagement
Exploration• Considered by many to be the heart ofthe career decision-making process• Super described the exploration stage ofcareer development as consisting ofthree major developmental tasks• Crystallizing, Specifying, andImplementing a career choice
Sun Tzu• If you know the enemy and know yourself, youneed not fear the result of a hundred battles.• If you know yourself but not the enemy, forevery victory gained you will also suffer adefeat.• If you know neither the enemy nor yourself,you will succumb in every battle
Three Types of Assessments• Non-Verbal• Verbal• Written
The Science of Deductionhttp://youtu.be/im4TYITM0VE
The Science of Deduction• Im Sherlock Holmes, the worlds only consultingdetective.• Im not going to go into detail about how I do what I dobecause chances are you wouldnt understand. Ifyouve got a problem that you want me to solve, thencontact me. Interesting cases only please.• This is what I do:• 1. I observe everything.• 2. From what I observe, I deduce everything.• 3. When Ive eliminated the impossible, whateverremains, no matter how mad it might seem, must bethe truth.
Improving Deduction Skills• Observe• Deduce• Block out everything else• Focus on this person• Overthink what you observe• Use your imagination and creativity• Take emotion out• Practice
Disney Customer ServiceSkills• Smiling, attentive, helpful, friendly,proactive, and annoyingly happy, peppy,and perky• What time is the three o‘clock parade?• Separate on-stage and back-stagepresence• Two Ears, two eyes and one mouth, usethem in that ratio• This person is the most important
Words That Get You Fired vs Words That Keep YouHiredFired Hired
Career Advising Customer Service• Provide Unprecedented Levels ofCustomer Service!• You Will Revolutionize YourDepartment!
Motivational/Strengths Based Questioning• Strengths questions are designed toelicit motivation and values• Gets to who you are – the authentic you• No preparation, elicit honest answers• Describe things they enjoy and are goodat• What energizes or motivates them?• Theoretically, enthusiasm should show
Strengths Based Questions• What your friends and family know you for - howwould they describe you to a stranger?• What you enjoy doing, and what you are like atyour best• The achievements you have made and how youmade them• What a ‗great‘ day looks like for you - when didyou last go home energized, and why was that?• Activities that you do not particularly enjoy, andwhy
Strengths Based Questions• Are you a starter of a finisher?• What do you love to do in your sparetime?• What do you find quick to learn?• How would a close friend describe you?• Are you a big picture or a detail person?• What activities give you an energybuzz?
Basic Verbal Assessment• What do you want to do?• Why are you here?• Describe yourbackground/experience/training?• Why aren‘t you doing this?• What do you like to do?• What do you like to do with your friends?
Basic Verbal Assessment• May help with undecided, exploratory,and ―reluctant‖ students• Listen, listen, listen• Set objectives• If a realistic and feasible job target, noneed for written assessment• Great time saver• Set this as a goal
Written Assessments• Identify potential student goals• Collect, analyze and interpret data• Develop a direction in writing• People are enamored with assessments
Written Assessments• Any written assessments they havepreviously taken and can bring in isextremely valuable and useful
Basic Written Exercise• Write three accomplishments• At least three sentences each• What are you proud of?• How did you do this?
Your Career Autobiography• Career dreams• Previous paid employment experiences• Volunteer experiences• Internship activities• Hobbies• Leisure interests• Athletic participation• Ethnic background and heritage• Socioeconomic status• Gender roles• Current educational status• Questions about your future• Careers that seem interesting to you
John Holland Ph.D.• John Holland (1919 to 2008)• Psychologist• Professor Emeritus of Sociology• John Hopkins University
John Holland Ph.D.1919 to 2008 Photo by PermissionJohn Hopkins Gazette
John Holland Ph.D.• Creator of the Holland OccupationalCodes• The basic premise was that onesoccupational preferences were in asense a veiled expression of underlyingcharacter
The Holland Codes• Theory of careers and vocational choicebased upon personality types• Personalities seek out and ﬂourish incareer environments they ﬁt• Jobs and career environments areclassiﬁable by the personalities thatﬂourish in them
Transferable Skills Scale• Breaks Skills Areas Into Categories• Matches Categories with Job Titles• Matches to Academic Course of Study• Useful with Interview Skills• Useful with Resume
O*NETTM is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment andTraining Administration.
O*NET Career Interest Profiler• U.S. Department of Labor OccupationalInformation Network• Provides valuable self-knowledge abouttheir vocational interests,• Fosters career awareness, and• Provides a window to the entire world ofwork via the 800+ occupationswithin O*NET OnLine.
O*NET Career Interest Profiler• Compatible with Hollands R-I-A-S-E-CInterest Structure• Can be self-administered and self-interpreted• User Guide provided for workforcedevelopment professionals• Results can be directly linked to over 800occupations in O*NET OnLine• Approximately 30 minute completion time
Ultimate Goal• Develop a Written Ideal Job Description• Interests• Transferable Skills• Disabilities and Limitations• What is it?
