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Crossing Guard Training Module 5 Techniques
 

Crossing Guard Training Module 5 Techniques

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Iowa Adult Crossing Guard Training Program Module 5 Techniques

Iowa Adult Crossing Guard Training Program Module 5 Techniques

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  • Message The goal of this module is that participants will understand and utilize proper crossing techniques in their crossing guard duties. Participants will recall the use of school crossing guard equipment and proper hand gestures and verbal commands. You will recall the importance of visibility and conspicuity. Lastly, you will recall proper crossing procedures at different crosswalk types and under bad weather conditions.
  • Message To start the module, let's take a look at a short video that covers information on crossing guard equipment and retroreflectivity. PLAY VIDEO Ask the Class: What are the 4 equipment items that crossing guards may use? Which ones are mandatory?
  • Message Three (3) uniform/equipment items are required: 1. A fluorescent and retro-reflective vest (that complies with MUTCD section 7E.04). 2. A retro-reflective Stop Paddle (that conforms to the guidelines in MUTCD section 7E.05) and/or flourescent or retro-reflective orange or yellow-green gloves. Gloves must be retro-reflective if used during periods of darkness, and 4. A whistle Ask the Class: What is retro-reflectivity? Retroreflectivity is a property of a surface that allows a large portion of the light coming from a point source to be returned directly back to a point near its origin (MUTCD). Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message This picture was taken early in the morning at a crosswalk location and it shows how the vest's retroreflectivity helps to make the guard much more conspicous to a motorist in low light conditions. Key Point: There are 3 mandatory crossing guard equipment items: 1.) Fluorescent/retroreflective vest, 2) whistle, 3) retro-reflective stop paddle and/or fluorescent gloves.
  • Message Adult crossing guards should be uniformed so that road users and pedestrians can recognize them and respond to their signals. The uniforms should be distinctly different from those worn by regular law enforcement officers. And, if employed by a sheriff's department, the uniform shall not include the official sheriff's department badge. There is no similar statute that covers police departments; however, if you use an identifying patch or badge, it should be different from that of a sworn officer. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Pictured here are crossing guards who are properly equipped. Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions about Crossing Guard Equipment and Uniforms?
  • Message Before we start the discussion on visibility and conspicuity, let's review these definitions - Visibility is the quality or fact or degree of being visible; perceptible by the eye or obvious to the eye. - Conspicuity is the state or quality of being clear or bright; brightness; conspicuousness.
  • Message Visibility and conspicuity contribute to the safety of the guard and students. A fluorescent/retro-reflective vest makes guards more conspicuous to motorists while in the street reducing pedestrian/vehicle crashes. A guard's presence (visibility) tends to deter unlawful and unsafe acts by pedestrians and motorists.
  • Message A pedestrian's visibility and conspicuity can be affected by: 1. Visual Clutter 2. Visual Barriers 3. In Vehicle Distractions 4. Outside Vehicle Distractions 5. Weather 6. Night / Low light conditions Many pedestrian-related crashes occur because the driver's vision was obscured, the driver was inattentive, or the pedestrian was not visible to the driver. Ask the Class: Can you give me examples of visual clutter, visual barriers, and in vehicle and outside vehicle distractions?
  • Message Some examples include: 1. Visual Clutter – street signs, advertisements, etc. 2. Visual barriers – trees and bushes, parked cars, mailboxes, trash cans, and piled debris, etc. 3. In-Vehicle Distractions – kids, cell phones, make-up, radios, GPS navigation systems, DVD players, etc. 4. Outside-Vehicle Distractions – car wrecks, things going on of interest, people, etc.
  • Message One of the responsibilities of a guard is to cut through the visual clutter and potential distractions to make sure that each lane of approaching traffic sees and recognizes that the guard is about to cross students. A guard's equipment makes him or her more visible and conspicuous. Guards should make eye contact with the first driver in the line of cars that you are about to stop. Key Point: Be sure you are seen before stepping in the roadway and crossing students. Sometimes it is difficult to determine if you are making eye contact when drivers are wearing sunglasses. Always be cautious!
  • Message Children can improve their visibility and conspicuity by wearing bright colored clothes with contrasting colors. - Most visible colors are yellow, white, orange, hot pink and bright green. - Contrasting clothes such as pink and blue, stripes and polka dots are also helpful. - Least visible are dark colors such as black, brown, navy, forest green and camouflage.
