Crossing Guard Module 2 Law

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Iowa Adult Crossing Guard Training Module 2, Law

Iowa Adult Crossing Guard Training Module 2, Law

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  • Message The goal of Module 3 is that participants will apply knowledge of pedestrian and vehicle laws in their school crossing guard program duties. Participants will demonstrate knowledge of school area traffic regulations and the basic workings of school zone traffic controls.
  • Message Before we get any further into our discussion about traffic control devices found in school areas, let's take a moment to review definitions of some terms we will be using: - Crosswalk means that portion of a roadway ordinarily included within the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections, or any portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. - Intersection means the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. - Official traffic-control signal means any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed. Reference The Iowa Legislator. Iowa Code 321.1 Definitions of Words and Phrases. http://search.legis.state.ia.us/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm
  • Message Here we have more definitions from the Iowa Code. - Right-of-Way means the privilege of the immediate use of the highway. - School District means the territory contiguous to and including a highway for a distance of two hundred feet in either direction from the schoolhouse in a city. - Traffic means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. - Vehicle means every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway. Vehicle does not include: 1. Any device moved by human power. 2. Any device used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. 3. Any integral part of a truck tractor or road tractor which is mounted on the frame of the truck tractor or road tractor immediately behind the cab and which may be used to transport persons and property but which cannot be drawn upon the highway by the truck tractor or another motor vehicle. 4. Any steering axle, dolly, axle, or other integral part of another vehicle which in and of itself is incapable of commercially transporting any person or property but is used primarily to support another vehicle. Reference The Iowa Legislator. Iowa Code 321.1 Definitions of Words and Phrases. http://search.legis.state.ia.us/NXT/gateway.dll?f=templates&fn=default.htm
  • Message According to the Iowa Code the word 'Shall' is used to imply duty, 'Will' is used to imply future tense, and 'May' is used to designate an optional practice. Background These definitions are also subject to case law, which can create interpreation differences. Duty usually means there is a legal obligation and it refers to an action. Reference Iowa Legistlature (2009). Rule Writing Style. Retrieved November 23rd, 2009, from http://www.legis.state.ia.us/Rules/Current/StyleGuide.pdf
  • Message In Iowa, there are a few laws to know in the Iowa Code. The provisions of this chapter apply to the operation of vehicles and bicycles and the movement of pedestrians upon all state-maintained highways, county-maintained highways, and municipal streets and alleys and wherever vehicles have the right to travel. You will need to understand these to know the required legal actions of pedestrians and motorists on and near your assigned crosswalk. Important vehicle laws that guards must know are: 1. Vehicles entering stop or yield intersections must stop at clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk [ I.C.321.322 ]. 2. Vehicles must yield to pedestrians within intersections or crosswalks [ I.C. 321.327 ]. 3. Drivers of vehicles shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with pedestrians upon a roadway including children [ I.C.321.329 ]. 3. Vehicles cannot stop, stand, or park on crosswalk, sidewalk, or in front of a ramp or curb cut [ I.C.321.358 ]. Background According to I.C. 321.482 violations are simple misdimeanors unless otherwise provided. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A (I.C. 321.322 see subsection 8, I.C. 321.329 see subsection 7 paragraph b, I.C. 321.358 see subsection 1 paragraph a). Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or death see 321.482A .
  • Message In Iowa Code 321.322 , the driver of a vehicle approaching a stop intersection indicated by a stop sign shall stop at the first opportunity at either the clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk... Background The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall slow to a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and, if required for safety, shall stop at the first opportunity at either the clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk... [ I.C.321.322 ]. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A , subsection 8. Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or death, see 321.482A .
  • Message This is a You Tube clip made by the Iowa Bicycle Coalition, showing the law we just went over in real time. Click on the “Watch Clip”, it's hyperlinked to video.
  • Message According Iowa Code 321.327 , when traffic control signals are not in place or in operation, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way, slowing down or stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within any marked crosswalk or within any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection, except as otherwise provided in this chapter. Background A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph “ b . Additional penalties for violations causing serious injuy or death, see 321.482A
  • Message Notwithstanding the provisions of section Iowa Code 321.329 states every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian upon any roadway...and shall exercise due care upon observing any child or any confused... Background ...and shall give warning by sounding the horn when necessary...or incapacitated person upon a roadway [ I.C.321.329 ]. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph b Additional penalties for violations causing serious injuy or death, see 321.482A.
  • Message As stated in Iowa Code 321.358 , no parking on sidewalk, in crosswalk, in front of curb cut or ramp or within 10 feet of a flashing beacon, stop sign, or traffic-control signal on the side of the road. Key Point: This applies to school crossing guards parking at their assigned crosswalk! Background No person shall stop, stand, or park a vehicle, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control device, in any of the following places: 1. On a sidewalk, except a bicycle may stop, stand, or park on a sidewalk if not prohibited by a local jurisdiction, 2. On a Crosswalk, 3. Within ten feet upon the approach to any flashing beacon, stop sign, or traffic-control signal located at the side of a roadway. 4. In front of a curb cut or ramp which is located on public or private property in a manner which blocks access to the curb cut or ramp [ I.C. 321.358 ]. For fines applicable to offenses charged as scheduled violations, see 805.8A , subsection 1, paragraph a.
