Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation

298

Published on

How to keep up with the literature? How to stop the loss of biodiversity? How to study/predict/manage global change effects on agrodiversity? How to achieve interdisciplinarity? How to involve …

How to keep up with the literature? How to stop the loss of biodiversity? How to study/predict/manage global change effects on agrodiversity? How to achieve interdisciplinarity? How to involve stakeholders? How to learn from network theory? What can we learn from biogeography?

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
298
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Slide 21. Together, the National Survey and the trace-forward surveys resulted in P. ramorum detections in over 160 infested sites in more than 20 states. Plants have been destroyed in an attempt to eradicate the pathogen in all cases. However, some plants were sold before inspection. There is a risk that the pathogen may move from infected nursery stock planted in the landscape to nearby native forest vegetation. The goal of the PRED program is help find any additional infected plants in our landscapes and wildlands.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Outstanding challenges in the study of seed exchange networks inagrobiodiversity conservation Marco Pautasso marpauta at gmail.com CEFE, CNRS, 14 May 2012
    • 2. Seed exchange networks: defining the terms Intra-European Trade Organic seed of Ornamental Plants (2003)
    • 3. The talk is partly based on this review of the literature
    • 4. Challenge nr 1: how to keep up with the literature? A selection of recent reviews on agro- biodiversity conservation and/or seed exchange networks from Pautasso et al. (2012) Agr Sust Dev
    • 5. NETSEED-CESAB Agrobiodiversité et réseaux sociaux Une approche interdisciplinaire pour analyser comment les systèmes semenciers locaux agissent sur la diversité des plantes domestiquées NETSEED FRB-CESAB
    • 6. Challenge nr 2: how to stop the loss of biodiversity? aggregated indicators of A) species’ population trends, habitat extent and condition, and community composition B) ecological footprint, nitrogen deposition, alien species, overexploitation and climatic impacts C) protected area extent and biodiversity coverage, responses to invasive alien species, sustainable forest management and biodiversity-related aid 6000 5000 Web of Science papers number of papers 4000 on biodiversity 3000 2000 1000 0Butchart et al. (2010) Science 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
    • 7. CESAB (Centrefor Synthesisand Analysis ofBiodiversity data)Technopole del’Arbois (~ Aix en Provence) 3rd Call for CESAB Working Groups (deadline pre-registration 25 May 2012, deadline for submission end of June 2012)
    • 8. Average time spent travelling in the UK (1930s-1990s) Schulz (2004) Population & Environment
    • 9. [CO2]from MacKay (2008) Sustainable Energy – without the Hot Air
    • 10. Average temperature α [CO2] (a reminder) Shakun et al (2012) Nature
    • 11. Carbon emissions of conservation biologistsFox et al. (2009) Frontiers in the Ecology and the Environment
    • 12. Sustainable transport of seed(sorghum?) in Kathwana market, Kenya Picture: Christian Leclerc (CIRAD, Montpellier)
    • 13. Seed potato sources in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia Gildemacher et al. (2009) A description of seed potato systems inKenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. American Journal of Potato Research
    • 14. Maize seed sources in MexicoBellon et al. (2011) Assessing the vulnerability of traditional maize seed systems in Mexico to climate change. PNAS
    • 15. Challenge nr 3. How to study/predict/manage global change effects on agrodiversity?Pautasso et al. (2012) Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    • 16. Challenge nr 4. How to achieve interdisciplinarity? Kiss et al. (2010) Can epidemic models describe the diffusion of topics across disciplines? Journal of Informetrics