  • Message Ask the Class: Can you identify good clothing in the picture? These children are wearing bright colors and designs on their shirts.
  • Message Kids must see and be seen. In addition to children being more visible and conspicuous by wearing certain clothing, some other things that guards can tell students and parents to make them safer include: 1. Drivers need to see you to avoid you 2. Stay out of the driver's blind spot 3. Make eye contact with drivers when crossing busy streets 4. Wear reflective clothing if you are walking near traffic at night 5. Carry a flashlight when walking in the dark Key Point: A guard helps children cross by being conspicuous to motorists through signals and clothing. Key Point: Guards must ensure they are seen before stepping in the roadway and crossing students Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions about visibility and conspicuity? Let's watch a short video clip to start the next set of topics that we will discuss. It's called “Basics of Proper Roadway Procedure”. PLAY VIDEO Reference National Highway Traffic Safey Administration(NHTSA) & US Department of Transportation (USDOT). Walking in Traffic. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/ped/RxFlyer/Rxflyer2.htm l
  • Message A common theme in major crash types is the failure of the pedestrian to search properly before entering the travel lane. One of the roles of the adult crossing guard is to reinforce proper crossing behavior. The proper technique and sequence to use, and to teach students are: 1. Within the crosswalk, stop at the edge of the road, 2. Look LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT again for traffic, and 3. If at an intersection, look over your shoulder for turning vehicles. 4. Always keep scanning as you cross the road. Remember, when facing students and teaching “Look LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT again for traffic”, ensure you are gesturing in the proper direction so as not to confuse them. Either turn so your back is to them, or point the oppostie direction so it will look like LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT to the students. Also make sure you are well back from the street on the sidewalk when talking to the children. Stay behind the “stay back line”, which we will cover later in this module.
  • Message These next three slides show how pedestrians should properly search for traffic before entering and while in the roadway. The first slide is at a midblock crosswalk.
  • Message The second is for crosswalks at intersections that include looking over the shoulder for turning traffic.
  • Message The third shows a pedestrian scanning as he is crossing. A pedestrian should scan while crossing any crosswalk.
  • Message The proper search technique must be reinforced each and every time students are at a guard's crosswalk. This reinforcement is needed because motorists do not always comply, or may not see a guard's signals that students are about to be crossed. Also, proper search patterns must be taught and reinforced because the students may cross roadways without a guard's assistance. Key Point: The proper search pattern is: Look LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT and over the shoulder if crossing at an intersection. Continue to scan for traffic while crossing the roadway. Ask the Class: Does anybody have questions about the proper search pattern?
  • Message Let's now talk about signals and communications that a guard uses to pass information or convey a desired action to motorists and pedestrians. It's very important that all communications be uniform, crisp and clearly informative so both motorists and pedestrians will know what is expected of them. 1. Hand signals, movements, and a whistle are to be used with motorists. 2. Verbal messages only are to be used with pedestrians. Ask the Class: Does anybody know why it is so important to have clear and unambiguous communications and signals? There can be no confusion about whom a signal or communication is for and what it means. That is why consistency is important. You would not want to gesture with your hand for a student to begin to cross and have it mistaken by a motorist to go ahead and proceed through the crosswalk.
  • Message Signals that you use for motorists consist of: When students are about to enter or are in the crosswalk and you must stop and yield - Stop Paddle = with arm parallel to the ground, raised perpendicular - Gloved Hand = raised arm forward, parallel to the ground with palm and fingers extended toward traffic. - If a driver disregards the STOP paddle, blow one long blast on the whistle to warn the driver while pointing and looking directly at him. Key Point: Do not step out into the roadway until all vehicles have stopped. Note: an agency or department that is responsible for a local program has the option to use either a gloved hand or a stop paddle.
