Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Sleep disorders pysch

  • 733 views
Published

 

Published in Health & Medicine
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
733
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Sleep Disorders Types & Treatments Monday, May 21, 12 1
  • 2. Sleep Disorders •Primary Sleep Disorders: -Dyssomnias - Insomnia - Narcolepsy - Breathing-Related Sleeping Disorders - Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders -Parasomnias - Nightmares - Night Terrors - Sleepwalking - Sleep Paralysis Monday, May 21, 12 ivation toll p depr eatest • Slee it’s gr ilities. akes t tive ab cogni on shown s have ugh sleep Studie h eno • hat wit ion the t privat ill become de als w ntually anim d eve sick an die. 2
  • 3. Insomnia •Difficulty falling asleep & staying asleep. •Not due to direct effects of substance use or general medical condition. •About 60 million Americans have chronic insomnia. •Affects 40% of women and 30 % of men. •Acute or Chronic •Treatment: medication or behavior modification. Monday, May 21, 12 3
  • 4. Monday, May 21, 12 4
  • 5. Chronic Causes of Insomnia Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 6. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 7. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 8. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 9. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 10. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apnea Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 11. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apnea • Restless leg syndrome Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 12. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apnea • Restless leg syndrome • Poor sleep hygiene Monday, May 21, 12 5
  • 13. Insomnia Treatment Monday, May 21, 12 6
  • 14. Insomnia Treatment Lifestyle changes often can help relieve acute (short-term) insomnia. These changes might make it easier to fall asleep and stay asleep. A type of counseling called cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help relieve the anxiety linked to chronic (ongoing) insomnia. Anxiety tends to prolong insomnia. Several medicines also can help relieve insomnia and re-establish a regular sleep schedule. Monday, May 21, 12 6
  • 15. Sleep Apnea Repeated stoppage in breathing during sleep Caused by lack of breathing drive (central) or by blockage (obstructive) Signs/Symptoms: Snoring, headaches, fatigue, poor sleep, chronic congestion, irritability, obesity, sexual dysfunction Monday, May 21, 12 Treatment: Continual Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), Lifestyle Changes, and Surgery. 7
  • 16. Medications • Albuterol • Corticosteroids • Attention Deficit Disorder Meds (e.g. Ritalin) • SSRIs (antidepressants) • Decongestants (Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine) • Caffeine • “Diet pills" • Nicotine • Phenytoin (seizure medication) • Chemotherapy (cancer medications) • Beta-blockers (high blood pressure meds) • Thyroid medications Monday, May 21, 12 8
  • 17. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder •Persistent pattern of sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia due to mismatch between sleepwake schedule. •Obvious distress/impairment in social and occupational settings. Delayed Sleep Phase Type An unnatural sleeping pattern created by falling asleep late and waking up late which eventually establishes an inability to fall asleep and awaken at a desired earlier time. Monday, May 21, 12 9
  • 18. Narcolepsy •Narcolepsy (NAR-ko-lep-se) is a disorder that causes periods of extreme daytime sleepiness due to trouble sleeping at night and is sometimes accompanied by paralysis and hallucinations • Hallucinations: Vivid, life-like dreams that occur while falling asleep or waking up. • Sleep paralysis: This condition prevents you from moving or speaking while waking up and sometimes while falling asleep. Last from a few seconds to a few minutes. Monday, May 21, 12 10
  • 19. Narcolepsy Causes Hypocretin (hi-po-KREET-in), a chemical in the brain that helps promote wakefulness. Most people who have narcolepsy have low levels of this chemical. What causes these low levels is unknown. sy? rcolep Na isk for and tR o Is A ts men gin ec Wh lly be sy af f lep usua Narco dult ptoms . Sym ung a n r yo wome teen o also can t he en , during e disorder childr Th or in years. later in life 5. velop re age de befo s rare but it' Possible factors include: •Heredity. Some people may inherit a gene that affects hypocretin. Up to 10% of people who have narcolepsy report having a relative with the same symptoms. •Infections •Brain injuries caused by brain tumors, strokes, or trauma. •Autoimmune disorders •Low levels of histamine, a substance in the blood that promotes wakefulness. Monday, May 21, 12 11
  • 20. Narcoleptic Cataplexy Cataplexy (KAT-ahplek-se) This condition causes a sudden loss of muscle tone while you're awake. Muscle weakness can affect certain parts of your body or your whole body. For example, if cataplexy affects your hand, you may drop what you're holding. It may last seconds or minutes. Monday, May 21, 12 12
  • 21. Sleepwalking (somnambulism) Sleepwalking is a disorder that occurs when people walk or do another activity while they are still asleep. •Sleepwalking most often occurs during deep, non-REM sleep, early in the night. •Sleepwalking happens most often in children ages 5 - 12. •The episode can last from a few seconds to over 30 minutes. Monday, May 21, 12 Symptoms of sleepwalking include: •Confusion/disorientation when woken up. •A blank look on their face. •Opening their eyes while still asleep. •No memory of the episode. •Performing a detailed activity of any type while still asleep. 13
  • 22. Sleep Paralysis •In the early stages of sleep. •A person suddenly wakes up and is aware of their surroundings, but cannot move. •Treated with antidepressants and SSRI’s Monday, May 21, 12 14
  • 23. Night Terrors Night terrors (sleep terrors) are a sleep disorder in which a person quickly wakes from sleep in a terrified state. •The cause is unknown, but night terrors may be triggered by: •Fever •Lack of sleep •Periods of emotional tension, stress, or conflict. •Frightening movies or TV shows. Monday, May 21, 12 •Most common in children ages 3 - 7 between midnight and 2 a.m. •A person may remember the details of the dream and will not be disoriented after the episode. •Treatment: Reducing stress may reduce night terrors. 15
  • 24. Nightmares Prevalence by Age Group • Extremely frightening dreams that occur in REM sleep. • Less intense then sleep terrors. Young Adults 3% Adults 47% 3-5 Year Olds 50% • Person rapidly becomes aware and alert almost immediately after waking up. Monday, May 21, 12 16
  • 25. Restless Leg Syndrome Neurological disorder that is characterized by unpleasant sensations of legs and an urge to move them when at the rest. •The unpleasant feelings are described as creeping, crawling, pulling, itching, tingling, burning, aching, or electric shocks. •The urges to move happen when the body is at rest and inactive. Thus, being worse in the evening which can cause chronic sleep disturbances and sleep deprivation. •Causes: Mostly unknown (idiopathic) •Treatment: underlying cause, some meds, and exercise. Monday, May 21, 12 17
  • 26. Sleep Hygiene Monday, May 21, 12 18
  • 27. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Monday, May 21, 12 Try to limit caffeine intake. 18
  • 28. Sleep Hygiene ✓ ✓ Monday, May 21, 12 Try to limit caffeine intake. Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) 18
  • 29. Sleep Hygiene ✓ ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Monday, May 21, 12 Try to limit caffeine intake. Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature. 18
  • 30. Sleep Hygiene ✓ ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature. ✓ Monday, May 21, 12 Try to limit caffeine intake. Minimize light exposure. 18
  • 31. Sleep Hygiene ✓ ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature. ✓ Minimize light exposure. ✓ Monday, May 21, 12 Try to limit caffeine intake. Try to follow a regular and consistent sleep schedule. 18
  • 32. Sources Monday, May 21, 12 19