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Suprasegmentals:
                               Part 1
                                      Marla Yoshida
               ...
What are segmental and
              suprasegmental features?
• Segmental features of pronunciation:
    The individual so...
Is this really important?
• Yes. If we want our speech to be understood,
  suprasegmental features are just as important
 ...
Now let’s look at the main
      suprasegmental features of
      English.




•Next slide   •Previous slide   •Title slid...
Suprasegmental Features of English
                      Part 1
• Adjustments in connected speech
• Syllables and word str...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• In normal speech, people don’t pronounce
   each word as a separate, individual unit. Th...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
There’s a general principle at work:
• The Law of Economy: Your mouth doesn’t
   want to w...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Students don’t necessarily have to produce all
   of these changes all the time, but the...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Here’s an example. If we say this sentence very
   slowly and carefully, it sounds like ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Contractions and blends: Sometimes two words
    blend together to make a shorter word.
...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one
   word is often linked or blended with...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
  • Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one
     word is often linked or blended ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When two identical consonants come
   together, they merge and lengthen.




•N...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When two identical consonants come
   together, they merge and lengthen.



   ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When two similar consonants come
   together, they also blend together.
• When ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When two similar consonants come
   together, they also blend together.
• When ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/,
   or /çy/ and the next word begins with ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/,
   or /çy/ and the next word begins with ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: In the same way, when one word ends
   in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Linking: In the same way, when one word ends
   in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Assimilation: Sometimes a sound becomes more
   similar to a sound that comes before or ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• In assimilation, most often, the second sound
    causes the first to change:
           ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Less often, the first sound causes the second
     sound to change.
• -s and -ed endings:...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• In another kind of assimilation, two sounds blend
    together to make a new sound.
• /s...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Deletion: In normal speech, a sound may
   disappear or not be clearly pronounced in
   ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Some very common expressions have
    shortened forms with some sounds deleted:
        ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• In some words, an unstressed syllable is
    deleted.
         • chocolate              ...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• In certain combinations of three or more
 consonants, the middle sound can be deleted.*
...
Adjustments in Connected Speech
• Students sometimes hesitate to use these
   sound changes. Teachers have told them that
...
What are syllables?
• A syllable is a rhythmic unit. It’s a unit of sound
  that gets one “beat” in a word.
• A syllable h...
For example...
• “Eye” has one syllable (just one vowel
  sound: /ay/)
• “Strength” also has one syllable (three
  consona...
Practice Counting Syllables
• How many syllables do these words have?




•Next slide   •Previous slide   •Title slide   •...
Practice Counting Syllables
• How many syllables do these words have?
          teacher                                  2...
Word Stress
• In English, every polysyllabic word* has one
   stressed syllable.
• The stressed syllable is emphasized. It...
Word Stress
• In English, every polysyllabic word* has one
   stressed syllable.
• The stressed syllable is emphasized. It...
Word Stress
• Which syllable is stressed in each of these
   words?




•Next slide   •Previous slide   •Title slide   •Wo...
Word Stress
• Which syllable is stressed in each of these
   words?

   elephant                                        EL...
Word Stress
• In addition to the main stress, some words also
   have a syllable with weaker stress (like the
   second sy...
Word Stress
• In addition to the main stress, some words also
   have a syllable with weaker stress (like the
   second sy...
Word Stress
• For the purpose of teaching pronunciation,
   primary stress is very important, but
   secondary stress is m...
Word Stress
• The vowels in unstressed syllables often
   become less distinct than in stressed syllables.
• Many (but not...
Word Stress
• The vowels in unstressed syllables often
   become less distinct than in stressed syllables.
• Many (but not...
Word Stress
• It’s important for unstressed syllables to be
   much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps
   the list...
Word Stress
• It’s important for unstressed syllables to be
   much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps
   the list...
Word Stress
• Sometimes a change in word stress indicates a
   change in the part of speech:
                             ...
Word Stress
• But this doesn’t work with all noun/verb pairs.
   Often the stress stays the same:
                        ...
Word Stress
• There are rules that can predict where the
   stress will fall in many words. They take into
   account...
 ...
Sentence Stress
• Just as every polysyllabic word has one
    strongly stressed syllable, every sentence or
    clause has...
Rhythm
• Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of
 stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in
 an utterance.
• Music ...
Rhythm
• Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of
 stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in
 an utterance.
• Music ...
•Next slide   •Previous slide   •Title slide   •Word stress   •Sentence stress   •Rhythm   •Adjustments in connected speech
Rhythm
• Some languages have a very regular rhythm.
 Each syllable gets about the same amount of
 stress.
     N N N N N N...
Rhythm
• English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a
 stress-timed language. This means that the time
 between stressed ...
Rhythm
• English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a
 stress-timed language. This means that the time
 between stressed ...
Rhythm
• Languages that give each syllable about the
 same amount of time are called syllable-timed
 languages.


