Applied ecology: forest pathogens


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Phytophthora ramorum, plant pathogens, Armillaria, Heterobasidion, Ophiostoma, Cronartium, forest pathology, dendrology, climate change, networks

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Applied ecology: forest pathogens

  1. 1. Applied Ecology, Forest Pathogens Mike Jeger & Marco Pautasso* 23 Nov 2009 *marpauta at gmail.com1. Phytophthora ramorum2. P. cinnamomi3. P. alni4. Armillaria spp5. Heterobasidion spp6. Cronartium ribicola7. Ophiostoma spp
  2. 2. Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum)Source: Center for Invasive Species Research, University of California at Riverside
  3. 3. Sudden Oak Death in California (Oct 2009)Source: SOD Mapper (red: confirmed; orange: to be confirmed)
  4. 4. Phytophthora ramorum in Northern CaliforniaSource:
  5. 5. Phytophthora ramorum eradication in Oregonfrom: Rizzo et al. (2005) Annual Reviews of Phytopathology, Photo: Clive Brasier
  6. 6. Spatial scale andSudden Oak Deathfrom: Condeso & Meentemeyer (2007) Journal of Ecologyand: Mascheretti et al. (2008) Molecular Ecology
  7. 7. Phytophthora ramorum in England & WalesSource: DEFRA
  8. 8. Phytophthora ramorum: epidemic simulationSource: Harwood et al. (2010) Ecological Modelling
  9. 9. Jarrah forest dieback in SW Australia due to Phytophthora cinnamomi Source: CSIRO, Australia
  10. 10. Jarrah Forest Dieback (Phytopthora cinnamomi), SW AustraliaSource: Department ofConservation and Land Management, Western Australia
  11. 11. Phytophthora cinnamomi in TasmaniaSource: Department ofPrimary Industries and Water, Tasmania, Australia
  12. 12. Dieback of Alnus incana, 2004, SouthwesternRocky Mountains From: Worrall (2009) Plant Disease
  13. 13. Phytophthora surveys in Alaska (Alnus decline)From: Adams et al. (2008)Plant Management Network
  14. 14. Pinus radiatamortality associatedwith Phytophthora pinifolia sp. nov., ChileFrom: Duran et al.(2008) Plant Pathology
  15. 15. Distribution of trees and stumps colonized byArmillaria ostoyae at a campground in Colorado Worrall et al. (2004) Forest Ecology and Management
  16. 16. Distri-bution ofgenets ofArmillaria spp inforests of Tessin (CH)Prospero et al. (2003) NewPhytologist
  17. 17. Armillaria/Heterobasidion in the Swiss National Parkfrom: Bendel et al. (2007) Mycological Research
  18. 18. Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria, Blue Mountains, OregonFerguson et al. (2003) Canadian Journal of Forest Research
  19. 19. Survey of Armillaria species in NY State Bludgett and Worrall (1992) Plant Disease
  20. 20. Survey of Armillaria species in NY StateDistribution of sites in New York Statein which Armillaria was found(empty squares) and in which Armillariawas not found (black triangles) Bludgett and Worrall (1992) Plant Disease
  21. 21. Armillaria records in New Zealand (A. limonea and A. novae-zelandiae) Source: ENSIS Forest Biosecurity, New Zealand
  22. 22. Distribution of Armillaria species in Japan Ota et al. (1998) Plant Disease
  23. 23. Global distribution of the Heterobasidion annosum complex (dark shaded areas) light shaded areas = H. araucariae; line drawing: H. insulareFrom: Asiegbu et al. (2005) Molecular Plant Pathology
  24. 24. Decay caused by Heterobasidion on the surface of an Abies sachalinensis stump (Japan) From: Tokuda et al. (2007) Forest Pathology
  25. 25. Heterobasidion disease centre in a stand of Pinus sylvestris, thinned 40 years ago (Lithuania) From: Lygis (2005) Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
  26. 26. Soil risk map for Heterobasidion annosum, SE USASource: Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture
  27. 27. Tree infected by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola)Source: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  28. 28. Urediniospores of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) on the lower side of a Ribes leafSource: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service
  29. 29. Source: Canadian Government, Taskforce on Invasive Species
  30. 30. White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) surveysKearns & Jacobi (2007) Canadian Journal of Forest Research
