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Modals of obligation

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  • 1. MODALS OF OBLIGATION MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD, OUGHT TO
  • 2. OBLIGATION or STRONG RECOMMENDATION We use must (do) and have to (do) to say that it is necessary to do something. e.g. Well, it’s 11 o’clock. I must/have to go now, I have a meeting at 11,30.
  • 3. There is sometimes a DIFFERENCE between must and have to. - With MUST the speakers are giving their own feelings, saying what they think is necessary: e.g. I must send an e-mail to Liz. I haven’t written to her since Christmas. e.g. I must study English if I want to pass the exam. - With HAVE TO the speakers are not giving their feelings. They are just giving facts : e.g. I can’t come on Saturday, I have to work. e.g. Students have to wear uniforms at this school.
  • 4. BUT, NOTE: You can only use must to talk about the present and future: e.g. We must go now. e.g. You must be on time tomorrow Have to, however, can be used in all forms : e.g. I had to leave the party early because I felt ill. e.g. What do I have to do to get a degree in Economics?
  • 5. Keep fit http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 6. You must keep fit! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 7. Put the rubbish in the bin http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 8. You must put rubbish in the bin! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 9. Speak English in class http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 10. You must speak English in class! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 11. Pay taxes http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 12. You have to pay taxes! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 13. Have a passport to travel to Africa http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 14. You have to have a passport to travel to Africa! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 15. Wear a uniform http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 16. They have to wear a uniform! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 17. PROHIBITION You mustn’t do something means it is prohibited that you do it. e.g. You mustn’t tell anyone what I said. e.g. You mustn’t smoke.
  • 18. Eat junk food http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 19. You mustn’t eat junk food! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 20. Use your phone http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 21. You mustn’t use your phone! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 22. Sleep in class http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 23. You mustn’t sleep in class! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 24. ABSENCE OF OBLIGATION You don’t have to do something means it is not necessary to do it. e.g. I can stay in bed tomorrow because I don’t have to go to school.
  • 25. Get up early at the weekend http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 26. You don’t have to get up early at the weekend! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 27. Work on holiday http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 28. You don’t have to work on holiday! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 29. ADVICE or OPINION We use should (do) and ought to (do) to give advice or say what you think is a good or a bad thing to do. e.g. You shouldn’t smoke so much. e.g. That cyclist should be wearing a helmet. * Should and ought to are very similar, and can often replace each other. But should is much more frequent than ought to.
  • 30. Take warm clothes if you go to Dublin http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 31. You should take warm clothes if you go to Dublin in winter! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 32. Drink so much coffee http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/
  • 33. You shouldn’t drink so much coffee! http://efllecturer.blogspot.com/