Suprasegmentals Part 1  2nd Ed
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Suprasegmentals Part 1 2nd Ed

on

  • 7,256 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
7,256
Views on SlideShare
7,255
Embed Views
1

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
392
Comments
1

1 Embed 1

http://www.pinterest.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Apple Keynote

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • 'is not' written as 'isn't' is contraction.
    'is not' pronounced as /iznt/ is blending.
    Contraction is to Grammar as blending is to Phonetics.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />
  • <br />

Suprasegmentals Part 1 2nd Ed Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Suprasegmentals: Part 1 Marla Yoshida University of California Irvine Extension English & Certificates for Internationals Teaching English as a Foreign Language Certificate Program Second Edition •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 2. What are segmental and suprasegmental features? • Segmental features of pronunciation: The individual sounds (phonemes) of a language–vowels and consonants. • Suprasegmental features of pronunciation: Aspects of pronunciation that affect more than just one sound segment, such as stress, rhythm, and intonation*–the musical aspects of pronunciation. • * We’ll learn about intonation in Suprasegmentals Part 2. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 3. Is this really important? • Yes. If we want our speech to be understood, suprasegmental features are just as important as the pronunciation of individual sounds. • In the classroom, we need to help our students learn about and practice both individual sounds and the overall musical pattern of the language. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 4. Now let’s look at the main suprasegmental features of English. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 5. Suprasegmental Features of English Part 1 • Adjustments in connected speech • Syllables and word stress • Sentence stress (introduction) • Rhythm These topics are in Suprasegmentals Part 2: • Thought groups / Intonation units • Sentence Stress / Prominence • Intonation •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 6. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In normal speech, people don’t pronounce each word as a separate, individual unit. The words blend together, change, and are shortened. • This is not sloppy, lazy, or incorrect. It’s just normal, natural speech. • Adjustments in connected speech occur in all languages, although not always in the same way. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 7. Adjustments in Connected Speech There’s a general principle at work: • The Law of Economy: Your mouth doesn’t want to work any harder than it has to, so it tries to blend all the sounds together. • On the other hand, listeners need to be able to hear the difference between different sounds, or they won’t understand what you’re saying. • Our mouths have to find a balance when we speak: Comfortable, but not too sloppy. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 8. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Students don’t necessarily have to produce all of these changes all the time, but they really need to understand them when they hear them. And whenever they listen to real English, they will hear them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 9. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Here’s an example. If we say this sentence very slowly and carefully, it sounds like this: Don’t you think we are going to have fun? • If we say it at a normal speed, it sounds like one long, blended word, like this: /downtS´TIèNkwIrg´n´hQvf√èn / There are several types of adjustments in connected speech. Let’s look at some of them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 10. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Contractions and blends: Sometimes two words blend together to make a shorter word. is+not = isn’t that+is = that’s I+am = I’m • If the two-word combination is written as one word with an apostrophe, we call it a contraction. (isn’t, that’s, I’m) • If it’s not commonly written as one word, we call it a blend. (this’ll, these’d, when’d) • It’s not important to remember the difference between a contraction and a blend. For pronunciation purposes, it’s OK to think of them as basically the same thing. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 11. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one word is often linked or blended with the first sound of the next word so that the two words sound like one unit. • For example, a word-final consonant usually links to a following vowel: •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 12. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In normal speech, the last sound of one word is often linked or blended with the first sound of the next word so that the two words sound like one unit. • For example, a word-final consonant usually links to a following vowel: I foun dout that pronunciatio nis fun. found out pronunciation is C+V C+V •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 13. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two identical consonants come together, they merge and lengthen. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 14. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two identical consonants come together, they merge and lengthen. My sonnneedsa pet tiger. son needs a petttiger. C+C C+C (Not really!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 15. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two similar consonants come together, they also blend together. • When two stops come together, the first is not released. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 16. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When two similar consonants come together, they also blend together. • When two stops come together, the first is not released. My petcat will eatthe mouse. pet cat will eat the mouse. C+C C+C (Well, maybe.) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 17. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/, or /çy/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /y/ sound between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 18. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: When a word ends in /iy/, /ey/, /ay/, or /çy/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /y/ sound between them. y y We’ll be able to say it well. /iy/+V /ey/+V (We already can!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 19. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In the same way, when one word ends in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /w/ sound between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 20. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Linking: In the same way, when one word ends in /uw/, /ow/, or /aw/ and the next word begins with a vowel, we hear a linking /w/ sound between them. w w Blue is now in fashion. /uw/+V /aw/+V (I like blue.) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 21. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Assimilation: Sometimes a sound becomes more similar to a sound that comes before or after it. This makes the words easier to pronounce. • Every language has some kind of assimilation, although not all languages use assimilation in exactly the same way. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 22. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In assimilation, most often, the second sound causes the first to change: • have to /voiced+voiceless > /hQft´/ hQv tuw/ > both voiceless • in May /In mey/ > /Immey/ alveolar+bilabial > both bilabial • in Koreaalveolar+velar / >> /INkçriy´/ /In kçriy´ both velar • This is called “regressive assimilation” or “anticipatory assimilation.” You don’t have to remember those names. Just remember “assimilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 23. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Less often, the first sound causes the second sound to change. • -s and -ed endings: The endings are voiced after a voiced sound, voiceless after a voiceless sound. • bags /bQgz/ moved /muwvd/ voiced+voiced voiced+voiced • backs voiceless+voiceless /bQks/ fished /fISt/ voiceless+voiceless • This is called “progressive assimilation” or “perseverative assimilation.” You don’t have to remember those names. Just remember “assimilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 24. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In another kind of assimilation, two sounds blend together to make a new sound. • /s/+/y/=/S/ miss you /mIsyuw/ > /mISuw/ • /z/+/y/=/Z/ please you /pliyzyuw/ > /pliyZuw/ • /t/+/y/=/tS/ don’t you /downtyuw/ > /downtSuw/ • /d/+/y/=/dZ/ did you /dIdyuw/ > /dIdZuw/ • /ts/+/y/=/tS/ wants you /wAntsyuw/ > /wAntSuw/ • /dz/+/y/=/dZ/ needs you /niydzyuw/ > /niydZuw/ • This is called “coalescent assimilation.” These are examples of a kind of coalescent assimilation called “palatalization” or “assibilation.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 25. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Deletion: In normal speech, a sound may disappear or not be clearly pronounced in certain contexts. This is also called “omission.” • In English, contractions are the most familiar example of deletion: • cannot > can’t is not > isn’t • we are > we’re he is > he’s • they will > they’ll I would > I’d •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 26. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Some very common expressions have shortened forms with some sounds deleted: • going to > “gonna” /g´n´/ • want to > “wanna” /wAn´/ • should have > “shoulda” /SUd´/ • Remember that “gonna,” “wanna,” etc. are acceptable, normal forms in speech, but we don’t normally write them this way. We should write the full forms: “going to” and “want to.” •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 27. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In some words, an unstressed syllable is deleted. • chocolate > /tSAkl´t/ • interesting > /Intr´stIN/ • aspirin > /Qspr´n/ • restaurant > /rEstrAnt/ • family > /fQmliy/ • If you like big words, you can call this process “syncope” /sINkowpiy/. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 28. Adjustments in Connected Speech • In certain combinations of three or more consonants, the middle sound can be deleted.* restless /rEstl´s/ > /rEsl´s/ months /m´nTs/ > /m´ns/ hands /hQndz/ > /hQnz/ exactly /EgzQktliy/ > /EgzQkliy/ sixth spot /sIksTspAt/ > /sIksspAt/ ask Scott /QskskAt/ > /QsskAt/ * You can’t delete the first or last consonant–only the middle one. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 29. Adjustments in Connected Speech • Students sometimes hesitate to use these sound changes. Teachers have told them that they should pronounce every word carefully, and it seems that this should be their goal. But in order to sound really natural, words need to be blended, reduced or shortened. • It’s good to reassure students that these sound changes are natural and acceptable, but at the same time, we shouldn’t try to force students to produce them all. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 30. What are syllables? • A syllable is a rhythmic unit. It’s a unit of sound that gets one “beat” in a word. • A syllable has a vowel. It might also have one or more consonants before the vowel and one or more consonants after it. • Or a syllable can have a syllabic consonant. That’s a consonant that’s stretched out and acts as a vowel. For example, the last syllable in “button” or “bottle” is usually pronounced as a syllabic consonant. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 31. For example... • “Eye” has one syllable (just one vowel sound: /ay/) • “Strength” also has one syllable (three consonants, one vowel, two consonants: /strENT/) • “Potato” has three syllables: po-ta-to /p´ tey tow/ • “Pronunciation” has five syllables: pro-nun-ci-a-tion /pr´ n´n siy ey S •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 32. Practice Counting Syllables • How many syllables do these words have? •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 33. Practice Counting Syllables • How many syllables do these words have? teacher 2: teach-er reliable 4: re-li-a-ble sports 1: sports book 1: book responsibility 6: re-spon-si-bil-i-ty watched 1: watched wanted 2: want-ed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 34. Word Stress • In English, every polysyllabic word* has one stressed syllable. • The stressed syllable is emphasized. It can be longer, louder, and higher in pitch than the others. It stands out from the others. * Polysyllabic words have more than one syllable. (“Poly” means “many.”) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 35. Word Stress • In English, every polysyllabic word* has one stressed syllable. • The stressed syllable is emphasized. It can be longer, louder, and higher in pitch than the others. It stands out from the others. SYL la ble * Polysyllabic words have more than one syllable. (“Poly” means “many.”) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 36. Word Stress • Which syllable is stressed in each of these words? •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 37. Word Stress • Which syllable is stressed in each of these words? elephant EL e phant giraffe gi RAFFE hippopotamus hip poPOTa mus •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 38. Word Stress • In addition to the main stress, some words also have a syllable with weaker stress (like the second syllable in “responsibility.”) • We can call these degrees of stress: • primary stress (strongly stressed) • secondary stress (weakly stressed) • unstressed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 39. Word Stress • In addition to the main stress, some words also have a syllable with weaker stress (like the second syllable in “responsibility.”) re spon si BIL i ty • We can call these degrees of stress: • primary stress (strongly stressed) • secondary stress (weakly stressed) • unstressed •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 40. Word Stress • For the purpose of teaching pronunciation, primary stress is very important, but secondary stress is much less important. If students can get the primary stress in the right place and make the other syllables unstressed, they can be understood easily. • Because of this, we’ll only talk about stressed and unstressed syllables in the rest of this section. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 41. Word Stress • The vowels in unstressed syllables often become less distinct than in stressed syllables. • Many (but not all) unstressed syllables contain the vowel /´/ (called “schwa”). •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 42. Word Stress • The vowels in unstressed syllables often become less distinct than in stressed syllables. • Many (but not all) unstressed syllables contain the vowel /´/ (called “schwa”). POTa mus hip po /hIp´pAt´m´s/ ´ ´ ´ •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 43. Word Stress • It’s important for unstressed syllables to be much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps the listener recognize the whole stress pattern of the word. • In this example, there’s not enough contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables... •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 44. Word Stress • It’s important for unstressed syllables to be much weaker than stressed syllables. This helps the listener recognize the whole stress pattern of the word. • In this example, there’s not enough contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables... hip po pot a mus •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 45. Word Stress • Sometimes a change in word stress indicates a change in the part of speech: Noun Verb (stress on first syllable) (stress on last syllable) record REcord reCORD progress PROgress proGRESS present PREsent preSENT •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 46. Word Stress • But this doesn’t work with all noun/verb pairs. Often the stress stays the same: Noun Verb report rePORT rePORT travel TRAvel TRAvel comfort COMfort COMfort •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 47. Word Stress • There are rules that can predict where the stress will fall in many words. They take into account... • the historical origin of a word • its prefixes and suffixes • its grammatical function in a sentence • However, these rules are very complex, and it’s not a good idea to try to teach all the details to students. It’s just too much! •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 48. Sentence Stress • Just as every polysyllabic word has one strongly stressed syllable, every sentence or clause has one syllable that receives the strongest stress. This is called sentence stress. • There will be more details about sentence stress, or prominence, in Suprasegmentals Part 2. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 49. Rhythm • Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in an utterance. • Music has rhythm... • Every language has its own rhythm, too. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 50. Rhythm • Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses in an utterance. • Music has rhythm... • Every language has its own rhythm, too. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 51. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 52. Rhythm • Some languages have a very regular rhythm. Each syllable gets about the same amount of stress. N N N N N N N N • Other languages have a more irregular rhythm. Some syllables receive a lot of stress and time, N N N N N N N N N N •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 53. Rhythm • English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a stress-timed language. This means that the time between stressed syllables remains fairly steady, and the unstressed syllables have to crowd in between them. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 54. Rhythm • English has the second type of rhythm. It’s a stress-timed language. This means that the time between stressed syllables remains fairly steady, and the unstressed syllables have to crowd in between them. N N N N N N N N N N PronunciAtion is FAS c i n a t i n g . •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 55. Rhythm • Languages that give each syllable about the same amount of time are called syllable-timed languages. • Speakers of syllable-timed languages sometimes have trouble making the rhythm of English sound natural. They tend to pronounce all the syllables with the same amount of stress. (Please forgive my bad pronunciation of this Japanese tongue twister!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 56. Rhythm • Languages that give each syllable about the same amount of time are called syllable-timed languages. N N N N N N N • Speakers of syllable-timed languages sometimes have trouble making the rhythm of English sound natural. They tend to pronounce all the syllables with the same amount of stress. (Please forgive my bad pronunciation of this Japanese tongue twister!) •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 57. Reduced forms of words • Because English is a syllable-timed language, unstressed syllables tend to be very short and indistinct. This helps form the rhythm of English. • Many words that are often unstressed–articles, prepositions, and other function words–are usually pronounced with reduced forms. • These reduced forms are a normal part of natural speech. They don’t mean that the speaker is sloppy or lazy. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 58. • For example, the preposition “to” is /tuw/ when we speak slowly and carefully, but /t´/ when we speak at a normal speed: “Go to school.” • Here are some more examples: • and /Qnd/ > /n`/ bread and butter • or /çr/ > /‘/ coffee or tea • of /´v/ > /´/ cup of coffee • than /DQn/ > /n`/ better than ever • him /hIm/ > /Im/ help him • them /DEm/ > /´m/ help them •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 59. • All the things we’ve learned about in this section work together to give English its characteristic rhythm. Stressed syllables stand out. Unstressed syllables squeeze in between the stressed syllables, and sound changes make articulation easier so that regular timing can be maintained. This helps produce the “music” of English. •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech
  • 60. Summary of Part 1 • Suprasegmental features are the aspects of pronunciation that affect more than just one sound segment. They include: • Adjustments in connected speech • Syllables and word stress • Sentence stress • Rhythm •Next slide •Previous slide •Title slide •Word stress •Sentence stress •Rhythm •Adjustments in connected speech