    • 17. Hypothetical network of interdisciplinary collaborations among scientists interested in seed exchange networksPautasso et al. (2012) Agronomy for Sustainable Development
    • 18. Challenge nr 5. Involving stakeholdersPautasso et al. (2012) European Journal of Plant Pathology
    • 19. Network analysis of barley seed flows in Ethiopia Abay et al. (2011) Plant Genetic Resources – Characterization and Utilization
    • 20. Network analysis of barley seed flows in Ethiopia N nodes = 186, N links = 210 data from: Abay et al. (2011) node ID links in links out 218 1 0 314 0 1 135 2 1 120 1 1 … 100 6 number of incoming links incomingnumber of nodes 80 5 links 4 60 outgoing links 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 number of links number of outgoing links
    • 21. Network structure and correlation between links in and out one-way random uncorrelated local scale-free two-ways small-world modified from: Keeling & Eames (2005) Interface
    • 22. Some recent applications of network theoryNetwork pictures from: NATURALNewman (2003)SIAM Review food webs cell metabolism neural Food web of Little Rock networks Lake, Wisconsin, US ant nests sexual partnerships DISEASE SPREAD family innovation networksInternet flows co-authorship HIVstructure railway urban road nets spread electrical networks networks network power grids telephone calls WWW computing airport Internet E-mail committees grids networks software maps patternsTECHNOLOGICAL SOCIALMoslonka-Lefebvre et al. (2011) Phytopathology
    • 23. Challenge nr 6. How to learn from network theory? Network Seed exchange epidemiology networks Elements movingthanks to a network pathogens/ seeds, varieties/ of contacts human beings farmers through awareDiffusion happens inadvertently decisions Main aim of minimizing preserving applied research disease spread agrobiodiversity Picture from Kaluza et al. (2010) Interface
    • 24. Simple model of spread and establishment in a network SIS deterministic model, 100 Nodes, fixed structure, absence/presence continuum P [i (x, t)] = Σ { pp * P [i (x, t-1)] + pt * P [i (y, t-1)]} node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 … 100 step 1 pp probability of pt probability of persistence transmission step 2 step 3 … step nMoslonka-Lefebvre et al. (2011) Phytopathology
    • 25. Lower invasion threshold for scale-free networks with positive correlation between in- and out-degree 1.00 localprobability of persistence random 0.75 small-world INVASION scale-free (two-way) scale-free (uncorrelated) 0.50 scale-free (one way) 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 NO INVASION probability of transmission from: Moslonka-Lefebvre et al. (2011) Phytopathology
    • 26. Lower epidemic threshold for two-way scale-free networks (unless networks are sparsely connected) N replicates = 100; error bars are St. Dev.; different letters show sign. different means at p < 0.05from: Moslonka-Lefebvre et al. (2009) Journal of Theoretical Biology
    • 27. 100 100 75 (local) 75 (sw)(N of nodes with invasion status > 0.01) 50 50 25 25 0 0 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 final size of invasion 100 100 (rand) 75 75 (sf2) 50 50 25 25 0 0 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 100 100 75 (sf0) 75 (sf1) 50 50 25 25 0 0 0 25 50 75 100 0 25 50 75 100 starting node of the invasion
    • 28. 2.0 3.0 1.5 local 2.5 swacross all nodes (+0.01 for sf networks) 2.0sum at equilibrium of invasion status 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 2 4 6 8 3.0 1.0 2.5 rand sf2 (log-log) 2.0 1.5 0.0 1.0 0.5 0.0 -1.0 -1 0 1 2 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2.0 2.0 1.5 sf0 (log-log) 1.5 sf1 (log-log) 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.5 -0.5 -1.0 -1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 n of links from starting node n of links from starting node
    • 29. Correlation of invasion final size with out-degree of starting node increases with network connectivityfrom: Pautassoet al. (2010)Ecological N replicates = 100; error bars are St. Dev.;Complexity different letters show sign. different means at p < 0.05
