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Introduction to bonding• An attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.• Atoms form chemical bonds to become stable.
Ionic bonding• Ionic bonds are formed between cation and ion. Ionic bonds is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.• Greater charge = Greater electrostatic attraction; stronger bond = Higher melting point
Ionic Bonding Continued• The size of the ions also affect the melting point! Ionic solids don’t conduct electricity!
Covalent Bonds• When atoms bond covalently they count a share in the pair of electrons in the covalent bond as two electrons in their counter shell.• A single covalent bond is when two electrons are shared between atoms. A double band is when four electrons are shared and a triple is when six electrons are shared.
Covalent Bonds Continued• A sigma bond is the end to the end overlap of the bonding orbitals, usually hybrid orbitals. The sigma bond is a single bond. A pi bond is the side to side overlap of hybridized p- orbitals. Together they form a double bond.• As bond length decreases, bond dissociation energy increases.
Metallic Bonds• A metallic bond is formed when atoms of metal group together to for a crystal.• Alloys- a homogeneous mixture or solid solution of two or more metals, the atoms of one repulsing or occupying interstitial positions between atoms of others.