Modal verbs of deduction

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Modal verbs of deduction

  1. 1. Modal verbs of deduction
  2. 2. may / might /could : you think something is possibly true can’t : you are sure something is impossible / not true must : you are sure something is true
  3. 3. Is Sally at home now?
  4. 4. We use indicative tenses to say what we know
  5. 5. Sally is at home now. I know
  6. 6. We use modals when we suppose, deduce, imagine
  7. 7. Sally must be at home now. I suppose
  8. 8. The choice of modal verb says how certain we are
  9. 9. Sally may might could can’t must be at home now.
  10. 10. Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. it’s possible
  11. 11. Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. I’m sure she isn’t (even if I don’t know)
  12. 12. Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. I’m convinced (even if I don’t know)
  13. 13. Notice the opposites!!
  14. 14. Sally must be at home now. Sally can’t be at home now.
  15. 15. Modal verbs of deduction have a continuous form
  16. 16. Something may might could can’t must be working.
  17. 17. Use the continuous infinitive after the modal
  18. 18. continuous infinitive be working be speaking be thinking etc.
  19. 19. But, be careful!!
  20. 20. Sometimes the meaning changes depending on whether you use the simple or the continuous infinitive
  21. 21. e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French.
  22. 22. e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French. he doesn’t know how
  23. 23. e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French. I don’t believe he’s doing it
  24. 24. Modal verbs of deduction have a past form
  25. 25. Something may might could can’t must have worked.
  26. 26. Use the perfect infinitive after the modal
  27. 27. perfect infinitive have worked have spoken have thought etc.
  28. 28. But, be careful!!
  29. 29. Other meanings of the modals don’t use the perfect infinitive
  30. 30. e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French.
  31. 31. e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French. he didn’t know how when he was younger
  32. 32. e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French. I don’t believe he spoke in French
  33. 33. Let’s practise
  34. 34. Convert continuous modals to perfect and perfect modals to continuous
  35. 35. continuous modal perfect modal She might be calling. They can’t have studied. He must be going by bus. She won’t have cooked dinner. He will be wearing the jacket. They won’t have taken their exams. I must be dreaming it. They may have argued. He can’t be choosing. You must have paid a lot. She will be enjoying her holiday.
  36. 36. continuous modal perfect modal She might be calling. She might have called. They can’t be studying. They can’t have studied. He must be going by bus. He must have gone by bus. She won’t be cooking dinner. She won’t have cooked dinner. He will be wearing the jacket. He will have worn the jacket. They won’t be taking their exams. They won’t have taken their exams. I must be dreaming it. I must have dreamt it. They may be arguing. They may have argued. He can’t be choosing. He can’t have chosen. You must be paying a lot. You must have paid a lot. She will be enjoying her holiday. She will have enjoyed her holiday.
  37. 37. Let’s put all that into practice http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/es/grammar-reference/modals-deduction-present http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/modal-verbs-of-probability-exercise-1.html

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