• Speake...
Rhythm
• Languages that give each syllable about the
 same amount of time are called syllable-timed
 languages.

         ...
Reduced forms of words
• Because English is a syllable-timed language,
 unstressed syllables tend to be very short and
 in...
• For example, the preposition “to” is /tuw/ when
 we speak slowly and carefully, but /t´/ when we
 speak at a normal spee...
• All the things we’ve learned about in this
 section work together to give English its
 characteristic rhythm. Stressed s...
Summary of Part 1
• Suprasegmental features are the aspects of
   pronunciation that affect more than just one
   sound se...
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Suprasegmentals Part 1 2nd Ed

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  • 'is not' written as 'isn't' is contraction.
    'is not' pronounced as /iznt/ is blending.
    Contraction is to Grammar as blending is to Phonetics.
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  • Transcript of "Suprasegmentals Part 1 2nd Ed"

    1. 1. Suprasegmentals: Part 1 Marla Yoshida University of California Irvine Extension English & Certificates for Internationals Teaching English as a Foreign Language Certificate Program Second Edition •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    2. 2. What are segmental and suprasegmental features? • Segmental features of pronunciation: The individual sounds (phonemes) of a language–vowels and consonants. • Suprasegmental features of pronunciation: Aspects of pronunciation that affect more than just one sound segment, such as stress, rhythm, and intonation*–the musical aspects of pronunciation. • * We’ll learn about intonation in Suprasegmentals Part 2. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    3. 3. Is this really important? • Yes. If we want our speech to be understood, suprasegmental features are just as important as the pronunciation of individual sounds. • In the classroom, we need to help our students learn about and practice both individual sounds and the overall musical pattern of the language. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    4. 4. Now let’s look at the main suprasegmental features of English. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    5. 5. Suprasegmental Features of English Part 1 • Adjustments in connected speech • Syllables and word stress • Sentence stress (introduction) • Rhythm These topics are in Suprasegmentals Part 2: • Thought groups / Intonation units • Sentence Stress / Prominence • Intonation •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    6. 6. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In normal speech, people don’t pronounce each word as a separate, individual unit. The words blend together, change, and are shortened. • This is not sloppy, lazy, or incorrect. It’s just normal, natural speech. • Adjustments in connected speech occur in all languages, although not always in the same way. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    7. 7. Adjustments in Connected Speech There’s a general principle at work: • The Law of Economy: Your mouth doesn’t want to work any harder than it has to, so it tries to blend all the sounds together. • On the other hand, listeners need to be able to hear the difference between different sounds, or they won’t understand what you’re saying. • Our mouths have to find a balance when we speak: Comfortable, but not too sloppy. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    8. 8. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Students don’t necessarily have to produce all of these changes all the time, but they really need to understand them when they hear them. And whenever they listen to real English, they will hear them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    9. 9. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Here’s an example. If we say this sentence very slowly and carefully, it sounds like this: Don’t you think we are going to have fun? • If we say it at a normal speed, it sounds like one long, blended word, like this: /downtS´TIèNkwIrg´n´hQvf√èn / There are several types of adjustments in connected speech. Let’s look at some of them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    10. 10. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Contractions and blends: Sometimes two words blend together to make a shorter word. is+not = isn’t that+is = that’s I+am = I’m • If the two-word combination is written as one word with an apostrophe, we call it a contraction. (isn’t, that’s, I’m) • If it’s not commonly written as one word, we call it a blend. (this’ll, these’d, when’d) • It’s not important to remember the difference between a contraction and a blend. For pronunciation purposes, it’s OK to think of them as basically the same thing. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    11. 11. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one word is often linked or blended with the first sound of the next word so that the two words sound like one unit. • For example, a word-final consonant usually links to a following vowel: •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    12. 12. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one word is often linked or blended with the first sound of the next word so that the two words sound like one unit. • For example, a word-final consonant usually links to a following vowel: I foun dout that pronunciatio nis fun. found out pronunciation is C+V C+V •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    13. 13. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two identical consonants come together, they merge and lengthen. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    14. 14. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two identical consonants come together, they merge and lengthen. My sonnneedsa pet tiger. son needs a petttiger. C+C C+C (Not really!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    15. 15. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two similar consonants come together, they also blend together. • When two stops come together, the first is not released. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    16. 16. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two similar consonants come together, they also blend together. • When two stops come together, the first is not released. My petcat will eatthe mouse. pet cat will eat the mouse. C+C C+C (Well, maybe.) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    17. 17. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/, or /çy/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /y/ sound between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    18. 18. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/, or /çy/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /y/ sound between them. y y We’ll be able to say it well. /iy/+V /ey/+V (We already can!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    19. 19. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In the same way, when one word ends in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /w/ sound between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    20. 20. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In the same way, when one word ends in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /w/ sound between them. w w Blue is now in fashion. /uw/+V /aw/+V (I like blue.) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    21. 21. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Assimilation: Sometimes a sound becomes more similar to a sound that comes before or after it. This makes the words easier to pronounce. • Every language has some kind of assimilation, although not all languages use assimilation in exactly the same way. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    22. 22. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In assimilation, most often, the second sound causes the first to change: • have to /voiced+voiceless > /hQft´/ hQv tuw/ > both voiceless • in May /In mey/ > /Immey/ alveolar+bilabial > both bilabial • in Koreaalveolar+velar / >> /INkçriy´/ /In kçriy´ both velar • This is called “regressive assimilation” or “anticipatory assimilation.” You don’t have to remember those names. Just remember “assimilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    23. 23. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Less often, the first sound causes the second sound to change. • -s and -ed endings: The endings are voiced after a voiced sound, voiceless after a voiceless sound. • bags /bQgz/ moved /muwvd/ voiced+voiced voiced+voiced • backs voiceless+voiceless /bQks/ fished /fISt/ voiceless+voiceless • This is called “progressive assimilation” or “perseverative assimilation.” You don’t have to remember those names. Just remember “assimilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    24. 24. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In another kind of assimilation, two sounds blend together to make a new sound. • /s/+/y/=/S/ miss you /mIsyuw/ > /mISuw/ • /z/+/y/=/Z/ please you /pliyzyuw/ > /pliyZuw/ • /t/+/y/=/tS/ don’t you /downtyuw/ > /downtSuw/ • /d/+/y/=/dZ/ did you /dIdyuw/ > /dIdZuw/ • /ts/+/y/=/tS/ wants you /wAntsyuw/ > /wAntSuw/ • /dz/+/y/=/dZ/ needs you /niydzyuw/ > /niydZuw/ • This is called “coalescent assimilation.” These are examples of a kind of coalescent assimilation called “palatalization” or “assibilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    25. 25. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Deletion: In normal speech, a sound may disappear or not be clearly pronounced in certain contexts. This is also called “omission.” • In English, contractions are the most familiar example of deletion: • cannot > can’t is not > isn’t • we are > we’re he is > he’s • they will > they’ll I would > I’d •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    26. 26. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Some very common expressions have shortened forms with some sounds deleted: • going to > “gonna” /g´n´/ • want to > “wanna” /wAn´/ • should have > “shoulda” /SUd´/ • Remember that “gonna,” “wanna,” etc. are acceptable, normal forms in speech, but we don’t normally write them this way. We should write the full forms: “going to” and “want to.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    27. 27. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In some words, an unstressed syllable is deleted. • chocolate > /tSAkl´t/ • interesting > /Intr´stIN/ • aspirin > /Qspr´n/ • restaurant > /rEstrAnt/ • family > /fQmliy/ • If you like big words, you can call this process “syncope” /sINkowpiy/. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    28. 28. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In certain combinations of three or more consonants, the middle sound can be deleted.* restless /rEstl´s/ > /rEsl´s/ months /m´nTs/ > /m´ns/ hands /hQndz/ > /hQnz/ exactly /EgzQktliy/ > /EgzQkliy/ sixth spot /sIksTspAt/ > /sIksspAt/ ask Scott /QskskAt/ > /QsskAt/ * You can’t delete the first or last consonant–only the middle one. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    29. 29. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Students sometimes hesitate to use these sound changes. Teachers have told them that they should pronounce every word carefully, and it seems that this should be their goal. But in order to sound really natural, words need to be blended, reduced or shortened. • It’s good to reassure students that these sound changes are natural and acceptable, but at the same time, we shouldn’t try to force students to produce them all. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    30. 30. What are syllables? • A syllable is a rhythmic unit. It’s a unit of sound that gets one “beat” in a word. • A syllable has a vowel. It might also have one or more consonants before the vowel and one or more consonants after it. • Or a syllable can have a syllabic consonant. That’s a consonant that’s stretched out and acts as a vowel. For example, the last syllable in “button” or “bottle” is usually pronounced as a syllabic consonant. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    31. 31. For example... • “Eye” has one syllable (just one vowel sound: /ay/) • “Strength” also has one syllable (three consonants, one vowel, two consonants: /strENT/) • “Potato” has three syllables: po-ta-to /p´ tey tow/ • “Pronunciation” has five syllables: pro-nun-ci-a-tion /pr´ n´n siy ey S •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    32. 32. Practice Counting Syllables • How many syllables do these words have? •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    33. 33. Practice Counting Syllables • How many syllables do these words have? teacher 2: teach-er reliable 4: re-li-a-ble sports 1: sports book 1: book responsibility 6: re-spon-si-bil-i-ty watched 1: watched wanted 2: want-ed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    34. 34. Word Stress • In English, every polysyllabic word* has one stressed syllable. • The stressed syllable is emphasized. It can be longer, louder, and higher in pitch than the others. It stands out from the others. * Polysyllabic words have more than one syllable. (“Poly” means “many.”) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    35. 35. Word Stress • In English, every polysyllabic word* has one stressed syllable. • The stressed syllable is emphasized. It can be longer, louder, and higher in pitch than the others. It stands out from the others. SYL la ble * Polysyllabic words have more than one syllable. (“Poly” means “many.”) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    36. 36. Word Stress • Which syllable is stressed in each of these words? •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    37. 37. Word Stress • Which syllable is stressed in each of these words? elephant EL e phant giraffe gi RAFFE hippopotamus hip poPOTa mus •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    38. 38. Word Stress • In addition to the main stress, some words also have a syllable with weaker stress (like the second syllable in “responsibility.”) • We can call these degrees of stress: • primary stress (strongly stressed) • secondary stress (weakly stressed) • unstressed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    39. 39. Word Stress • In addition to the main stress, some words also have a syllable with weaker stress (like the second syllable in “responsibility.”) re spon si BIL i ty • We can call these degrees of stress: • primary stress (strongly stressed) • secondary stress (weakly stressed) • unstressed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    40. 40. Word Stress • For the purpose of teaching pronunciation, primary stress is very important, but secondary stress is much less important. If students can get the primary stress in the right place and make the other syllables unstressed, they can be understood easily. • Because of this, we’ll only talk about stressed and unstressed syllables in the rest of this section. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    41. 41. Word Stress • The vowels in unstressed syllables often become less distinct than in stressed syllables. • Many (but not all) unstressed syllables contain the vowel /´/ (called “schwa”). •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    42. 42. Word Stress • The vowels in unstressed syllables often become less distinct than in stressed syllables. • Many (but not all) unstressed syllables contain the vowel /´/ (called “schwa”). POTa mus hip po /hIp´pAt´m´s/ ´ ´ ´ •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    43. 43. Word Stress • It’s important for unstressed syllables to be much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps the listener recognize the whole stress pattern of the word. • In this example, there’s not enough contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables... •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    44. 