  • Message We will discuss the recommended technique for use of the STOP paddle. 1. Raise the STOP paddle with arm that will be closest to the far (opposite) side of the street when you take the position for crossing children. At an intersection, this will be the arm that is farthest from the intersection when you are at the curb facing the crosswalk. 2. Hold the paddle shoulder-high so that one side is displayed to traffic approaching the crosswalk on the near side of the street (“near-side traffic”), and the other is displayed to traffic approaching the crosswalk on the far side of the street (“far-side traffic”). Your body should not block either view of the paddle. The two faces of the paddle should remain continuously visible to traffic approaching on the respective sides. The paddle leads you into the crosswalk. Look directly at near-side traffic momentarily, turning your head as necessary. 3. Continuing to hold the paddle as described in step 2, look directly at far-side traffic, turning your head as necessary, as you approach the middle of the street. 4. If a driver disregards the STOP paddle, blow one long blast on the whistle to warn the driver while looking directly at him. Key Point: The STOP paddle should be kept raised while a guard is in the roadway. A guard should not switch the STOP paddle from one hand to the other or wave it about while in the roadway.
  • Message Here is a good example of crossing guard technique with a stop paddle.
  • Message If your agency has opted not to use STOP paddles, the hand signal for traffic to stop is as follows: 1. Look directly at the nearest driver to be alerted and point at him with an extended arm and index finger. 2. Continuing to watch driver and to hold extended arm parallel to the ground, raise your palm upward, facing the driver. 3. If a driver disregards the hand signal, blow one long blast on the whistle to warn the driver while looking directly at him. Note: the whistle is a warning device. As the MUTCD cautions in regard to warning signs, “excessive” use can result in reduced effectiveness.
  • Message Now communications to the students: Prior to the guard entering the roadway, verbally remind students to 1. Stay at least one step behind the curb or behind the yellow “stay-back line” 2. Look LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT (and over shoulder if at an intersection) and scan for traffic. 3. When entering roadway to stay in the crosswalk and walk, don't run.
  • Message Here the guard is communicating with the students prior to her going into the street and stopping traffic and prior to the students crossing. She is giving them the proper crossing techniques. Good things to notice from the picture is how far away from the street she is, she is facing the children, and is on their height level making eye contact.
  • Message After guard is in the roadway and it's safe to cross, verbally tell students they can cross, and remind them to continue scanning for traffic.
  • Message Remember these procedures! You don't direct traffic in the regulatory law enforcement sense. You choose adequate gaps in traffic or create adequate gaps in traffic to safely cross students, use pedestrian and/or traffic signals if present. Your presence serves as an easily recognizable cue that pedestrians are about to use the crosswalk, and drivers must stop. Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions about signals and communications?
  • Message Now that you understand signals, communications, and the proper search techniques, let's put it all together and go over step-by-step crossing procedures. The key to safely crossing students, and the safety of the guard, is using or creating gaps in traffic. Again, remember crossing guards do not direct traffic. Here is a video that covers using and creating gaps in traffic called “Hazardous Motorist Behaviors”. PLAY VIDEO
  • Message As you saw in the video, at midblock uncontrolled crosswalks, it is important to assess distances and always give a motorist plenty of time to stop before signaling them that you want their attention because you intend to cross students. Let's look at the rationale for determining what a safe gap is. Stopping Distance = Thinking Distance + Braking Distance. That is your reaction time, in distance traveled, plus the distance your car travels after the brakes are applied.
  • Message This slide shows average stopping distances for various speeds. These calculations use a 1 second thinking or reaction time, and a braking deceleration of 10 ft/sec squared. This is a “comfortable” deceleration and would be attainable under most road conditions. Roads are most slippery during the first 10-15 minutes of a rain, when oils in the pavement are brought to the surface but haven't yet been washed to the sides. Turning vehicles and crossing pedestrians have less traction and motorists' ability to see is reduced in heavy rain. Crossing guards should take note of conditions on the approach and driving behavior at the time and place and make appropriate adjustments; it may well be advisable to use somewhat longer gaps in icy conditions. D = s 2 / 2 x b D = Braking Distance (ft), s = Approach Speed (ft/sec), b = Braking Deceleration (ft/sec 2 ) Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) uses “Comfortable” Braking Deceleration b = 10 ft/sec 2 Note the braking deceleration is for dry pavement and level grade. On an uphill/downhill grade, stopping distance would be reduced / increased. ITE uses 1 second thinking time. 1.47 x (mph) = ft/sec As a rule of thumb, you should not try to signal a motorist inside of 150 ft in a speed limited school zone. Ask the Class: Based on the data shown, does 150 ft rule make sense for normal road conditions? Yes, for school zones up to 30 miles per hour.
