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Skills 1 5 one clause
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Skills 1 5 one clause

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  • 1. UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Clauses, Subjects, and Verbs Structure and Written Expression Skills 1-5 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
  • 2. What is a clause? • A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. • Every sentence has at least one clause. Some have more. • These sentences have one clause: [Kittens are cute.] [The students have been studying in the library.] • These sentences have more than one clause: [Kittens are cute,] [but spiders aren’t.] (2 clauses) [The students [who have been studying] are tired] [because studying is hard work.] (3 clauses) 2
  • 3. Every clause needs a subject and a verb. • Some clauses have one subject and one verb: [The library is full of books.] • Some clauses have more than one subject: [The library and the bookstore are full of books.] [The students, the teachers, and everyone in the audience applauded.] • Some clauses have more than one verb: [Cats chase mice and take naps in the sunshine.] [The students studied all night and then fell asleep in class.] • All of these sentences have just one clause. 3
  • 4. The verb needs to match its subject. • A singular subject needs a singular verb: [The library is full of books.] • A plural subject needs a plural verb: [The libraries are full of books.] • Sometimes singular and plural verbs are the same, for example, when the verb is in the past tense: [The student studied.] [The students studied.] • or when there’s a modal: [The student must study.] [The students must study.] 4
  • 5. You need to be able to find the subject. • Sometimes it’s hard to tell which word is really the subject of a clause. Other words can get in the way and make you think they’re the subject. The subject is not always the word just before the verb. [The kitten is cute.] [The kitten with big, green eyes is cute.] [The kitten, my sister’s new pet, is cute.] [The kitten sleeping in the kitchen is cute.] • Kitten is still the subject, even though other words come between it and the verb. 5
  • 6. Be careful of objects of prepositions. • A preposition is a word that shows a relationship with a noun, like in, at, with, under, or during. A preposition is followed by a noun. This noun is called the object of the preposition. The preposition and its object together are called a prepositional phrase. [The windows (of that house) need to be repaired.] [(In my opinion,) the price (of movie tickets) is too expensive.] 6
  • 7. Be careful of objects of prepositions. • An object of a preposition cannot be the subject of a clause. The subject of the first sentence is windows (not house), so the verb is plural. The subject of the second sentence is price (not tickets), so the verb is singular. [The windows (of that house) need to be repaired.] plural plural [(In my opinion,) the price (of movie tickets) is too expensive.] singular singular 7
  • 8. Be careful of appositives. • An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and has the same meaning. It gives more information about the noun. [The teacher, (Mr. Smith,) forgot to grade the tests.] appositive (Mr. Smith = the teacher) [(A quick learner,) Mary memorized all the irregular verbs in ten minutes.] appositive (A quick learner = Mary) 8
  • 9. Be careful of appositives. • An appositive usually has commas around it. • An appositive is not the subject of the sentence. The noun that the appositive describes is the subject. [The teacher, (Mr. Smith,) forgot to grade the tests.] subject [(A quick learner,) Mary memorized all the irregular verbs in ten minutes.] subject 9
  • 10. You need to be able to find the main verb. • Main verbs can have many forms: Different tenses, active or passive forms, modals followed by a verb, etc. [The teacher grades tests every day.] [The teacher is grading tests now.] [The teacher has graded 35 tests so far.] [The teacher has been grading tests for five hours.] [The teacher will be grading tests until midnight.] [The teacher must grade lots of tests.] [The tests have all been graded.] 10
  • 11. Be careful of present participles. • Sometimes it’s hard to tell which word is the main verb. You might find a word that looks like a verb, but it’s really being used as another part of speech). • Present participles (the -ing form): If a present participle has a form of the verb be before it, it’s really a verb. It’s one of the progressive tenses. (be + ing = progressive) [The children are playing soccer.] [The teacher was grading tests.] [The students have been sleeping during class.] 11
  • 12. Be careful of present participles. • The present participles in these sentences don’t have a form of be in front of them. They’re not the main verb of the clause. They’re being used as adjectives to describe nouns. [The children playing soccer are noisy.] [The teachers grading tests in the office are tired.] [The sleeping students are not learning anything.] (But this is really a verb!) 12
  • 13. Be careful of present participles. • These present participles are also not the main verb of the clause. They’re being used as nouns. When an -ing form is used as a noun, we call it a gerund. [Playing soccer is good exercise.] gerunds [The teachers enjoy grading tests.] [Reading a book is easier than writing one.] 13
  • 14. Be careful of past participles. • Past participles: If a past participle has a form of the verb have before it, it is really a verb. It’s one of the perfect tenses. (have + past participle = perfect) [Chris has played the piano for ten years.] form of “have” past participle [We had eaten] [before we went to school.] [The students have been sleeping during class.] 14
  • 15. Be careful of past participles. • Did you notice that this same sentence was used as an example twice? [The students have been sleeping during class.] have + pp be+ing • That’s because it has both have + past participle and be + ing. It’s the present perfect progressive tense. Isn’t that cool? 15
  • 16. Be careful of past participles. • Past participles can also be used in another way. If a past participle has a form of the verb be before it, it is also really a verb. It’s a passive verb form. (be + past participle = passive) [The house was destroyed by a fire.] [We discovered ] [that our car had been stolen.] [Someday my garden will be filled with flowers.] 16
  • 17. Be careful of past participles. • The past participles in these sentences don’t have a form of be or have before them. They’re not the main verb. They’re being used as adjectives to describe nouns. [Soccer is a game played by millions of people.] [I want a garden filled with flowers.] [The broken window needs to be fixed.] [Our stolen car has been found by the police.] (But this is really a verb!) 17
  • 18. Summary In this section, you have learned about these things: • Every clause needs a subject and a verb. • The verb needs to match its subject. • You need to be able to find the subject of a clause. • You need to be able to find the main verb of a clause. 18

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