1 UCI ExtensionPaper-Based TOEFL WorkshopSentences with More Than One Clause Structure and Written Expression Skills 6-8 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida
[Kittensare cute.] [The studentshave been studying in the library.]
These sentences have more than one clause:
[Kittensare cute,] [but spidersaren’t.] (2 clauses) [The students[whohave been studying]are tired] [because studyingis hard work.] (3 clauses) Now let’s look at several different ways to join two clauses.
One way to join two clauses is by using acoordinate connector(also called a coordinating conjunction).
You can remember these connectors by thinking of the word FANBOYS. (Their first letters spell out this word.)
For* We will remember you, for you have helped us greatly. And The sun is shining, and the birds are singing. Nor* He never smiled, nor did he laugh. But I was looking for my book, but I couldn’t find it. Or Did you do your homework, or did you forget? Yet You look familiar, yet I can’t remember your name. So I don’t have any money, so I can’t buy anything. *For sounds rather formal or poetic. In everyday speech, we don’t use it often as a coordinate connector. (Of course, we often us it as a preposition: This is for you.) *Notice the inverted order of subject and verb in a clause that begins withnor.
We can also join two clauses by using a subordinating conjunction, such as after, because, if,although, and many others. For example:
I’ll do my homework after I watch TV. No, you need to do your homework before you watch TV. Whenever I do my homework, I watch TV. If you watch TV, you won’t be able to concentrate. I can concentrate even though I’m watching TV! Unless you turn off the TV, you’ll get a bad grade on your test because you won’t remember anything. OK. I’ll turn off the TV since you think it’s important. Good. Now that you’ve turned off the TV, you’ll be able to study.
A clause that begins with a word like before, after, or because is called an adverb clause.It often answers one of these questions: When? Why? How? Where?
Adverb clauses are also subordinate clauses.* An adverb clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It needs an independent clause to go along with it to be a complete sentence.
[I’m going to take a break] [because I’ve been studying hard.] [Because I’ve been studying hard.] *There are also other kinds of subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, noun clauses, etc. Independent clause + Dependent clause = Complete sentence Just a dependent clause = Not a complete sentence
With subordinating conjunctions, you can move the subordinate clause to the beginning of the sentence:
[I’ll wear a jacket] [because it’s cold]. OK [Because it’s cold] , [I’ll wear a jacket]. OK [I get sleepy] [whenever I listen to music]. OK [Whenever I listen to music] , [I get sleepy]. OK [I’d buy a new car] [if I were rich]. OK [If I were rich] , [I’d buy a new car]. OK
We can also join two clauses with a conjunctive adverb. These are words like however, therefore, or consequently. These words are sometimes called transitions. For example:
Bob says he speaks ten languages; however, I don’t believe him. Bob says he speaks ten languages. However, I don’t believe him. Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully. Homework is important. Therefore, I’ll do it carefully. The bus was late; consequently, I was late for class. The bus was late. Consequently, I was late for class.
A conjunctive adverb goes between the two clauses it connects.
Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully. OK Therefore, I’ll do it carefully; homework is important. No!
Think about the meaning of the conjunctive adverb and make sure you attach it to the right clause. It has to make sense.
It’s raining; therefore, I’ll take an umbrella. This makes sense, and the grammar is correct too. I’ll take an umbrella; therefore, it’s raining. The grammar is fine, but this doesn’t make sense. The umbrella didn’t cause the rain.
Put a semicolon after the first clause and a comma after the conjunctive adverb:
Bob says he’s a millionaire; however, I don’t believe him. Or you can put a period after the first clause and a comma after the conjuctive adverb: Bob says he’s a millionaire. However, I don’t believe him.
Sometimes a conjunctive adverb comes in the middle of a clause. Then it has commas before and after it.
Bob says he’s a millionaire. I, however, don’t believe him. The cost of gas has increased. Many drivers, therefore, will use their cars less often. semicolon comma period capital letter comma commas
16 Summary In this section, you have learned how to make these kinds of clauses:
Two clauses joined by a coordinate connector
Adverb clauses with subordinating conjunctions