44. Word Stress • It’s important for unstressed syllables to be much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps the listener recognize the whole stress pattern of the word. • In this example, there’s not enough contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables... hip po pot a mus •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    45. 45. Word Stress • Sometimes a change in word stress indicates a change in the part of speech: Noun Verb (stress on first syllable) (stress on last syllable) record REcord reCORD progress PROgress proGRESS present PREsent preSENT •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    46. 46. Word Stress • But this doesn’t work with all noun/verb pairs. Often the stress stays the same: Noun Verb report rePORT rePORT travel TRAvel TRAvel comfort COMfort COMfort •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    47. 47. Word Stress • There are rules that can predict where the stress will fall in many words. They take into account... • the historical origin of a word • its prefixes and suffixes • its grammatical function in a sentence • However, these rules are very complex, and it’s not a good idea to try to teach all the details to students. It’s just too much! •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    48. 48. Sentence Stress • Just as every polysyllabic word has one strongly stressed syllable, every sentence or clause has one syllable that receives the strongest stress. This is called sentence stress. • There will be more details about sentence stress, or prominence, in Suprasegmentals Part 2. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    49. 49. Rhythm • Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in an utterance. • Music has rhythm... • Every language has its own rhythm, too. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    50. 50. Rhythm • Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in an utterance. • Music has rhythm... • Every language has its own rhythm, too. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    51. 51. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    52. 52. Rhythm • Some languages have a very regular rhythm. Each syllable gets about the same amount of stress. N N N N N N N N • Other languages have a more irregular rhythm. Some syllables receive a lot of stress and time, N N N N N N N N N N •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    53. 53. Rhythm • English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a stress-timed language. This means that the time between stressed syllables remains fairly steady, and the unstressed syllables have to crowd in between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    54. 54. Rhythm • English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a stress-timed language. This means that the time between stressed syllables remains fairly steady, and the unstressed syllables have to crowd in between them. N N N N N N N N N N PronunciAtion is FAS c i n a t i n g . •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    55. 55. Rhythm • Languages that give each syllable about the same amount of time are called syllable-timed languages. • Speakers of syllable-timed languages sometimes have trouble making the rhythm of English sound natural. They tend to pronounce all the syllables with the same amount of stress. (Please forgive my bad pronunciation of this Japanese tongue twister!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    56. 56. Rhythm • Languages that give each syllable about the same amount of time are called syllable-timed languages. N N N N N N N • Speakers of syllable-timed languages sometimes have trouble making the rhythm of English sound natural. They tend to pronounce all the syllables with the same amount of stress. (Please forgive my bad pronunciation of this Japanese tongue twister!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    57. 57. Reduced forms of words • Because English is a syllable-timed language, unstressed syllables tend to be very short and indistinct. This helps form the rhythm of English. • Many words that are often unstressed–articles, prepositions, and other function words–are usually pronounced with reduced forms. • These reduced forms are a normal part of natural speech. They don’t mean that the speaker is sloppy or lazy. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    58. 58. • For example, the preposition “to” is /tuw/ when we speak slowly and carefully, but /t´/ when we speak at a normal speed: “Go to school.” • Here are some more examples: • and /Qnd/ > /n`/ bread and butter • or /çr/ > /‘/ coffee or tea • of /´v/ > /´/ cup of coffee • than /DQn/ > /n`/ better than ever • him /hIm/ > /Im/ help him • them /DEm/ > /´m/ help them •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    59. 59. • All the things we’ve learned about in this section work together to give English its characteristic rhythm. Stressed syllables stand out. Unstressed syllables squeeze in between the stressed syllables, and sound changes make articulation easier so that regular timing can be maintained. This helps produce the “music” of English. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
    60. 60. Summary of Part 1 • Suprasegmental features are the aspects of pronunciation that affect more than just one sound segment. They include: • Adjustments in connected speech • Syllables and word stress • Sentence stress • Rhythm •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
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