  • Message Guards should have visual reference points at 150 ft on or next to the roadway in the directions of approaching traffic.
  • Message Here is an example of less than 150 ft, this could be a hazardous situation if the guard went out into the roadway to stop traffic at this point in time. Ask the Class: Does anybody have any questions on safe gap assessment?
  • Message Let's watch a short video on crossing techniques called “Different Crossing Techniques”. PLAY VIDEO
  • Message Let's review what we just saw on the video. We'll start with crossing procedures at a midblock unsignalized crosswalk: 1. Stand on curb or behind edge of roadway on the side of the street where students approach. Keep students at least one step back from the curb or roadway edge. If a yellow “stand-back” line is marked or taped on sidewalk, it should be at least 3 feet behind the curb. Ask a child who arrives on a bicycle, scooter, or skateboard to dismount and walk the bicycle or scooter or carry the skateboard when crossing.
  • Message 2. As children collect, wait for an opportune time to create a sufficient gap in traffic. Make a final scan for traffic before entering the roadway. Remind children to wait for your verbal direction before starting to cross.
  • Message 3. Raise and display the STOP paddle as you walk to the middle of the roadway. (If using gloves and not using a STOP paddle, make the hand signal to traffic on the near-side approach with the left arm, continuing to hold your upraised palm to that approach as you walk to the middle of the roadway.)
  • Message 4. As you approach the middle of the roadway, check that the STOP paddle is clearly visible to that approach as well. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, make the hand signal with your right arm to traffic on the far-side approach).
  • Message 5. Position in the middle of the street, just outside the crosswalk on the side closest to the approach with greater apparent risk of traffic conflict and face that approach, continuing to display the STOP paddle to both approaches. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, keep both arms extended horizontally to your sides.) Make a final check that traffic on both approaches has stopped.
  • Message 6. Turn your head toward the waiting children and, make eye contact. Verbally direct them to search for traffic as described, and to proceed when the way is clear.
  • Message 7. As children cross behind you, do not allow any driver to cross the crosswalk until the last child of the released group has reached the opposite curb or roadway edge.
  • Message 8. Remain alert for traffic and continue to display the STOP paddle until you have left the roadway. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, do not lower your upraised hand to the near-side approach until you have left the roadway). Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions on unsignalized crossing procedures?
  • Message Now let's go over signalized crossing procedures 1. Stand on curb or behind edge of roadway on the side of the street where students approach. Keep students at least one step back from the curb or roadway edge. If a yellow “stand-back” line is marked or taped on sidewalk, it should be at least 3 feet behind the curb. Instruct any student who arrives on a bicycle, scooter, or skateboard to dismount and walk the bicycle or scooter or carry the skateboard when crossing.
  • Message 2. As children collect, press pedestrian pushbutton, if needed to actuate a phase for pedestrian crossing. Remind children to wait for your signal before starting to cross. When a fresh Walking Person symbol (or “WALK” message) is displayed (or when the appropriate green is illuminated if there is no pedestrian signal), make a final scan for traffic.
  • Message 3. Raise and display the STOP paddle as you walk to the middle of the roadway. (If using gloves and not using a STOP paddle, make the hand signal to traffic on the near-side approach with the left arm, continuing to hold your upraised palm to that approach as you walk to the middle of the roadway.)
  • Message 4. Walk toward the middle of the street, alerting traffic on all approaches (including those that might make left or right turns onto the crosswalk) by holding the STOP paddle high or, if using gloves only, by making the hand signals (as described previously) with each arm.
  • Message 5. Position in the middle of the street, just outside the crosswalk on the side closest to the intersection and face traffic on that side. Continuing to display the STOP paddle to both approaches. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, keep both arms extended horizontally to your sides.) Make a final check that traffic on both approaches has stopped.
  • Message 6. Turn your head toward the waiting children and, making eye contact, verbally direct them to search for traffic, and to proceed when the way is clear.
  • Message 7. As children cross behind you, do not allow any driver to cross the crosswalk until the last child of the released group has reached the opposite curb or roadway edge.