    • 30. Network analysis of barley seed flows in Ethiopia 100 10 100 12 80 Buket 10 80 8 Bolenta Mugulat Buket Aynalem Bolenta Mugulat Melfa number of nodes number of nodes number of nodes Habes 8 Aynalem Melfanumber of nodes Adinefas 60 6 Adinefas Habes 60 Habes Adinefas Melfa Adinefas Habes Aynalem 6 Melfa Aynalem Mugulat Bolenta 40 4 Buket bridges 40 Mugulat Bolenta Buket bridges 4 20 20 2 2 0 0 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 number of outgoing5links6 2 3 4 1 number of incoming links6 2 3 4 5 number of incoming links number of outgoing links data from: Abay et al. (2011)
    • 31. Network analysis of barley seed flows in Ethiopia 4 6 4 4 n = 11, y = -0.25x + 1.91 n = 14 n = 16 n = 11, y = 0.32x + 1.48 2 R = 0.29, p = 0.09 5 2 R = 0.32, p = 0.07 3 3 3 4 2 3 2 2 2number of incoming links 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 3 4 4 4 n = 92, y = -0.37x + 0.80 n=9 n = 19 n = 14, y = 0.32x + 1.33 2 2 R = 0.20, p < 0.01 R = 0.21, p = 0.10 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 number of outgoing links data from: Abay et al. (2011)
    • 32. What is an organization?Butts (2009) Revisiting the foundations of network analysis. Science
    • 33. Network metrics as a function of sampling intensity Dormann et al. (2009) The Open Ecology Journal
    • 34. Network analysis of barley seed flows in Ethiopia Abay et al. (2011) Plant Genetic Resources – Characterization and Utilization
    • 35. Orbis terrarum, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, ~27 a.C.from http://www.arqweb.com/vitrum/orbis22.asp
    • 36. from Jeger et al. 2011
    • 37. Living collections of the world’s botanical gardens (c)(a) (c) log10 spp richness (n) (d) (yr) (b) Size of countries reflects n of botanic gardens (d)b from: http://www.worldmapper.org/a, c & d: from: Pautasso & Parmentier (2007) Botanica Helvetica
    • 38. Botanic vs. linguistic diversity Burnside et al. (2011) Biological Reviews
    • 39. Species-people correlation in Europe plants birdsfrom Araujo (2003) sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeography people
    • 40. Invasion biogeography of Sudden Oak Death Trace forward/back zipcode Positive (Phytophthora ramorum) site Hold released from: McKelvey et al. (2007)Source: United States Department of Agriculture, 2004 SOD Science Symposium IIIAnimal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine
    • 41. Phytophthora ramorum in the UK and EuropeFrom: UK Forestry Commission (Feb 2012) and EFSA Plant Health Panel (2011)
    • 42. Species richness of human parasitic and infectious diseases as a function of latitude Burnside et al. (2011) Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology. Biological Reviews
    • 43. Challenge nr 7. What can we learn from biogeography?Freeman (2011) Domesticated crop richness in human subsistence cultivation systems:a test of macroecological and economic determinants. Global Ecology & Biogeography
    • 44. Scenarios to anticipate challenges to biodiversity, landscapes and public engagement with nature1) Connect for Life 2) Go for Growth3) Keep it Local4) Succeed Kass et al. (2012) through Journal of Applied Science Ecology
    • 45. A proposed model of on-farm plant genetic conservationSelection oftarget taxa On farm conservation Project commission Phase 1: Project Planning and Establishment • Identification of project site(s) Ecogeographic survey • Project sustainability Development of •Identification of project partners conservation objectives • Formulation of project activities Field exploration Phase 2: Project Management and Monitoring • Initiation of project activities • Monitoring activities Conservation products • Review of project activities Product deposition and Phase 3: Diversity Utilisation dissemination • Traditional, general and Characterization / professional utilization evaluation • Links to ex situ conservation, Plant genetic resource research and education utilization redrawn from: Maxted et al. (2002) Towards a methodology for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
    • 46. Challenge nr 8. How to identify research priorities?
