0
B.T. PHONE HOME Marquie, E., Moran, J., Riepl, E., & Schorling, J.
Transgenic Maize <ul><li>Transgenic maize is corn that has been genetically modified to have agriculturally desirable trai...
Roundup Ready  Plants <ul><li>Roundup  contains glyphosate, the </li></ul><ul><li>active ingredient is isopropylamine </li...
What Is  Bt ? <ul><li>Bt  stands for  Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>thuringiensis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bt  is a soil-dwelling m...
 
Why  Bt ? <ul><li>Control costs of European </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Borers and yield loss </li></ul><ul><li>combined exceed...
European Corn Borer <ul><li>Ostrinia nubilalis  first </li></ul><ul><li>identified in Boston in 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Some Boring Pictures
How Does  Bt  Work? <ul><li>Creating  Bt  Corn is </li></ul><ul><li>accomplished through </li></ul><ul><li>inserting a gen...
Benefits Of  Bt  Corn <ul><li>Protection by  Bt  corn is as </li></ul><ul><li>good, if not better, than </li></ul><ul><li>...
Drawbacks Of  Bt <ul><li>It can be nearly $14 more per </li></ul><ul><li>bushel than normally grown corn. </li></ul><ul><l...
Effectiveness Of Bt Corn <ul><li>Spray-on  Bt  insecticide controls roughly 60-95% of the first generation and 40-80% of t...
Managing the Evolution of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Plants Andow, D.A., & Alstad, D.N.
Populus <ul><li>X:  Population size and population density of ECB in the toxic unit </li></ul><ul><li>Y:  Population size ...
More Populus
References <ul><li>Alstad, D.N., et al. 1995. Managing the Evolution of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Plants.  Science ....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Bt Corn

2,417

Published on

bacillus thuringiensis

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,417
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
62
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Bt Corn"

  1. 1. B.T. PHONE HOME Marquie, E., Moran, J., Riepl, E., & Schorling, J.
  2. 2. Transgenic Maize <ul><li>Transgenic maize is corn that has been genetically modified to have agriculturally desirable traits; e.g. herbicide and pest resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most popular types of transgenic crops are Roundup Ready plants. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Roundup Ready Plants <ul><li>Roundup contains glyphosate, the </li></ul><ul><li>active ingredient is isopropylamine </li></ul><ul><li>salt which inhibits an enzyme involved in the synthesis of tryosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. </li></ul><ul><li>Roundup Ready plants are produced by Monsanto and are toleralnt to glyphosate. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Roundup Ready plants include corn, sorghum, cotton, soy, canola, and alfalfa. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Bt ? <ul><li>Bt stands for Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>thuringiensis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bt is a soil-dwelling microorganism which contains the Bt toxin. </li></ul><ul><li>Bt Corn is genetically engineered to produce the a certain type of protein which in turn becomes the Bt toxin. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Why Bt ? <ul><li>Control costs of European </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Borers and yield loss </li></ul><ul><li>combined exceed $1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>annually. </li></ul><ul><li>European Corn Borer damage can cause up to 25 bushels of corn lost per acre. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas, Nebraska, west Kansas, and east Colorado aggressively manage their crops against Corn Borers. </li></ul>
  6. 7. European Corn Borer <ul><li>Ostrinia nubilalis first </li></ul><ul><li>identified in Boston in 1917. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced from Hungary and Italy by way of broom corn plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds on over 250 different kinds of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>First generation bores into the stalk and causes the plant to fall over. </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation bores into the tassles and causes the ears to fall out. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Some Boring Pictures
  8. 9. How Does Bt Work? <ul><li>Creating Bt Corn is </li></ul><ul><li>accomplished through </li></ul><ul><li>inserting a gene from Bt. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows the plant to produce Cry proteins all by itself. </li></ul><ul><li>When ingested by an insect, its own digestive enzymes activate the toxic form of the crystal protein. </li></ul><ul><li>The digestive system of the insect crystallizes and it starves to death. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Benefits Of Bt Corn <ul><li>Protection by Bt corn is as </li></ul><ul><li>good, if not better, than </li></ul><ul><li>that provided typical </li></ul><ul><li>commercial insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal spray-on Bt insecticide is subject to inconsistency due to degradation from UV radiation, heat, desiccation sensitivity, incomplete coverage of fields, and a diminished effect on older larva. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Drawbacks Of Bt <ul><li>It can be nearly $14 more per </li></ul><ul><li>bushel than normally grown corn. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not have an effect on </li></ul><ul><li>aphids, spider mites, black </li></ul><ul><li>cutworm, western bean cutworm, rootworms, wireworms, white grubs, seedcorn maggots, and seedcorn beetles. </li></ul><ul><li>StarLink Bt Corn was prohibited for human consumption by the federal government because of the possibility of allergic reactions. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Effectiveness Of Bt Corn <ul><li>Spray-on Bt insecticide controls roughly 60-95% of the first generation and 40-80% of the second generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Bt Corn species control more than 99% of the first generation. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Managing the Evolution of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Plants Andow, D.A., & Alstad, D.N.
  13. 14. Populus <ul><li>X: Population size and population density of ECB in the toxic unit </li></ul><ul><li>Y: Population size of ECB in the nontoxic unit </li></ul><ul><li>Y/G: Nontoxic density </li></ul><ul><li>P: Resistance allele frequency in the toxic unit </li></ul><ul><li>W: Resistance allele frequency in the nontoxic unit </li></ul>
  14. 15. More Populus
  15. 16. References <ul><li>Alstad, D.N., et al. 1995. Managing the Evolution of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Plants. Science . 268: 1894-1896. </li></ul><ul><li>Ives, A.R., et al. 1996. Evolution of Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis . Science. 273: 1412-1413. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldberger, J., et al. 2005. Bt Corn Farer Compliance with Insect Resistance Management Requirements in Minnesota and Wisconsin. AgBioForum . 8(2): 151-160. </li></ul><ul><li>Gesell, S. 9/9/2006. European Corn Borer Fact Sheet. 11/28/2006. ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/european_corn_borer.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Witkowski, J.F., et al. 2002. Bt Corn and European Corn Borer. 11/28/2006. extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/bc7055.html#ch6 </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×