  • Message 8. Remain alert for traffic and continue to display the STOP paddle until you have left the roadway. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, do not lower your upraised hand to the near-side approach until you have left the roadway). Ask the Class: Does anyone have questions about signalized crossing procedures?
  • Message Here are the signalized crosswalk procedures in graphics
  • Message Here are the unsignalized crosswalk procedures in all graphics.
  • Message At crosswalk locations with four or more lanes of traffic (whether it is at a signalized or unsignalized crosswalk location), two guards should be assigned. Each handles one side of the street. 1. Guard on side with children initiates 2. Use applicable procedures for that side only 3. Proceed to middle of traffic lanes 4. Other guard simultaneously alerts and enters the roadway 5. Crosses children the rest of the way
  • Message For the roadway with a median, the procedure is the same.
  • Message If an intersection has a protected left turn signal, a guard shall not cross students on the facing green when a green left turn arrow is indicated. Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions about crossing procedures at a roadway with four or more lanes?
  • Message Here is a reminder list, of crossing Do's and Don'ts. We have already covered these but they are worth reviewing before we move on to the next topic area. 1. Always review the proper search pattern before crossing 2. Maintain control 3. Always cross students when the light is green 4. Always use pedestrian signals if available 5. Always be clear and concise with your signals 6. Establish eye contact 7. Remain alert 8. See and be seen 9. Report dangerous vehicle violations 10. Report uncooperative students 1. Don't assume that cars will stop 2. Don't assume cars will remain stopped 3. Don't cross students if a vehicle is stopped in the crosswalk.
  • Message Bad weather, particularly heavy rain and snow is a reality in Iowa. Guards must understand the implications of bad weather and know how to adjust to the conditions: 1. Inclement weather tends to make people hurry and pay less attention 2. Roads become slippery and stopping distances are increased 3. Visibility may be reduced 4. Electrical storms are dangerous and may disrupt traffic signals.
  • Message These are some of the precautions guards should take. In lower visibility – See and Be Seen 1. Ensure you have motorists' attention before crossing 2. Make eye contact 3. One long blast on whistle 4. Consider retro-reflective traffic cones In rain conditions 1. Increase gap distances due to slippery roads (we will discuss this next) 2. Reduced motorist peripheral vision 3. Wear rain jacket for comfort with vest on outside 4. No umbrella 5. Kids will want to run to get out of the rain, make them walk 6. Increased parent pick-up traffic Lightning 1. If in the vicinity take shelter and advise children to do same. 2. If traffic signal flashing – cross with caution / treat as multi-way stop 3. If traffic signal out, don't cross children, call 911 and then contact your supervisor Ask the Class: This completes this module, are there any questions?

Crossing Guard Training Module 5 Techniques Crossing Guard Training Module 5 Techniques Presentation Transcript

  • MODULE 6 – Crossing Techniques
    • Module Goal
    • Participants will understand and utilize proper crossing techniques in their crossing guard duties.
    • Objective One
    • Participants will recall the use of school crossing guard equipment and proper hand gestures and verbal commands.
    • Objective Two
    • Participants will recall the importance of visibility and conspicuity.
    • Objective Three
    • Participants will recall proper crossing procedures at different crosswalk types and under bad weather conditions.
     
  • VIDEO CLIP  
  • EQUIPMENT
    • A fluorescent and retro-reflective vest
    • A retro-reflective Stop Paddle and/or flourescent or retro-reflective orange or yellow-green gloves.
      • If dark need retro-reflectivity on gloves!!
    • A whistle
  • RETRO-REFLECTIVITY
  • UNIFORM MUTCD
  • UNIFORM
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Definitions
    • Visibility
    • Quality or fact or degree of being visible; perceptible by the eye or obvious to the eye.
    • Conspicuity
    • The state or quality of being clear or bright; brightness; conspicuousness.
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Visibility and conspicuity contribute to safety of guard and students.
    • Fluorescent / retroreflective vest makes guards more conspicuous to motorists while in the street, reducing pedestrian / vehicle crashes
    • Guard’s presence (visibility) tends to deter unlawful / unsafe acts by pedestrians and motorists
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Visual Distractions, Obstructions, and Conditions
      • Visual clutter
      • Visual barriers
      • In vehicle distractions
      • Outside vehicle distractions
      • Weather
      • Night / Low light conditions
    • Many pedestrian-related crashes occur because the driver’s vision was obscured, the driver was inattentive, or the pedestrian was not visible to the driver.
