Biodiversity conservation: genetic diversity and deadwood
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Biodiversity conservation: genetic diversity and deadwood

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Biodiversity conservation, genetic diversity and deadwood, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Aesculus hippocastanum, habitat fragmentation, dendrology, forest pathology, environmental ...

Biodiversity conservation, genetic diversity and deadwood, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Aesculus hippocastanum, habitat fragmentation, dendrology, forest pathology, environmental research, geographical genetics, macroecology, conservation biogeography

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Biodiversity conservation: genetic diversity and deadwood Biodiversity conservation: genetic diversity and deadwood Presentation Transcript

  • Biodiversity Conservation – week 3 London Metropolitan Univ. - 2010 Marco Pautasso (marpauta at gmail.com)
  • Biodiversity Conservation main topics – week 3Conservation of genetic diversity Biodiversity and deadwood
  • Fagus sylvatica - European beech: bark vs. seedlingSources: Kew Gardens (2009) and Wikimedia Commons
  • Fagus sylvatica - European beech: seedlingSource:WikimediaCommons, Germany - May 2005
  • Source:WikimediaCommons, Poland - April 2004
  • Fagus sylvatica: early springSource:WikimediaCommons, Denmark – May 2005
  • Fagus sylvatica in autumnSource:WikimediaCommons, Scotland – November 2006
  • Fagus sylvatica: geographical distributionSvenning & Skov (2004) Ecology Letters and Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  • Source: Euforgen
  • Betula pendula – silver birchSource:WikimediaCommons, Finland
  • Betula pendulaSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Quercus robur: pedunculate oakSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Quercus robur, pedunculate oak: leaf and acornsSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Quercus roburSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Aesculus hippocastanum: horse chestnutSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Cameraria ohridella: the horse chestnut leaf minerSources: Forest Research (UK) and Wikimedia Commons
  • Cameraria ohridella: the horse chestnut leaf minerSource: Wikimedia Commons (France, August 2007) and DAISIE (EU)
  • Aesculus hippocastanum: horse chestnutSource: Carl Larsson, Under theWikimedia Chestnut Tree (1912)Commons
  • Source: Camille Pissarro,Wikimedia Les chataigniers à Osny (1873)Commons
  • Castanea sativa: sweet chestnutSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Castanea sativa: sweet chestnutSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Carpinus betulus: hornbeamSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Carpinus betulus: hornbeamSource:WikimediaCommons, Köln, Germany
  • Carpinus betulus: hornbeamSource: Svenning & Skov (2004) Ecology Letters & Norfolk Wildlife Trust
  • Acer pseudoplatanus: sycamoreSource: Wikimedia commons
  • Rhytisma acerinum on Acer pseudoplatanusSource:WikimediaCommons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Platanus x hispanica – London planeSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Platanus x hispanica – London planeSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Platanus vs. AcerSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Ulmus spp. (elms)Source:Wikimedia Commons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Fraxinus excelsior - common ashSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Fraxinus excelsior - common ashSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Tilia cordata – small-leaved limeSource:Wikimedia Commons
  • Tilia cordata – small-leaved limeSource: Wikimedia Commons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Ficus carica – fig treeSource: Kew Gardens, Autumn 2009
  • Ficus carica – fig tree Source: Kew Gardens, May 2009
  • A selection of 12 UK tree species •European beech – Fagus sylvatica •Silver birch – Betula pendula •Pedunculate oak – Quercus robur •Horse chestnut – Aesculus hippocastanum •Sweet chestnut – Castanea sativa •Hornbeam – Carpinus betulus •Sycamore – Acer pseudoplatanus •London plane – Platanus x hispanica •Elms - Ulmus spp. •Common ash – Fraxinus excelsior •Small-leaved lime – Tilia cordata •Fig tree – Ficus carica
  • (a) (b)(c) (d) Source: Wikimedia Commons
  • (e) (f)(g) (h) Source: Wikimedia Commons
  • (i) (j) (k) Source: Wikimedia
  • Pinus sylvestris – Scots pineSource: Wikimedia Commons
  • Pinus sylvestris – Scots pineSource: Wikimedia Commons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Pinus sylvestris – Scots pineScotland (Cairngorms) FinlandSpain (Sierra de Guadarrama) Georgia (Caucasus)Source: Wikimedia Commons
  • Pinus sylvestris – Scots pineSource: Wikimedia Commons
  • Source:Euforgen
  • Pinus pinea – stone pineSource: Kew Gardens
