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UCI Extension
Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop

Reduced Clauses
Structure and Written Expression Skills 13-14
Longman Preparatio...
Review: Adjective clauses and adverb clauses
• These sentences contain adjective clauses. They give more
information about...
Reduced adjective clauses
• Both of these types of clauses can sometimes be reduced, or
shortened. We can take some words ...
How do we reduce an adverb clause?
• If the adjective clause has a be verb in it (either just be or be
as a helping verb),...
When can we reduce an adjective clause?
We cannot reduce all adjective clauses—only some of them. How do we
know if we can...
How do we reduce an adjective clause?
• If the adjective clause has a be verb in it (either just be or be
as a helping ver...
Reducing restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses
• Review: An adjective clause with no commas is called a
restrictive adjec...
Reducing restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses
• Review: An adjective clause with commas is called a
nonrestrictive adjec...
Sometimes you can move the reduced clause.
• When we reduce a nonrestrictive adjective clause (the kind
that has commas), ...
And sometimes you can’t move it.
• When we reduce a restrictive adjective clause (the kind that
has no commas), the reduce...
Don’t make this mistake!
• Remember that the reduced clause must describe the subject of the main
clause. Sometimes we hea...
Reduced adverb clauses
• We can also reduce adverb clauses. For example:
[When you are waiting for a bus], you need to be ...
When can we reduce an adverb clause?
• We cannot reduce all adverb clauses—only some of them.
How do we know if we can red...
When can we reduce an adverb clause?
• Before we decide if we can reduce an adverb clause, we also need
to know if its ver...
When can we reduce an adverb clause?
• With some connectors, we can reduce the clause only if the verb
is active:

Active:...
When can we reduce an adverb clause?
• With other connectors, we can reduce the clause only if the
verb is passive:

Passi...
When can we reduce an adverb clause?
• For still other connectors, we can reduce the clause for both
active and passive ve...
Which connectors are in which group?
• Only active. Clauses with these connectors can be reduced
only when the verb is act...
Summary
In this section, you have learned about these things:
• We can reduce an adjective clause, but not always.

• With...
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Skills 13 14 reduced clauses

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Transcript of "Skills 13 14 reduced clauses"