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY Visual Distractions and Obstructions In-Vehicle Distractions Visual Clutter Visual Barriers
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Vest
    • Stop paddle and/or gloves
    • Whistle
    • Hand gestures
    • Make eye contact - Be sure you are seen before stepping in the roadway and crossing students.
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Educate Children
      • Most visible colors
      • Contrasting clothes
      • Least visible
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
  • VISIBILITY AND CONSPICUITY
    • Educate Children
    • See and Be Seen -
      • Drivers need to see you to avoid you.
      • Stay out of the driver's blind spot.
      • Make eye contact with drivers when crossing busy streets.
      • Hold out your arm and wait for traffic to stop before crossing
      • Wear bright colors or reflective clothing and carry a flashlight when walking in the dark.
    • Do not let kids play near traffic or cross the street by themselves.
    • Kids are small, and drivers may not see them if they run into the street.
  • PROPER SEARCH PATTERN
    • A common theme in major crash types is the failure of the pedestrian to search properly before entering the travel lane.
    • One of the roles of the adult crossing guard is to reinforce proper crossing behavior.
    • Within the crosswalk, stop at the edge of the road
    • Look LEFT – RIGHT – LEFT again for traffic
    • If at an intersection, look over your shoulder for turning vehicles
    • Keep scanning as you cross the road
  • PROPER SEARCH PATTERN Left Right Left Scan Midblock Crosswalk
  • PROPER SEARCH PATTERN Left Right Left Over the Shoulder Intersection Crosswalk
  • PROPER SEARCH PATTERN Continue to Scan while Crossing
  • PROPER SEARCH PATTERN Crossing guards need to insist that students perform the proper search pattern each and every time.
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • All communications must be uniform, crisp and clearly informative so that both motorists and pedestrians will know what is expected of them.
    • HAND signals / movements and whistle are to be used with motorists.
    • VERBAL messages only are to be used with pedestrians.
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • Signals and communication with motorists:
      • Students about to enter or in crosswalk (Stop and yield)
      • Stop paddle – with arm parallel to ground, raised perpendicular
      • Gloved hand – raised arm forward, parallel to the ground with palm and fingers extended toward traffic
    • If a driver disregards the STOP paddle, blow one long blast on the whistle to warn the driver while pointing and looking directly at him .
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS Recommended STOP paddle technique
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATION
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS Recommended hand signal technique
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • Communication with students
    • Prior to guard entering roadway, verbally remind students to
      • Stay at least one step behind “stay-back line”
      • Look LEFT-RIGHT-LEFT (and over the shoulder if at an intersection)
      • When entering roadway to stay in crosswalk and walk, don't run.
    • After guard is in roadway and it is safe to cross
      • Verbally tell students they can cross
      • Remind them to continue scanning for traffic. ind them to continue scanning for traffic
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS
  • SIGNALS AND COMMUNICATIONS
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Remember
    • You do not direct traffic in the regulatory law enforcement sense.
    • You choose adequate gaps in traffic or create adequate gaps in traffic to safely cross students – using pedestrian and / or traffic signals if present
    • At these times your presence serves as an easily recognizable cue that pedestrians are about to use the crosswalk, and drivers must stop.
  • VIDEO CLIP  
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Safe Gap Assessment
    • Stopping Distance - The minimum distance in which a vehicle can be brought to rest in an emergency from the moment that the driver notices danger ahead. Stopping distances of vehicles can be estimated by using the formula:
      • Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance
    • The thinking distance is the time taken for the driver to react by applying the brakes of the vehicle. This is known as the reaction time.
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 30 mph 0 1 2 3 4 5 Seconds Braking time Safe Gap Assessment For most road conditions you should pick a gap of at least 150 ft Reaction time Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance Normal road conditions and level grade (estimate only)
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Safe Gap Assessment
    • For most conditions you should pick a gap of at least 150 ft
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Safe Gap Assessment
    • For most conditions you should pick a gap of at least 150 ft
  • VIDEO CLIP
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • Stand on curb or behind edge of roadway on the side of the street where students approach.