  31. 31. White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) surveysKearns & Jacobi (2007) Canadian Journal of Forest Research
  32. 32. Surveys of Ribes, alternate host of Cronartium ribicolaKearns et al. (2008) Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society
  33. 33. A conceptual model of the interactions ofwhitebark pine at the treeline with blister rust Tomback and Resler (2007) Physical Geography
  34. 34. Lifecycle of Dutch Elm DiseaseFrom: Agrios (1988) Plant Pathology. 3rd ed.
  35. 35. China as the origin of DutchElm Disease? Brasier (1990)Plant Pathology
  36. 36. Quantitative epidemiology of Dutch Elm Disease Gibbs (1978) Annual Review of Phytopathology
  37. 37. Distribution of subspp novo-ulmi and americana Brasier & Kirk (2001) Mycological Research
  38. 38. Damage due to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in Spain Source: Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Aigua, Urbanisme i Habitage
  39. 39. Damage due to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in DenmarkSource: Biopix, Denmark
  40. 40. Healthy elm trees in Princeton, New JerseyPlanted in the 1930s, these elm trees in Princeton, N.J., have not succumbed to Dutch elm disease. Source: NYTimes (2004)
  41. 41. ReferencesDehnen-Schmutz K, Holdenrieder O, Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2010) Structural change in the international horticultural industry: some implicationsfor plant health. Scientia Horticulturae 125: 1-15Harwood TD, Xu XM, Pautasso M, Jeger MJ & Shaw M (2009) Epidemiological risk assessment using linked network and grid based modelling:Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in the UK. Ecological Modelling 220: 3353-3361Holdenrieder O, Pautasso M, Weisberg PJ & Lonsdale D (2004) Tree diseases and landscape processes: the challenge of landscape pathology.Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19, 8: 446-452Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2008) Comparative epidemiology of zoosporic plant pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology 122: 111-126Lonsdale D, Pautasso M & Holdenrieder O (2008) Wood-decaying fungi in the forest: conservation needs and management options. EuropeanJournal of Forest Research 127: 1-22MacLeod A, Pautasso M, Jeger MJ & Haines-Young R (2010) Evolution of the international regulation of plant pests and challenges for future planthealth. Food Security 2: 49-70Moslonka-Lefebvre M, Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2009) Disease spread in small-size directed networks: epidemic threshold, correlation betweenlinks to and from nodes, and clustering. J Theor Biol 260: 402-411Moslonka-Lefebvre M, Finley A, Dorigatti I, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Harwood T, Jeger MJ, Xu XM, Holdenrieder O & Pautasso M (2011) Networks inplant epidemiology: from genes to landscapes, countries and continents. Phytopathology 101: 392-403Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics & Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M (2010) Worsening file-drawer problem in the abstracts of natural, medical and social science databases. Scientometrics 85: 193-202Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change – some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M, Holdenrieder O & Stenlid J (2005) Susceptibility to fungal pathogens of forests differing in tree diversity. In: Forest Diversity andFunction (Scherer-Lorenzen M, Koerner Ch & Schulze D, eds.). Ecol. Studies Vol. 176. Springer, Berlin, pp. 263-289Pautasso M, Moslonka-Lefebvre M & Jeger MJ (2010) The number of links to and from the starting node as a predictor of epidemic size in small-size directed networks. Ecological Complexity 7: 424-432Pautasso M, Xu XM, Jeger MJ, Harwood T, Moslonka-Lefebvre M & Pellis L (2010) Disease spread in small-size directed trade networks: the role ofhierarchical categories. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 1300-1309Xu XM, Harwood TD, Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2009) Spatio-temporal analysis of an invasive plant pathogen (Phytophthora ramorum) in Englandand Wales. Ecography 32: 504-516