  1. 1. UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Reduced Clauses Structure and Written Expression Skills 13-14 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
  2. 2. Review: Adjective clauses and adverb clauses • These sentences contain adjective clauses. They give more information about a noun. The students [who are waiting for the bus] are impatient. The cheesecake [that my sister baked] wasn’t very good. • These sentences contain adverb clauses. They answer the questions: When? Why? How? Where? Please wash your hands [before you eat]. Ann became a doctor [because she wanted to help people]. [If it’s all right with you], I’ll sit in this chair. 2
  3. 3. Reduced adjective clauses • Both of these types of clauses can sometimes be reduced, or shortened. We can take some words out, and the remaining words still have the same meaning. • Let’s look at adjective clauses first. For example: The students [who are waiting for the bus] are impatient. adjective clause The students [who are waiting for the bus] are impatient. The students [waiting for the bus] are impatient. reduced adjective clause • Both of these sentences have the same meaning. 3
  4. 4. How do we reduce an adverb clause? • If the adjective clause has a be verb in it (either just be or be as a helping verb), then we take out the subject and the be verb. We keep the connector word (the conjunction). [While they were at the mall], they bought some shoes. While at the mall, they bought some shoes. • If the adjective clause does not have a be verb in it, then we take out the subject and change the verb to the –ing form. We keep the connector word. [After I had finished my work], I took a nap. After finishing my work, I took a nap. 4
  5. 5. When can we reduce an adjective clause? We cannot reduce all adjective clauses—only some of them. How do we know if we can reduce an adjective clause or not? 1. If who, which, or that is the subject of the clause—that is, if the adjective clause connector is followed directly by its verb… The students [who are waiting for the bus] are impatient. S V 2. And if who, which, or that refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the main clause… Same people The students [who are waiting for the bus] are impatient. Then we can reduce the clause: The students [waiting for the bus] are impatient. 5
  6. 6. How do we reduce an adjective clause? • If the adjective clause has a be verb in it (either just be or be as a helping verb), then we take out the adjective clause connector and the be verb. All the food [which was eaten by the king] was delicious. All the food [eaten by the king] was delicious. • If the adjective clause does not have a be verb in it, then we take out the adjective clause connector and change the verb to the –ing form. The tenants [who live in this apartment] are mostly quiet. The tenants [living in this apartment] are mostly quiet. 6
  7. 7. Reducing restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses • Review: An adjective clause with no commas is called a restrictive adjective clause. We need the information to understand what the whole sentence is about. The adjective clause restricts, or limits, the number of things that the sentence is talking about. #1. Cities [that have many parks] are good places to live. (Not all cities—just the ones that have many parks) 7
  8. 8. Reducing restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses • Review: An adjective clause with commas is called a nonrestrictive adjective clause. We don’t need the information in the clause to understand which thing the sentence is talking about. The adjective clause just gives us extra information. #2. Irvine, [which has many parks] , is a good place to live. (There’s only one Irvine—that’s the one we mean.) 8
  9. 9. Sometimes you can move the reduced clause. • When we reduce a nonrestrictive adjective clause (the kind that has commas), we can move the clause to the beginning of the sentence. (It takes its comma with it.) Irvine, [which is a very safe city] , is a good place to live. Irvine, [which is a very safe city] , is a good place to live.  Irvine, a very safe city , is a good place to live. OR  A very safe city, Irvine is a good place to live. 9
  10. 10. And sometimes you can’t move it. • When we reduce a restrictive adjective clause (the kind that has no commas), the reduced clause has to stay in its original position. Cities [that have many parks] are good places to live.  Cities having many parks are good places to live. BUT NOT  Having many parks cities are good places to live 10
  11. 11. Don’t make this mistake! • Remember that the reduced clause must describe the subject of the main clause. Sometimes we hear mistakes like this: Walking down Main Street, the trees were beautiful. This is a problem because it implies that the trees were walking. (Trees is the subject of the main clause.) Covered with ice cream, we thought the pie was delicious. This implies that we were covered with ice cream. (We is the subject of the main clause.) (If we actually were covered with ice cream this sentence would be OK. You never know.) • In real life, people sometimes say sentences like these, but they’re not accepted on the TOEFL or by careful writers or teachers. In real life, people are not always careful. On the other hand, the people who write TOEFL questions are very, very careful. 11
  12. 12. Reduced adverb clauses • We can also reduce adverb clauses. For example: [When you are waiting for a bus], you need to be patient. adverb clause When waiting for a bus, you need to be patient. reduced adverb clause • Both of these sentences have the same meaning. 12
  13. 13. When can we reduce an adverb clause? • We cannot reduce all adverb clauses—only some of them. How do we know if we can reduce an adverb clause or not? • If the subject of the adverb clause refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the main clause… [When you are waiting for a bus], you need to be patient. Same people Then we can reduce the clause: When waiting for a bus, you need to be patient. 13
  14. 14. When can we reduce an adverb clause? • Before we decide if we can reduce an adverb clause, we also need to know if its verb is active or passive. • These adverb clauses have verbs in the active voice: [While they were at the mall], they bought some shoes. You should be careful [when you drive in the rain]. • These have verbs in the passive voice: [Although the painting was damaged], it was still beautiful. Please show your passport [when you are asked to do so]. • Why do we need to know this? It’s because different adverb clause connectors work in different ways, depending on whether the verb in the clause is active or passive. 14
  15. 15. When can we reduce an adverb clause? • With some connectors, we can reduce the clause only if the verb is active: Active: Before they went to the mall, they put on comfortable shoes. Before going to the mall, they put on comfortable shoes. Passive: Before they were driven to the mall, they drank some coffee. Before driven to the mall, they drank some coffee. 15
  16. 16. When can we reduce an adverb clause? • With other connectors, we can reduce the clause only if the verb is passive: Passive: Keep the food in the refrigerator [until it is eaten]. Keep the food in the refrigerator until eaten. Active: Keep the food in the refrigerator [until we eat it]. Keep the food in the refrigerator until eating it. 16
  17. 17. When can we reduce an adverb clause? • For still other connectors, we can reduce the clause for both active and passive verbs. Active: [Although he lived in a big city], he grew his own vegetables. Although living in a big city, he grew his own vegetables. Passive: [Although it was damaged], the painting was still beautiful. Although damaged, the painting was still beautiful. 17
  18. 18. Which connectors are in which group? • Only active. Clauses with these connectors can be reduced only when the verb is active: after before since while • Only passive. Clauses with these connectors can be reduced only when the verb is passive: as until where once whenever wherever • Both. Clauses with these connectors can be reduced with both active and passive verbs. although though when if unless whether 18
  19. 19. Summary In this section, you have learned about these things: • We can reduce an adjective clause, but not always. • With a be verb: Take out the connector and the be verb. • With other verbs: Take out the connector and change the verb to –ing. • We can reduce an adverb clause, but not always. • With a be verb: Take out the subject and the be verb. • With other verbs: Take out the subject and change the verb to –ing. 19
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