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Modal verbs of deduction
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Modal verbs of deduction

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    Modal verbs of deduction Modal verbs of deduction Presentation Transcript

    • Modal verbs of deduction
    • may / might /could : you think something is possibly true can’t : you are sure something is impossible / not true must : you are sure something is true
    • Is Sally at home now?
    • We use indicative tenses to say what we know
    • Sally is at home now. I know
    • We use modals when we suppose, deduce, imagine
    • Sally must be at home now. I suppose
    • The choice of modal verb says how certain we are
    • Sally may might could can’t must be at home now.
    • Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. it’s possible
    • Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. I’m sure she isn’t (even if I don’t know)
    • Sally may might could can’t must be at home now. I’m convinced (even if I don’t know)
    • Notice the opposites!!
    • Sally must be at home now. Sally can’t be at home now.
    • Modal verbs of deduction have a continuous form
    • Something may might could can’t must be working.
    • Use the continuous infinitive after the modal
    • continuous infinitive be working be speaking be thinking etc.
    • But, be careful!!
    • Sometimes the meaning changes depending on whether you use the simple or the continuous infinitive
    • e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French.
    • e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French. he doesn’t know how
    • e.g. He can’t speak French. He can’t be speaking in French. I don’t believe he’s doing it
    • Modal verbs of deduction have a past form
    • Something may might could can’t must have worked.
    • Use the perfect infinitive after the modal
    • perfect infinitive have worked have spoken have thought etc.
    • But, be careful!!
    • Other meanings of the modals don’t use the perfect infinitive
    • e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French.
    • e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French. he didn’t know how when he was younger
    • e.g. He couldn’t speak French. He can’t have spoken in French. I don’t believe he spoke in French
    • Let’s practise
    • Convert continuous modals to perfect and perfect modals to continuous
    • continuous modal perfect modal She might be calling. They can’t have studied. He must be going by bus. She won’t have cooked dinner. He will be wearing the jacket. They won’t have taken their exams. I must be dreaming it. They may have argued. He can’t be choosing. You must have paid a lot. She will be enjoying her holiday.
    • continuous modal perfect modal She might be calling. She might have called. They can’t be studying. They can’t have studied. He must be going by bus. He must have gone by bus. She won’t be cooking dinner. She won’t have cooked dinner. He will be wearing the jacket. He will have worn the jacket. They won’t be taking their exams. They won’t have taken their exams. I must be dreaming it. I must have dreamt it. They may be arguing. They may have argued. He can’t be choosing. He can’t have chosen. You must be paying a lot. You must have paid a lot. She will be enjoying her holiday. She will have enjoyed her holiday.
    • Let’s put all that into practice http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/es/grammar-reference/modals-deduction-present http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/modal-verbs-of-probability-exercise-1.html