    • Keep students at least one step back from the curb or roadway edge. If a yellow “stand-back” line is marked or taped on sidewalk, it should be at least 3 feet behind the curb.
    • Ask a child who arrives on a bicycle, scooter, or skateboard to dismount and walk the bicycle or scooter or carry the skateboard when crossing.
    1 Curbside Assembly
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • As children collect, wait for an opportune time to create a sufficient gap in traffic. Make a final scan for traffic before entering the roadway.
    • Remind children to wait for your verbal direction before starting to cross.
    2 Select an opportune time
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • Raise and display the STOP paddle as you walk to the middle of the roadway. (If using gloves and not using a STOP paddle, make the hand signal to traffic on the near-side approach with the left arm, continuing to hold your upraised palm to that approach as you walk to the middle of the roadway.)
    3 Enter crosswalk, stopping near-side traffic
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • As you approach the middle of the roadway, check that the STOP paddle is clearly visible to that approach as well. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, make the hand signal with your right arm to traffic on the far-side approach.)
    4 Stop far-side traffic
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • Position in the middle of the street, just outside the crosswalk on the side closest to the approach with greater apparent risk of traffic conflict and face that approach, continuing to display the STOP paddle to both approaches. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, keep both arms extended horizontally to your sides.) Make a final check that traffic on both approaches has stopped.
    5 Take position
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • Turn your head toward the waiting children and, making eye contact, verbally direct them to search for traffic as described, and to proceed when the way is clear.
    6 Initiate Crossing
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • As children cross behind you, do not allow any driver to cross the crosswalk until the last child of the released group has reached the opposite curb or roadway edge.
    7 Maintain your position
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Unsignalized Crosswalk
    • Remain alert for traffic and continue to display the STOP paddle until you have left the roadway. (If using gloves and not a STOP paddle, do not lower your upraised hand to the near-side approach until you have left the roadway.)
    8 Return to the starting curb or roadway edge
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 1 Curbside Assembly
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 2 Wait for walk indication
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 3 Enter crosswalk, stopping near-side traffic
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 4 Alert far-side traffic
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 5 Take position
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 6 Initiate crossing
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 7 Maintain your position
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES 8 Return to the starting curb or roadway edge
  • Signalized Crosswalk Procedures
  • Unsignalized Crosswalk Procedures
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Four or More Lanes
    • At a signalized or unsignalized crossing with four or more lanes, two guards should be assigned. Each handles one side of the street.
    • Guard on side with children initiates
    • Use applicable procedures for that side only
    • Proceed to middle of traffic lanes
    • Other guard simultaneously alerts and enters roadway
    • Crosses children the rest of the way
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES Do not cross children during protected Left Turn
  • CROSSING PROCEDURES
    • Do
      • Always review the proper search pattern before crossing
      • Maintain control
      • Always cross students when the light is green
      • Always use pedestrian signals if available
      • Always be clear and concise with your signals
      • Establish eye contact
      • Remain alert
      • See and Be Seen
      • Report dangerous vehicle violations
      • Report uncooperative students
    • Don't
      • Don't assume that cars will stop
      • Don't assume cars will remain stopped
      • Don't cross students if a vehicle is stopped in the crosswalk
  • MANAGING BAD WEATHER
    • Inclement weather tends to make people hurry and pay less attention
    • Roads become slippery and stopping distances are increased
    • Visibility may be reduced
    • Electrical storms are dangerous and may disrupt traffic signals
  • MANAGING BAD WEATHER
    • In lower visibility - See and Be Seen
      • Ensure you have motorist's attention before crossing
      • Make eye contact
      • One long blast on whistle
      • Consider retro-reflective traffic cones or in-crosswalk panels
    • Lightning
      • If in vicinity take shelter and advise children to do same
      • If a flashing red light – cross with caution / treat as multi-way stop
      • If traffic signal out – don't cross children/call 911
    • In rain conditions
      • Increase gap distances due to slippery roads
      • Reduced motorist peripheral vision
      • Wear rain jacket for comfort with vest on outside
      • No umbrella
      • Kids will want to run to get out of the rain – make them walk
      • Increased parent pick-up traffic
    • if traffic signal out – do not cross children / call 911