Career Exploration• Books• Internet• Information Interviews
Books• Occupational Outlook Handbook• Dictionary of Occupational Titles• O*NET• Career Books
Internet• Google Searches• www.bls.gov/ooh• Occupational Outlook Handbook• www.onetonline.org• LinkedIn• U.S. Department of Labor• http://lmi.state.oh.us• ODJFS Labor Market Information
Caution• Never base a career or training decisionon book or internet labor marketinformation
Employment ProjectionAssumptions• The following assumptions underlie the BLSemployment projections:• Broad social and demographic trends will continue.• New major armed conflicts will not develop.• There will be no major natural disasters.• The projected U.S. economy will be at approximatelyfull employment.• Existing laws and policies with significant impacts oneconomic trends are assumed to hold throughout theprojection period.
What Is Full Employment?• The CBO defines ―full employment‖ tobe when the national unemploymentrate is at or below what it calls the―natural unemployment rate.‖• Now projecting that the U.S. economywill never achieve full employmentthrough 2017• The last Full Employment year was2007
Employment ProjectionAssumptions• http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch13.pdf• Page 6• BLS employment projections should beconsidered as likely outcomes based onspecified assumptions, and not definitiveoutcomes
Ohio LMI ProjectionsLimitations• As with all forecasts and projections,Labor Market Projections are subject toerror, especially if events negateunderlying assumptions. Generally,relative error increases with smallerindustries, occupations and areas.• http://ohiolmi.com/proj/projections.htm
Information Interviewing• The most accurate way to make careerdecisions
Information Interviewing• Talking to people to research the job orcareer• Meet, call, or email• Always have questions prepared inadvance• Stress this will help make acareer/training decision• Get names of two other people
Questions• What skills are important?• What personality traits are important?• What training/school would you suggest?• How many employees do you have?• How often do you hire here?• Is this industry expected to grow?• Starting salary and after one year?• What are the physical requirements?• Names of two other people?
Look for Consensus• People in the field are consideredsubject matter experts• Do five information interviews and lookfor consistency• Continue to do information interviewsuntil a trend develops• Verify!
Making Educated Decisions• Labor market information is crucial• Need to know what to expect when done• Get subject matter experts to lay out thetraining/school
KSU Career Services• http://www.kent.edu/career/index.cfm• http://whatcanidowiththismajor.com/major/• http://www.myplan.com/careers/database.html
LinkedIn Alumni• LinkedIn Alumni provides high-level insightsabout alumni of your school, as well asaccess to the more detailed professionalprofiles theyve shared.• See what alumni in your field haveaccomplished since graduation• Expand your sense of whats possible for you.• http://www.linkedin.com/college/alumni
Twitter• Use Twitter as a Research Tool• Follow and Engage Relevant People• You can search any topic and Twitterwill display the results based onpeople‘s use of your search query intheir tweets
Major Selection• What will you do to reach goal?• Which program elements could assist?
Suggested Session SequenceMove Toward Outcome, Action, and Change
One Session• Assess Person• Verbal Assessment of Holland Code• Suggest major fields of study goal• Provide handout of websites forinformation• Mark relevant ones
Two Sessions• Session One– Verbal and Non-Verbal Assessment– Holland Code Assessment– Major Field Suggestions– Homework – Holland Codes and Google Fields• Session Two– Review Holland Codes– Suggest Job Goals and Major Field Suggestions– Give Sources of further Career Exploration– Agree on a goal/course of action
Three Sessions• Session Three– Add in Information Interviewing– Agree on a goal
Four Sessions• Review Information Interview• Encourage another information interview• Better Quality Decision• Agree on a goal
Coaching on Internships• Know values, interests• Target list of companies• Research companies– Ask– Use Social Media• Network a connection
Tools to Help Land Internships• Business Cards– Vistaprint.com• Cover Letters• Highlight Paid / Unpaid Experience• Finance Part of Your Education• Mock InterviewStart researching summer internships inthe fall
The Process Here• The Corporate U makes contact• Paid internships – Chris Paveloi• Others - Faculty
Add-Ons• Takes just as much effort to finding a jobversus finding a paid internship• Much more career advantageous• Starting to build career relatedexperience• Could lead to employment
Student Responsibility• Develop a 30 – 60 Second ElevatorSpeech• Use a mini-resume card• Call or email everyone they know• Email or hand them the card• Check back• Basic interview skills
Mini-Resume CardName NumberCareer Objective:Skills: Total Experience StatementTotal Education StatementSkills and AbilitiesAccomplishmentsPositive Personal Traits
ExampleJonni Public (330) 327-XXXXCareer Objective: Social Service Agency Internship PositionSkills: One and a half years of paid work and volunteer experience.Dover High School Graduate. Enjoy working with people,listening, caring, and spending quality time.Perfect attendance in high school. Member of Dover HS Key Club.Reliable, dependable, and fast learner
Remember• Be flexible, adaptive and prepared toadjust to change• There will always be problems• Things always change (mandates,circumstance, personal priorities)• View career goals as an evolutionaryprocess
Bibliography and Resources• Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-2013 Edition• The O*Net Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Jist Works, Inc.Indianapolis, IN. 1998• U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, JistWorks, Inc, Indianapolis, IN. 1991• What Color Is Your Parachute?: A Practical Manual for JobHunters and Career Changers, Richard N. Bolles, 2013• JIST Inc. – (800) 648-JIST• Darrell Anthony Luzzo and Lisa Ellen Severy . Making CareerDecisions that Count 3rd Edition. Pearson – Prentice Hall,Columbus, Ohio, 2009