Skills 6 8 more than one clause

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  • 1. UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Sentences with More Than One Clause Structure and Written Expression Skills 6-8 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
  • 2. Review: What is a clause? • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. • Every sentence has at least one clause. Some have more. • These sentences have one clause: [Kittens are cute.] [The students have been studying in the library.] • These sentences have more than one clause: [Kittens are cute,] [but spiders aren’t.] (2 clauses) [The students [who have been studying] are tired] [because studying is hard work.] (3 clauses) • Now let’s look at several different ways to join two clauses. 2
  • 3. Coordinate connectors (conjunctions) • One way to join two clauses is by using a coordinate connector (also called a coordinating conjunction). • You can remember these connectors by thinking of the word FANBOYS. (Their first letters spell out this word.) For* And Nor* But Or Yet So We will remember you, for you have helped us greatly. The sun is shining, and the birds are singing. He never smiled, nor did he laugh. I was looking for my book, but I couldn’t find it. Did you do your homework, or did you forget? You look familiar, yet I can’t remember your name. I don’t have any money, so I can’t buy anything. *For sounds rather formal or poetic. In everyday speech, we don’t use it often as a coordinate connector. (Of course, we often us it as a preposition: This is for you.) *Notice the inverted order of subject and verb in a clause that begins with nor. 3
  • 4. Coordinate connectors (conjunctions) • When you join two sentences with a coordinate connector, put a comma after the first clause, before the connector. [It’s chilly today] , [so I’ll wear a jacket]. commas [The boy was tired ] , [but he had fun]. • With coordinate connectors, you can’t move the second clause to the beginning of the sentence: [It’s chilly today ] , [so I’ll wear a jacket]. OK [So I’ll wear a jacket] , [it’s chilly today]. 4 No!
  • 5. Subordinating conjunctions • We can also join two clauses by using a subordinating conjunction, such as after, because, if, although, and many others. For example: I’ll do my homework after I watch TV. No, you need to do your homework before you watch TV. Whenever I do my homework, I watch TV. If you watch TV, you won’t be able to concentrate. I can concentrate even though I’m watching TV! Unless you turn off the TV, you’ll get a bad grade on your test because you won’t remember anything. OK. I’ll turn off the TV since you think it’s important. Good. Now that you’ve turned off the TV, you’ll be able to study. 5
  • 6. Subordinating conjunctions • A clause that begins with a word like before, after, or because is called an adverb clause. It often answers one of these questions: When? Why? How? Where? • Adverb clauses are also subordinate clauses.* An adverb clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It needs an independent clause to go along with it to be a complete sentence. [I’m going to take a break] [because I’ve been studying hard.] Independent clause + Dependent clause = Complete sentence [Because I’ve been studying hard.] Just a dependent clause = Not a complete sentence *There are also other kinds of subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, noun clauses, etc. 6
  • 7. Subordinating conjunctions • Subordinating conjunctions can have several types of meanings: • Time after as as long as as soon as • Cause as because before by the time once since until when whenever while inasmuch as now that since 7
  • 8. Subordinating conjunctions • Condition if in case provided providing unless whether though while whereas • Contrast although even though • Manner as in that • Place where wherever 8
  • 9. Subordinating conjunctions • A few conjunctions can be used with more than one meaning: Since I’m here, I might as well help you. (Cause) Since I was ten years old, I’ve enjoyed soccer. (Time) As I told you before, soccer is fun. (Manner) As I was going home, I saw my friend. (Time) 9
  • 10. Subordinating conjunctions • With subordinating conjunctions, you can move the subordinate clause to the beginning of the sentence: [I’ll wear a jacket] [because it’s cold]. OK [Because it’s cold] , [I’ll wear a jacket]. OK [I get sleepy] [whenever I listen to music]. OK [Whenever I listen to music] , [I get sleepy]. OK [I’d buy a new car] [if I were rich]. OK [If I were rich] , [I’d buy a new car]. OK 10
  • 11. Subordinating conjunctions • Punctuation: If the independent clause comes first, don’t use a comma between the clauses. [I’ll wear a jacket] [because it’s cold]. [I’d buy a new car] [if I were rich]. no commas • If the dependent clause comes first, put a comma between the clauses: [Because it’s cold] , [I’ll wear a jacket]. [If I were rich] , [I’d buy a new car]. commas 11
  • 12. Conjunctive adverbs • We can also join two clauses with a conjunctive adverb. These are words like however, therefore, or consequently. These words are sometimes called transitions. For example: Bob says he speaks ten languages; however, I don’t believe him. Bob says he speaks ten languages. However, I don’t believe him. Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully. Homework is important. Therefore, I’ll do it carefully. The bus was late; consequently, I was late for class. The bus was late. Consequently, I was late for class. 12
  • 13. Conjunctive adverbs • Here are some common conjunctive adverbs: accordingly additionally also anyway besides consequently conversely finally further furthermore hence however in addition in any case in comparison in contrast indeed instead likewise meanwhile 13 moreover nevertheless nonetheless otherwise rather similarly still then therefore thus
  • 14. Conjunctive adverbs • A conjunctive adverb goes between the two clauses it connects. Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully. OK Therefore, I’ll do it carefully; homework is important. No! • Think about the meaning of the conjunctive adverb and make sure you attach it to the right clause. It has to make sense. It’s raining; therefore, I’ll take an umbrella. This makes sense, and the grammar is correct too. I’ll take an umbrella; therefore, it’s raining. The grammar is fine, but this doesn’t make sense. The umbrella didn’t cause the rain. 14
  • 15. Conjunctive adverbs • Punctuation: There are three possibilities: 1. Put a semicolon after the first clause and a comma after the conjunctive adverb: semicolon comma Bob says he’s a millionaire; however, I don’t believe him. 15
  • 16. Conjunctive adverbs • Punctuation: There are three possibilities: 2. Or you can put a period after the first clause and a comma after the conjuctive adverb: period capital letter comma Bob says he’s a millionaire. However, I don’t believe him. 16
  • 17. Conjunctive adverbs • Punctuation: There are three possibilities: 3. Sometimes a conjunctive adverb comes in the middle of a clause. Then it has commas before and after it. Bob says he’s a millionaire. I, however, don’t believe him. The cost of gas has increased. Many drivers, therefore, will use their cars less often. commas 17
  • 18. Summary •In this section, you have learned how to make these kinds of clauses: • Two clauses joined by a coordinate connector • Adverb clauses with subordinating conjunctions • Clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs 18