    • 47. Identifying research priorities and emerging issues
    • 48. Identifying research priorities and emerging issues Grierson et al. (2011)
    • 49. Seven means of identifying research priorities (they are neither mutually exclusive nor exhaustive) (i) reflection by individual workshop participants, (ii) reviews of the peer-reviewed and gray literature by individual workshop participants, (iii) informal discussions between workshop participants and colleagues, (iv) use of email, blogs, tweets, Facebook, and other electronic mechanisms for social networking, (v) facilitating a workshop with colleagues, (vi) assigning students to generate material as a class assignment, and (vii) an interactive website. Sutherland et al. (2011) Methods in Ecology & Evolution
    • 50. Question requirements…(i) answerable through a realistic research design,(ii) that have a factual answer that does not depend on value judgments,(iii) that address important gaps in knowledge,(iv) of a spatial and temporal scope that reasonably could be addressed by a research team,(v) not formulated as a general topic area,(vi) not answerable with it all depends, (vii) except if questioning a precise statement (‘does the earth go round the sun?’)(vii) should not be answerable by yes or no (i.e. not ‘is X better for biodiversity than Y’),(viii) if related to impact and interventions, contains a subject, an intervention, and a measurable outcome.An ideal question suggests the design of research that is required to answer it or can be envisioned as translating the question into directly testable research hypotheses. Sutherland et al. (2011) Methods in Ecology & Evolution
    • 51. Challenge nr 9. How to promotea diversity of research methods? Pautasso et al. (2012) Agr Sust Dev
    • 52. Three results from recent game theory studies 1. cooperation is more likely to persist in an Droz et al. (2009) European interacting population Physical Journal B if cooperating individuals are mobile2. cooperation benefits from diversity in the number of social Santos et al. (2009)interactions and in the Journal of Theoretical Biology choice of role models to imitate 3. higher amount of Kaplan et al. (2012) exchanges in high Proceedings of the Royal Society Bvariance environments
    • 53. Summary of challenges1. Keeping up with the literature 2. Stopping biodiversity loss 3. Global change interactions 4. Interdisciplinarity 5. Involving stakeholders 6. Network theory 7. Large-scale picture 8. Identifying research priorities 9. Diversity of methods
    • 54. Don’t miss the ISE sessions S28 and S10on Thursday 24 May at the Botanical Institute 13th Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology, 20-25 May 2012, Montpellier “Cultural diversity and biological diversity for sustainable development: exploring the past to build up the future”
    • 55. A forum of 25 researchers selected by the European Commission in April 2012 http://voice.euraxess.org/Please send your suggestions! marpauta at gmail.com
    • 56. Samedi 19 Mai,Mas Drevon, Montpellier, 17h
    • 57. Acknowledgements Diego Kevin Fontaneto, Gaston,Mike McKinney, Verbania Cornwall IngridKnoxville Susanne Fritz, Parmentier, Frankfurt BrusselsPeterWeisberg, Glen Powell, Mathieu Wye Moslonka- Mike Jeger, Caroline LorenzoReno Pecher, Lefebvre, Paris Silwood Marini, Bozen UppsalaOttmar Alessandro Birgit & Florian Schlick- Chiarucci, TomHoldenrieder, Claude Steck, Harwood,Zurich Freiburg i.B. Steiner, Innsbruck Siena Canberra
    • 58. Life cycle assessment for walnut seedling production Cambria & Pierangeli (2011) A life cycle assessment case study for walnut tree (Juglans regia L.) seedlings production. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
    • 59. Life cycle assessments of the US food system Heller & Keoleian (2003) Assessing the sustainability of the US food system: a life cycle perspective. Agricultural Systems
    • 60. Genetic structure of a rice landrace in Northern Thailand Pusadee et al. (2009) Genetic structure and isolation by distance in a landrace of Thai rice. PNAS
    • 61. Regression model of n of spp per homegarden, PeruPerrault-Archmibault & Coomes (2008) Distribution of agrobiodiversity in home gardens along the Corrientes river, Peruvian Amazon. Economic Botany
    • 62. „Wealth“ Biogeographical patterns of the living collections GDP SPP of the world’s botanic gardens „combined“Hypothesis: Rich countries have rich gardens GDP AGE „Garden“ LAT SPP POP AGE SPP AREA FLORA AREA Hyp.: There‘s a combination of processes Hyp.: Garden characteristics matter most „Flora“ LAT SPP FLORAHyp.: Diverse garden mirror a rich country flora Golding et al. (2010) Annals of Botany
    • 63. „Wealth“ Biogeographical patterns .48 R² = .22 of the living collections GDP SPP of the world’s botanic gardens „combined“ „Garden“ GDP .30 AGE .68 .28 R² = .21 R² = .44 .43 .19AGE SPP LAT SPP POP -.59 .31 .21 -.11AREA AREA FLORA Significant at alpha 0.05 „Flora“ LAT .47 R² = .22 Non-significant; P > 0.05 -.55 .01 SPPFLORA Golding et al. (2010) Annals of Botany

    ×