Skills 37 38 passive voice
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Skills 37 38 passive voice

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    Skills 37 38 passive voice Skills 37 38 passive voice Presentation Transcript

    • UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Passive Voice Structure and Written Expression Skills 37-38 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
    • Active voice and passive voice • Sentences in English can be in either the active or passive voice. • In active voice, the subject does the action. I am reading a book. S V O Vincent Van Gogh painted this portrait. S V O • In passive voice, the subject receives the action. The person or thing that does the action may be the object of a prepositional phrase beginning with by, or it may be omitted. This portrait was painted by Vincent Van Gogh. S V by + NOUN Oranges are produced in Central California. S V (no “by” phrase) 2
    • Changing an active sentence to passive • Before you try to change an active sentence to passive, check to make sure it has a direct object. If it doesn’t, you can’t change it. The choir sang several songs. (This sentence has an object. We can make it passive.) The choir sang. (This sentence has no object. We can’t make it passive.) Hamlet is Shakespeare’s most famous play. (This sentence has a linking verb, is. It has no object, so we can’t make the sentence passive. Play is a predicate noun, not an object.) 3
    • To change an active sentence to passive… 1. Change the position of the subject and the object. Farmers in Central California grow a lot of oranges. A lot of oranges farmers 2. Add a helping verb be, and change the verb to a past participle. A lot of oranges are grown farmers 3. Add by before the former subject, or take out the former subject completely. The by phrase is optional. A lot of oranges are grown by farmers in Central California. OR A lot of oranges are grown in Central California. 4
    • Changing an active sentence to passive • Passive sentences can be used in all tenses, just like active sentences. Just change the be verb to the tense you need. We can also put a modal before the be verb. For example: Some explorers are eaten by lions. (Simple present) The explorers were eaten by lions. (Simple past) The explorers are being eaten by lions. (Present progressive) The explorers have been eaten by lions. (Present perfect) The explorers are going to be eaten by lions. (Future) The explorers will be eaten by lions. (Future) The explorers will have been eaten by lions. (Future perfect) The explorers might be eaten by lions. (Modal + be) I hope the explorers won’t be eaten by lions. (Future) 5
    • When do we usually use the passive voice? • It’s appropriate to use the passive voice when the focus is on the action, not on who did it. We might not even know or care who did it. This room needs to be cleaned before the visitors come. (The important thing is the cleaning, not who is going to do it.) Gunpowder was invented in China. (We don’t know who invented it. It was a long time ago.) • People often use the passive when they want to avoid saying who did something. (This is very common in politics and business.) Mistakes were made on this project. (We don’t want to say who made the mistakes. Maybe we’re trying to avoid being blamed, or maybe we want to hide the guilty person.) 6
    • Common mistakes with active and passive • Some verbs need to have an active form, even if the meaning seems weak or inactive. This includes words like happen, occur, take place, exist, die, seem, and be. These are never used in passive forms. An accident was happened on the freeway. Two people were died in the accident. Many kinds of trees are existed on the island. • These sentences are correct: An accident happened on the freeway. Two people died in the accident. Many kinds of trees exist on the island. 7
    • Common mistakes with active and passive • Make sure the passive voice sentences are logical. The book wrote in 1982. (It’s not logical. Books can’t write. They can only be written.) The driver was driven the car. (It’s not logical. The driver drove. The car was driven.) • These sentences are correct: The book was written in 1982. The author wrote the book in 1982. The car was driven by the driver. The driver drove the car. 8
    • Common mistakes with active and passive • Don’t confuse the passive voice with the progressive tenses. Both have be as a helping verb, but they have different verb forms after be, and different meanings. The children were entertained by the magician. (Be + past participle = passive voice) The children were entertaining their parents by performing a play. (Be + present participle = past progressive tense, active voice) 9
    • Summary In this section, you have learned about these things: • Only active sentences with direct objects can become passive • To make an active sentence into a passive sentence… • Change the position of the subject and object • Make the verb be + past participle • Put the preposition “by” before the former subject. • We use the passive voice when the action is more important than who did it, or when we don’t want to tell who did it. 10