PTG-E Congress 2008 Microbe Hunters GI Lecture

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This is a short summary of year 2008 knowledge concerning the role of gut microbiota in human disease.

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  • Figure 1. Tickling Toll-like Receptors (TLRs). Commensal bacteria secrete TLR ligands such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, which interact in the normal intestine with a population of surface TLRs. The resultant basal signaling, which is normally ongoing, enhances the ability of the epithelial surface to withstand injury while also priming the surface for enhanced repair responses. Because many types of cells on the surface of the intestine -- epithelial cells, lymphocytes between the epithelial cells, subepithelial mesenchymal cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells -- express TLRs, it is not known whether this critical homeostatic mechanism is maintained by the cell populations that also respond by means of TLRs when the surface is breached. Either the disruption of TLR signaling or the removal of TLR ligands compromises the ability of the intestinal surface to withstand insult and effect repair.
  • PTG-E Congress 2008 Microbe Hunters GI Lecture

    1. 1. ŁOWCY MIKROBÓW 2008 w poszukiwaniu teorii wszystkiego Wojciech Marlicz Klinika Gastroenterologii PAM, Szczecin Kongres PTG-E Gdańsk 13-15 czerwiec 2008
    2. 2. „ The dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes.” 1. Mietchnikoff E. The prolongation of life. Optimistic studies. London: Butterworth Heinemann, 1907 2. Pasteur L. et al.: Summary report of the experiments conducted at Pouilly-le-Fort, near Melun, on the anthrax vaccination, 1881.
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    4. 4. Jama ustna Żołądek Dwunastnica Jelito czcze Jelito kręte Jelito grube Odbyt Lactobacilli 1-100/g Lactobacilli 1x10 2 /g Streptococci 1x10 4 /g Lactobacilli Streptococci Enterobacteria Bifidobacteria Yeasts 1x10 5 /g 1x10 6 /g Bifidobacteria Lactobacilli Streptococci Bacteroides Enterobacteria 1x10 5 /g 1x10 8 /g Bacteroides Eubacteria Bifidobacteria Anaerobic cocci Clostridia Lactobacilli Enterobacteria Streptococci 1x10 10 /g 1x10 11 /g
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    8. 9. Wilson I.: Top-down versus bottom-up rediscovering physiology via Systems biology? Molecular Systems Biology, 2007, May, 3, 113
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    10. 11. Siebler J. et al.: The gut-liver-axis: Endotoxemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and NASH. J Hepatology, 2008; 48, 1030-1034 Thalheimer U et al.: Infection, coagulation and variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. GUT, 2005; 54; 556-563
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    14. 17. Bjerrum JT et al. (2008) Technology Insight: metabonomics in gastroenterology—basic principles and potential clinical applications Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol doi:10.1038/ncpgasthep1125   The relationship between the different 'omics' and their interaction via defined biologic processes
    15. 18. Metabonomika - to nowa dziedzina zajmująca się całościową oceną dynamicznych zmian metabolicznych zachodzących w organizmach żywych. Marchesi JR et al.: Rapid and noninvasive metabonomic characterization of inflammatory bowel disease. J Proteome Res 2007; 6: 546-551 Saric J et al.: Species variation in the fecal metabolome gives insight into differential gastrointestinal function. J Proteome Res 2008; 7: 352-360
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    19. 24. Sleator and Hill: Designer probiotics: a potential therapeutic for Clostridium difficile ? J Med Microbiol. 2008; 57: 793-794 TURBO Probiotyki Lactococcus lactis Thy 12 Steidler et al.: Treatment of murine colitis by Lactococcus lactis Secreting interleukin-10. Science 2000; 289 (5483):1352-5 Vandenbroucke K et al.: Active delivery of trefoil factors by genetically modified Lactoccus lactis prevents and heals acute colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 204; 127(2):502-13 Braat H et al.: A phase I trial with transgenic bacteria expressing interleukin-10 in Crohn’s disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4(6):754-9

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