An overview of plant epidemiology

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Biodiversity of plant pathogens, network epidemiology, a sample of plant pathologists, invasion ecology, plant-fungus network, climate change and plant pathogens, Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora ramorum, Sudden Oak Death,

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An overview of plant epidemiology

  1. 1. A Plant Epidemiology Overview Mike Jeger & Marco Pautasso*, Imperial College London 30 Nov 2009 * marpauta at gmail.com1. Invasion biology of plant pathogens 2. Networks in plant epidemiology3. Climate change and plant pathogens 4. Models of plant epidemics
  2. 2. Biodiversity of plant pathogensPhotos: American Phytopathological Society, www.apsnet.org - Online Resources
  3. 3. BSPP PhotoCompetitionSource:British Societyfor PlantPathology,www.bspp.org.uk/
  4. 4. BSPP PhotoCompetition (bis)Source:British Societyfor PlantPathology,www.bspp.org.uk/
  5. 5. A sample of plant pathologists Mary Olsen,Anna-Liisa Laine, Univ. of Arizona Caroline Mohammed,Helsinki Univ. Univ. of Tasmania Xiaoyun Lu, Cornell Univ. & Marie-Laure Desprez- Loustau, INRA, France Adrienne Yvonne Willi,Joan Webber, Hardham, ETHZ, CHForest Res., UK Jennifer Parke, Canberra Univ. Oregon State Univ.
  6. 6. Examples of invasions of plant pathogensFrom Brown & Hovmøller (2002) Science
  7. 7. Dispersal of the wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, in China. Photo by Yue Jin, US Dept. of Agriculture Map from Brown & Hovmøller (2002) Science
  8. 8. Phylogeography of Rhynchosporium secalisNetwork from Zaffarano et al. (2008) Molecular Ecology;Photo by Matthew Abang, ICARDA, Aleppo, Siria
  9. 9. Invasive fungal pathogens are a subset of invasive fungal speciesFrom Desprez-Loustau et al. (2007) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
  10. 10. Invasion biology of ectomycorrhizal speciesFrom Vellinga et al. (2009) New Phytologist
  11. 11. Antagonistic plant/fungus network based on a national inventory of parasitic fungiFrom Vacher et al. (2008a, b) PLoS One + Diversity & Distributions
  12. 12. Simple model of disease spread in a directed network pt probability of infection transmission pp probability of infection persistence node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 …nstep 1step 2step 3 …step n
  13. 13. Global patterns in fruiting seasons (season length vs. peak) N S S NFrom Ting et al. (2008) Global Ecology & Biogeography
  14. 14. Two apple pathogens likely to benefit from climate warmingDiplodia serrata Nectria galligenaFrom Weber (2009) Erwerbsobstbau
  15. 15. Predicted climate change effects on phoma stemcanker (Leptosphaeria maculans) on oilseed rape baseline baseline 2020 2020 2050 2050 Yield Yield lossFrom Butterworth et al. (2010) Journal of the Royal Society Interface
  16. 16. Courtesy of BarbaraHowlett, Univ. ofMelbourne, Australia
  17. 17. Spatial scale, agriculture, and climate changeFrom Ingram et al. (2008) Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
  18. 18. Early observations of potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Finlanddays after planting From Hannukkala et al. (2007) Plant Pathology
  19. 19. Potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in PeruFrom Garrett et al. (2009) Ecological Applications
  20. 20. Genome sequencing for Phytophthora infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorumFrom Haas et al. (2009) Nature
  21. 21. Geographical distribution of the Phytophthora infestans mating typesFrom Smart & Fry (2001) Biological Invasions
  22. 22. Questions addressed in (plant) epidemiologyFrom Archie et al. (2008) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
  23. 23. The basic SIR modelFrom Klein et al. (2008) Environment and Development Economics
  24. 24. SIR model with latency and static/dynamic hostFrom Madden (2006) European Journal of Plant Pathology
  25. 25. Podosphaera plantaginis in SW-Finland (2001-04)From Laine & Hanski (2006) Journal of Ecology
  26. 26. Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) in LithuaniaFrom Baranauskaite et al. (2008) Semdirbyste-Agriculture
  27. 27. Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) on applePhoto: Cornell University, USA
  28. 28. Fireblight (Erwinia amylovora) distribution (2008)From Wikimedia Commons, based on data fromOesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit
  29. 29. Fire blight epidemic development in Switzerland 1995 1999 2003 2007From: Eidgenössisches Volkswirtschaftsdepartement, Swiss Confederation
  30. 30. Stages of disease cycles considered by plant disease prediction models (1994–2006)From De Wolf & Isard (2007) Annual Review of Phytopathology
  31. 31. Life cycles for American chestnut (a) without / (b)recovering from /(c) with epidemicof chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) From Davelos & Jarosz (2004) Journal of Ecology
  32. 32. Pathogen evolution in agro-ecosystemsFrom Burdon & Thrall (2008) Evolutionary Applications
  33. 33. Emerging plant virusesFrom Rodoni (2009) Virus Research
  34. 34. ReferencesDehnen-Schmutz K, Holdenrieder O, Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2010) Structural change in the international horticultural industry: some implicationsfor plant health. Scientia Horticulturae 125: 1-15Harwood TD, Xu XM, Pautasso M, Jeger MJ & Shaw M (2009) Epidemiological risk assessment using linked network and grid based modelling:Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in the UK. Ecological Modelling 220: 3353-3361Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2008) Comparative epidemiology of zoosporic plant pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology 122: 111-126Jeger MJ, Pautasso M, Holdenrieder O & Shaw MW (2007) Modelling disease spread and control in networks: implications for plant sciences. NewPhytologist 174: 179-197MacLeod A, Pautasso M, Jeger MJ & Haines-Young R (2010) Evolution of the international regulation of plant pests and challenges for future planthealth. Food Security 2: 49-70Moslonka-Lefebvre M, Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2009) Disease spread in small-size directed networks: epidemic threshold, correlation betweenlinks to and from nodes, and clustering. J Theor Biol 260: 402-411Moslonka-Lefebvre M, Finley A, Dorigatti I, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Harwood T, Jeger MJ, Xu XM, Holdenrieder O & Pautasso M (2011) Networks inplant epidemiology: from genes to landscapes, countries and continents. Phytopathology 101: 392-403Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics & Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M (2010) Worsening file-drawer problem in the abstracts of natural, medical and social science databases. Scientometrics 85: 193-202Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change – some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M, Moslonka-Lefebvre M & Jeger MJ (2010) The number of links to and from the starting node as a predictor of epidemic size in small-size directed networks. Ecological Complexity 7: 424-432Pautasso M, Xu XM, Jeger MJ, Harwood T, Moslonka-Lefebvre M & Pellis L (2010) Disease spread in small-size directed trade networks: the role ofhierarchical categories. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 1300-1309Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the speciesrichness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280Xu XM, Harwood TD, Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2009) Spatio-temporal analysis of an invasive plant pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) in Englandand Wales. Ecography 32: 504-516

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