Guidelines for effective participation in small group communication:
Center conflict of issues
Your participation value == group’s goals and member satisfaction
Lead to better solution
Your individuality is not discarded, don’t give up the personal values.
Center Conflict on Issues
Conflict in small group situations leads to miscommunication
If everything is thinking alike, then everybody is thinking
• Share, hear and see before you conclude/decide
• Be willing to revise your suggestions during the discussion
• Receive the comments from the members in effective way
• Evaluate before you accept or reject any suggestion
• Support your comments with reasons and objectives
Make sure all participants get what you are trying to say
“ Everything is clear?”
“ Any Questions”
“ If there is anything you can’t understand, please ask me”
“ As I understand, you want to teach us how to ask questions during discussion, right?”
“ So you mean we have to preface our disagreement points, correct?”
“ What about if I …….?”
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Leaders in small group communication
What is a leader?
What defines them?
Why do we need them?
How to be a good leader?
Do have what it takes to be a leader?
Hamada Bin Yusof
The Traits Approach: Definition
The possession of certain traits that society sees as leadership traits.
It was once believed that people were born with these certain traits.
Focuses on the leaders and not the followers.
Emphasizes that having a leader with a certain set of traits is crucial to having effective leadership.
Characteristics of Trait Approach:
It supports the general image in the society that leaders are a special kind of people who can do extraordinary things. People have a need to see their leaders as gifted people, and the trait approach fulfills this need.
The trait approach has a long research tradition and a significant body of research data that support this approach.
The trait approach focuses only on the leader and analysis very thoroughly this component in the leadership process.
The trait approach has given us some benchmarks for what we need to look for if we want to be leaders.
The approach has not fixed a definitive list of leadership traits and the list that has emerged seems endless.
The approach has failed to take situations into account.
There has much subjective interpretation of the meaning of the data and data is not always based on reliable research.
The trait approach is weak in describing how leaders' traits affect the outcomes of groups and teams in organizations.
Traits are largely fixed psychological structures and this limits the value of teaching and leadership training.
The Functional Approach: Definition
Concentrates on how leadership occurs, rather than focusing on who does the leading
Leadership is a distributed function
Focus on how instead of who
Pro & Cons:
Keep the individual’s focus on how to influence their team’s behaviour instead of how to exert their authority.
Somehow resulting in inefficiency because they may not have the authority to make needed changes
The Situational Approach: Definition
There is no single “best” style of leadership
Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influence, but it will also depend on the task, job or function that needs to be accomplished.
Hersey-Blanchard: Task Behaviour and Relationship Behaviour Theory. S1 & R1: Telling - is characterized by one-way communication in which the leader defines the roles of the individual or group and provides the what, how, when, and where to do the task. S2 & R2: Selling - while the leader is still providing the direction, he or she is now using two-way communication and providing the socio-emotional support that will allow the individual or group being influenced to buy into the process. S4& R4: Delegating - the leader is still involved in decisions; however, the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. The leader stays involved to monitor progress. S3& R3: Participating - this is now shared decision making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing less task behaviours while maintaining high relationship behaviour.
Leadership Styles: Laissez-Faire Leader
Pro & Cons:
Working for a laissez faire leader gives the followers many opportunities to make decisions.
However the lack of direction can lead to anarchy if it is allowed to remain in place for an extended period of time.
Allows followers to have complete freedom to make decisions concerning the completion of their work or ask questions of the leader.
The leader provides the followers with the materials they need to accomplish their goals and answers questions to the follower's questions.
Leadership Styles : Democratic Leader
Pro & Cons:
Without a trained or motivated group, this leadership fails.
Stifles the abilities of a single genius within the group.
The democratic process takes time--which at times can be costly.
Favours decision-making by the group as shown, such as leader gives instruction after consulting the group.
Easy to win the cooperation of their group and can motivate them effectively and positively.
Leadership Styles : Authoritarian Leader
Pro & Cons:
Has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager.
It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group.
The autocratic leader uses manipulation, threat, or force to accomplish his tasks.
Fails to develop leadership in subordinates.
Lack of sensitivity to the feelings of others, thus discourage people from doing their work.
All decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictator leaders.
They do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates.
Leader’s Function: Task and people
Start Group interaction
There are many groups needs some prodding stimulation to interact. Perhaps the group is newly formed members feel uneasy. In this situation, leader should serves an important function by stimulating the members to interact.
Maintain Effective Interaction
Leader should keep that all members are maintaining interaction; moreover, the leader needs to ensure that all members have an opportunity to express themselves.
Abdusamad Ahmad Suliman
Guide Members through the Agreed-Upon Agenda
It involves following reasonably orderly sequence of events as identified in the agenda of formal outline of the tasks to be accomplished by the group.
Ensure Members Satisfaction
Members have different psychological needs and wants; for this view, members may have come together more for psychological than any reason.
Encourage Ongoing Evaluation And Improvement
All group encounter obstacle as they try to solve a problem to get decision, or generate idea. There is no group totally effective. All groups have room for improvement.
Prepare Members For Discussion
Groups from gradually and need to be eased into meaningful discussion. A leader should prepare members for the small group for discussion of a specific issue or problem.
what's the major reason of preparing members for discussion?
Members compete for leadership position.
Members fail to agree on the criteria for judging proposal and solutions.
When the members are reticent to express themselves.
When they take disagreement personally.
Members lack affiliation; if not, they leave the group.
The pressure to conform; members may be pleasant to each other and may be not; therefore, they will legitimate disagreement and might won't conform.
When members misunderstanding the nature of the problem and reject accurate information.
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT GROUPTHINK
“ A way of thinking that group members engage in when agreement becomes all-important and overrides logical and realistic evaluation”.
BEHAVIORS LEAD TO GROUPTHINK
Limiting group discussion about solutions
Not reexamining the decisions
Avoid talking about rejected certain initial alternatives
Group members think the group and its members are invulnerable.
Members create rationalizations to avoid dealing with warnings or threats.
Members believe their group is moral.
Group pressure is applied to any member who expresses doubts or questions the group’s arguments or proposals.
Members censor their own doubts.
Group members believe all are in unanimous agreement, whether this is stated or not.
Group members emerge whose function it is to guard the information that gets to other members, especially when it may create diversity of opinion.
Small Group Member roles are Group Task roles , Group Building and Maintenance roles , Individual roles .
Interaction process analysis categorizes contributions into four area: social-emotional positive , social-emotional negative , attempted answer , and question .
Member participation should be Group-oriented , should center conflict on issues , should be critically open-minded , and should ensure understanding .
Three major leadership style are laissez-faire , democratic , authoritarian .
Among the leaders task function are:
To start group interaction
Maintain effective interaction
Guide members through the agreed-on agenda
Ensure member satisfaction
Encourage ongoing evaluation and improvement
Prepare member for discussion
Has a sense of humor
Sets a good example
Thanks for MRS NAZIRA for her kindness and lovely teaching method that she is so opened for the difficult people all the time. Thank you خیلی ممنون Thanks for your teaching and patience, and your hospitality, keep up the good work! You are fantastic. Terima Kasih شكرا