  • Pinus pinea – genetic diversitySource: Vendramin et al. (2008) Evolution
  • Taxus wallichiana – genetic diversitySource: Gao et al. (2007) Molecular Ecology
  • Populus tremula and P. alba – genetic diversitySource: Fussi et al. (2010) Tree Genetics and Genomes
  • Summary •Genetic diversity is an important component of biodiversity •It provides adaptation potential to new environmental conditions •Conservation has often been neglectedgeographical patterns in genetic diversity•However, there is a remarkable increase in research on conservation genetics
  • Are the main threats to biodiversity also affecting genetic diversity?Habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss Water, air and soil pollution Species introductions Climate change ? GENETIC DIVERSITY
  • The importance of deadwoodSource: WSL, CH
  • Snags vs. logsSource: Wikimedia Commons & WSL, CH
  • Ancient trees → deadwood → biodiversitySource: Kew Gardens, Spring 2009
  • Snags vs. logsSource: Wikimedia Commons & WSL, CH
  • Snags vs. logsSource: Wikimedia Commons & WSL, CH
  • Summary •Deadwood is fundamental for biodiversity, but has been often reduced by mankind •It provides habitat for many fungal, lichen and bryophyte, arthropod, mammal and bird species •Variable types of deadwood are needed fordifferent saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) species •Both downed and standing deadwood are important
  • Wood decay = biodiversity % tons/ha % VerkerkSource: WSL, CH et al. 2009
  • [CO2]from MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • CO2 emissions (2000) per continentfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • CO2 emissions (2000) per countryfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • CO2 emissions (cumulative: 1880-2004) per countryfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • CO2 emissions since 2000: scenarios vs. datafrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • from MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • from MacKay(2009) SustainableEnergy
  • from MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • Human population densitiesfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • Human population densities: USA vs. Europefrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • Human population density vs. energy consumptionfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • Human population density vs. energy consumptionfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  • ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a sampling artefact or a key issue forsustainable development? Animal Conservation 13: 446-447Cantarello E, Steck CE, Fontana P, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) A multi-scale study of Orthoptera species richness and humanpopulation size controlling for sampling effort. Naturwissenschaften 97: 265-271Golding J, Güsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvävirta S, Parmentier I & Pautasso M (2010) Species-richness patterns of the living collectionsof the worlds botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105: 689-696Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics & Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M & Chiarucci A (2008) A test of the scale-dependence of the species abundance-people correlation for veteran trees in Italy. Annals ofBotany 101: 709-715Pautasso M & Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy’s regions. Environmental Conservation36: 22-31Pautasso M & Fontaneto D (2008) A test of the species-people correlation for stream macro-invertebrates in European countries. EcologicalApplications 18: 1842-1849Pautasso M & Parmentier I (2007) Are the living collections of the world’s botanical gardens following species-richness patterns observed in naturalecosystems? Botanica Helvetica 117: 15-28Pautasso M & Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia 160: 839-846Pautasso M & Weisberg PJ (2008) Density-area relationships: the importance of the zeros. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 203-210Pautasso M & Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italys regions. Biodiversity & Conservation 18: 473-485Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change – some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M et al (2011) Global macroecology of bird assemblages in urbanized and semi-natural ecosystems. Global Ecology & Biogeography 20:426-436Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the speciesrichness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280Schlick-Steiner B, Steiner F & Pautasso M (2008) Ants and people: a test of two mechanisms behind the large-scale human-biodiversity correlationfor Formicidae in Europe. Journal of Biogeography 35: 2195-2206Steck CE & Pautasso M (2008) Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries. Acta Oecologica 34: 303-310