Ocean Water: 20.1

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This ocean presentation is made for an 8th grade Earth Science class.

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Ocean Water: 20.1

  1. 1. Ocean Water<br />Earth Science<br />20.1<br />8th grade<br />
  2. 2. Properties of Ocean Water<br />Dissolved gases<br />Dissolved solids<br />Salinity<br />Temperature<br />Density <br />Color<br />KidsGeo.com. Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0142-ocean-temperatures.php>.<br />
  3. 3. Dissolved Gases<br />2 gases make up atmosphere <br />Nitrogen (N2) & Oxygen (O2)<br />3 gases dissolved in ocean water<br />O2, N2, CO2, & other trace gases<br />Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/lectures/greenhouse.html>.<br />
  4. 4. Dissolved Gases<br />Gases enter at rivers, streams, volcanic eruptions, and organisms living in ocean<br />Web. 1 Jul 2011.http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect17/Sect17_4.html.<br />
  5. 5. Dissolved Gases<br />Temperature affects amount of gases dissolved<br />Colder water = gases dissolve better, held longer<br />Oceans contain 60 times more carbon than atmosphere<br />Oceans called “carbon sink” – can trap CO2 for hundreds to thousands of years<br />
  6. 6. Dissolved Solids<br />Sea salts = 3.5% mass of ocean water<br />Most abundant elements:<br />Chlorine, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, potassium<br />
  7. 7. Dissolved Solids<br />Salt Halite (Sodium & Chlorine) make up 85% of dissolved solids<br />"Dead Sea." Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_Sea-18.jpg>.<br />
  8. 8. Dissolved Solids<br />Sources of sea salts:<br />Volcanic eruptions<br />DiscoveryChannel.com. Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/06/12/underwater-volcano.html>.<br />
  9. 9. Dissolved Solids<br />2. Chemical weathering of land rock<br />Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abiskorock.JPG>.<br />
  10. 10. Dissolved Solids<br />3. Chemical reactions between sea water & newly formed sea-floor rocks<br />Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page2.php>.<br />
  11. 11. Salinity<br />Measure of amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid<br />Average salinity is 3.3% to 3.6%<br />
  12. 12. Salinity<br />Factors that change salinity:<br />Rate of evaporation is higher than precipitation, salinity increased<br />Polar waters have high evaporation = high salinity<br />
  13. 13. Salinity<br />Can vary greatly depending on location<br />Red Sea has hot & dry climate = high salinity<br />Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wiki_plot_04.png>.<br />
  14. 14. Temperature<br />Varies with depth & location<br />Affected by solar energy<br />Colder near poles <br />Pack ice or floating ice covering top 5 meters of ocean surface<br />Insulates water below & prevents freezing<br />
  15. 15. "Climatology SST." Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_avhrr.html>.<br />
  16. 16. Temperature<br />Thermocline- temperature drops with increased depth<br />Water near surface is less dense so heats better but doesn’t mix well with below layers<br />Colder water = more dense<br />Controls the movement of deep ocean currents<br />Holds more dissolved gases than warmer<br />
  17. 17. Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/temp.html>.<br />
  18. 18. Density<br />Mass ÷ volume (love formula)<br />Factors that effect density of ocean water:<br />1. Salinity (more salt = more dense)<br />2. Temperature (colder = more dense)<br />Densest water is found in polar regions<br />High salinity = more particles/mL<br />
  19. 19. Color<br />Determined by way it absorbs or reflects sunlight<br />Water absorbs most colors of visible light<br />Blue wavelengths are reflected<br />"Vibrant Orange Sunrise Ocean Spray ." Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://paulbates.com/vibrant-orange-sunrise-ocean-spray-pictures-photos/>.<br />"The Tube." Flickr. Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/mistybushell/2161046983/>.<br />
  20. 20. Color<br />Importance<br />Substances or organisms can effect color<br />Ex.) phytoplankton (absorbs red/blue but reflects green)<br />Scientists can determine the health of the ocean<br />Phytoplankton present = healthy ocean<br />
  21. 21. Plankton forms off of New Zealand because of abundant food sources.<br />"Plankton bloom off Waiheke Island." Web. 1 Jul 2011. <http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/plankton/1/4>.<br />
  22. 22. Textbook Resource<br />Allison, Ph.D., Mead A., Arthur T. DeGaetano, Ph.D., and Jay M. Pasachoff, Ph.D. Earth Science. Austin, Texas: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2008. 26-45, 754-767. Print. <br />

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