• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Interactivity, games and gamification  creating engaged learners
 

Interactivity, games and gamification creating engaged learners

on

  • 627 views

Karl Kapp's deck for Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners

Karl Kapp's deck for Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners

Statistics

Views

Total Views
627
Views on SlideShare
624
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0

1 Embed 3

http://www.linkedin.com 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Interactivity, games and gamification  creating engaged learners Interactivity, games and gamification creating engaged learners Document Transcript

    • 8/5/2012Interactivity, Games and Gamification: Creating Engaged Learners By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction August 7, 2012Twitter:@kkapp 1
    • 8/5/2012Torn from the book… 2
    • 8/5/2012 Google “Kapp Notes” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning 3
    • 8/5/2012 Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 What elements from games can be added to traditional e-learning? 4
    • 8/5/2012 Let’s PlayFact or Fishy… 5
    • 8/5/2012 How to Play• I’ll make a statement.• You decide if the statement is a “Fact” or if it’s not really true (false) “Fishy.”• Use whiteboard feature to write your initials in the appropriate column.• See how many you can get correct. 6
    • 8/5/2012 Do you understand what to do for the Fact or Fishy Game?Fact Fishy 7
    • 8/5/2012 Let’s PlayFact or Fishy 8
    • 8/5/2012When compared to traditional training, game/simulation training yields a 9% higher retention rate . Fact Fishy 9
    • 8/5/2012 Fact Retention % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.” 10
    • 8/5/2012 Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was Retention level of activity in the game. % Higher Type of Knowledge Retention 9% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Declarative 11%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.” 11
    • 8/5/2012Game/Simulations must to be entertaining to be educational. Fact Fishy 12
    • 8/5/2012 Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? FISHY, NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.” 13
    • 8/5/2012 Simulation/games build more confidence for on the jobapplication of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Fact Fishy 14
    • 8/5/2012 Fact: Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. 20% higher confidence levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-basedsimulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction.” 15
    • 8/5/2012Instructional games are most effective when embedded ininstructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Fact Fishy 16
    • 8/5/2012 Fact: Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Engagement Instructional support to help learners understandEducational the game increases how to use Simulation instructional effectiveness of the gaming Game experience. PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” 17
    • 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 18
    • 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 19
    • 8/5/2012Enspire Learning: http://www.enspire.com/ 20
    • 8/5/2012 Recommendations1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.2) Don’t focus on “entertainment.”3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase engagement and interactivity to increase learning. 21
    • 8/5/2012 Level of Interactivity Type of Type of Game Play Low Medium High Knowledge (Customer Taught Development)Exploration/Simulation $25,000- $35,000- $50,000- Problem-Engine/Free Play Area $35,000 $50,000 $150,000 SolvingBranching story, On-Line $10,000- $15,000- $30,000- ConceptualBoard Games $15,000 $30,000 $50,000 Knowledge/ RulesMatching, Trivia Games, $1,500- $3,000- $5,000- DeclarativeDrag and Drop Games $3,000 $5,000 $20,000 Knowledge/ Fact/Jargon 22
    • 8/5/2012 Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification 23
    • 8/5/2012 24
    • 8/5/2012 25
    • 8/5/2012 Some people think Gamification is only about points, badges and rewards.These are the least motivational and intrinsic elements of games and should not be the focus of the efforts of learning designers. 26
    • 8/5/2012 Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character• Recognition• Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback 27
    • 8/5/2012 Elements ofGames that Aid Learning• Story• Character Recognition•• NOT Enough Time  Levels• Challenges• Chance• Replayability• Aesthetics• Time• Continual Feedback 28
    • 8/5/2012 Three Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Characters2. Story3. Challenges 29
    • 8/5/2012We’ve Always Wanted Characters 30
    • 8/5/2012The use of on-screen characters to present information to alearner interferes with the learner’s performance more thanjust having text on the screen. Fact Fishy 31
    • 8/5/2012 FISHY: On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton” 32
    • 8/5/2012 Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (characters) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” 33
    • 8/5/2012When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, thetone and conversational style needs to be formal. Fact Fishy 34
    • 8/5/2012 FISHY: When audio is used and a character talks to the learner, the tone and conversational style needs to be INFORMAL and conversational.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 195. www.karlkapp.com 35
    • 8/5/2012The use of two characters, one as a coach and one as an expertis better than just having one a character (mentor). Fact Fishy 36
    • 8/5/2012 Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and ExpertInstruction” 37
    • 8/5/2012http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/ 38
    • 8/5/2012http://codebaby.com/elearning-solutions/examples/ 39
    • 8/5/2012 Recommendations• Use characters/agents to model desired behavior.• Use characters/agents to provide feedback and instruction to learners.• Characters should speak in a natural, conversational tone.• Use two characters, one for coaching and one for expertise is better than just having one character trying to do both. 40
    • 8/5/2012Story 41
    • 8/5/2012Learners tend to remember facts more accurately if theyencounter them in a bulleted list rather than in a story. Fact Fishy 42
    • 8/5/2012FISHY: Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Greenhttp://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html. Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning andInstruction. 43
    • 8/5/2012 Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Ten sion 4. Resolution5. Conclusion 44
    • 8/5/2012NikePlus Stats for Karl 45
    • 8/5/2012 46
    • 8/5/2012Presenting learners with a challenging task is not a goodtechnique for generating learner engagement. Fact Fishy 47
    • 8/5/2012 FISHY: Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technologyfor educational reform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventingbetter schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Chapter 2“The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” 48
    • 8/5/2012Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge 49
    • 8/5/2012 Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Describe and Follow the Investigation Model 50
    • 8/5/2012It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do? 51
    • 8/5/2012Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison 52
    • 8/5/2012 Recommendations• Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.• Start the learning process by providing a challenge to the learner.• Provide a progression from simple to more difficult tasks.• Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome. 53
    • 8/5/2012 54
    • 8/5/2012 55
    • 8/5/2012 First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction. 56
    • 8/5/2012 Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading.Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal ofCommunications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction. 57
    • 8/5/2012 Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.3) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.4) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.5) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them.8) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.9) Games can be more influential than reading about a subject.10) (What did you take away?...write in chat.) 58
    • 8/5/2012Questions ? Twitter:@kkapp kkapp@bloomu.edu 59