• Public or private schools
• Ability grouping
• Home and community environments
• Teacher and student expectations
STRATIFICATION – It refers to our position
in the society.
- Upper class
- Middle class
- Lower class
According to Max Weber
Class – described as a multidimensional
concept which is determined by three
major variable: wealth, power, and
Wealth – refers to one’s
property, capital, and income.
Power – implies the ability to make major
decisions or to influence others to act in
Occupation is a main factor in one’s
prestige. Esucation affects occupational
status, and income is closely associated
Two opposing theories of stratification are
most often used to explain the unequal
class system in our society:
Functionalist (consensus) theory
According to this
perspective, each part of society is related
to each other part in the total society. In
order to maintain a working balance
between the parts, the system has certain
requirements and agreed-upon rules.
People are induced to do what society
needs done, motivated to fulfill roles by
extrinsic rewards (money, prestige)
The importance of a particular role and
scarcity of qualified persons to fill the role
determine the prestige ranking of position.
For instance, doctors are seen as more
important than bartenders, and have more
prestige and higher pay.
Those positions which are most complex
and important require the most talent and
training—that is, education---are the most
They believe that problems in the
educational system stem from the conflicts
in the society as a whole. Education is but
one part of a system which is based on
―have‖ and ―have-not‖.
Reproductionists, revisionists, and neo-
Marxists – stemming from the idea that the
upper-middle class ―conspires‖ to perpetuate
their own class interests by limiting access to
educational opportunities for other groups.
―Cultural Capital‖ - Parents provide their
children with cultural capital by transmitting
the attitudes and knowledge needed to
succeed in the current educational system.
Equal opportunity exists when all
people, even those without
status, wealth, or membership in a
privileged group,have an equal chance of
achieving a high socioeconomic status in
society regardless of their sex, minority
status, or social class.
Equal opportunity (James Coleman)
Providing free education
Provide common curriculum
Provide that children from diverse
backgrounds attend the same school
Concept of equality of educational
opportunity means providing equal
facilities, finances for schools and
availability of schooling.
Public vs Private Schools
Tracking and Ability grouping
Home Environment Effects on Educational
Achievement and Stratification