  • Message ASK THE CLASS: What's wrong with this picture?
  • Message Now we will look at important pedestrian laws: 1. Pedestrians are subject to signals [ I.C.321.325 ]. 2. Pedestrians shall walk on left side of road [ I.C.321.326 ]. 3. Pedestrians have the right-of-way where traffic control signals are not in place or in operation [ I.C.321.327 ]. 4. Pedestrians crossing other than at crosswalk shall yield right-of-way to all vehicles upon roadway [ I.C.321.328 ]. Background According to I.C. 321.482 violations are simple misdimeanors unless otherwise provided. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A (I.C. 321.325, 321.326, & 321.328 see subsection 9). Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or death see 321.482A .
  • Message Iowa Code 321.325 states, pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control signals at intersections... Background as heretofore declared in this chapter, but at all other places pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall be subject to the restrictions stated in sections 321.327 to 321.331 [ I.C.321.325 ]. 321.327 Pedestrians' right-of-way 321.328 Crossing at other than crosswalk 321.329 Duty of Driver – Pedestrians crossing or working on highways. 321.330 Use of Crosswalks. 321.331 Pedestrians soliciting rides For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A , subsection 7 paragraph b. Additional penalties for violations causing serious injuy or death, see 321.482A .
  • Message According to Iowa Code 321.326 , pedestrians shall at all times when walking on or along a highway, walk on the left side of such highway. Background For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A , subsection 9.
  • Message Iowa Code 321.328 says when crossing the roadway at any point other than a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection the pedestrian shall yield to the vehicle upon the roadway. Background 1.) Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway except in cities that may restrict such a crossing by ordinance. 2.) Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A , subsection 9.
  • Message The third aspect to Iowa Code 321.328 is where traffic-control signals are in operation at any place not an intersection pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk. Background 3.) Where traffic-control signals are in operation at any place not an intersection pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk [ I.C. 321.328 ]. For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A
  • Message Iowa Code 321.330 states pedestrians shall move, wherever practicable, upon the right half of the crosswalks. Background For applicable scheduled fines, see 805.8A
  • Message According to Iowa Code 321.1 and 321.234 , a bicyclist is any device propelled by human power. Background This is the full Iowa Code regarding bicycles: 1. A person, including a peace officer, riding a bicycle on the highway is subject to the provisions of this chapter and has all the rights and duties under this chapter applicable to the driver of a vehicle, except those provisions of this chapter which by their nature can have no application or those provisions for which specific exceptions have been set forth regarding police bicycles. 2. A person propelling a bicycle on the highway shall not ride other than upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached to the bicycle. 3. A person shall not use a bicycle on the highway to carry more persons at one time than the number of persons for which the bicycle is designed and equipped. 4. This section does not apply to the use of a bicycle in a parade authorized by proper permit from local authorities. [ I.C. 321.234 ] For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A , subsection 9
  • Message With some background information on Iowa's vehicle, pedestrian and bicycle laws that apply to you, we will go over traffic control devices that are fond in the school area. The goal of this topic area is not to make you traffic engineers, but as program coordinators, supervisors, and trainers (or school crossing guards) you need to understand the meanings of all school area traffic control devices. “Traffic control devices” includes legally posted (by state, county or municipality) traffic signs, signal devices and pavement markings. The purpose of traffic control devices is to promote highway safety and efficiency by providing for the orderly movement of all road users on streets highways throughout the nation. Traffic contrl devices notify road users of regulations and provide warning and guidance needed for the reasonably safe, uniform, and efficient operation of all elements of the traffic stream. The five basic requirements of a traffic control device are to: 1. Fulfill a need; 2. Command attention; 3. Convey a clear, simple meaning; 4. Command respect from road users, and 5. Give adequate time for response. It's essential that you know how motorists and pedestrians should respond to these, and insist that students at your assigned crosswalk follow your direction consistent with their meaning under law.
  • Message Traffic control devices have been around almost as long as motorized vehicles. This is an interesting chronology of the development of traffic control devices. Even with very few cars on the road it was evident that something was needed to promote roadway safety and efficiency by providing for the orderly movement of all road users on streets and highways throughout the nation. Early Traffic Control Devices history includes the following: - 1911, a centerline is painted on a Michigan road - 1914, the first electric traffic signal is installed in Cleveland - 1915, the first STOP sign appears in Detroit - 1916, the Federal-Aid Act requires that a State have a highway department before it can get Federal money - 1918, Wisconsin is the first state to erect official route signs as part of its maintenance functions - 1920, the first 3-color traffic signal is installed in Detroit
  • Message Iowa code mandates the “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices” (MUTCD), as the manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices. This also provides a few exceptions to the manual for school zones regarding portable or part-time stop signs. They can be used when necessary for emergency and temporary traffic control zone purposes and in school zones at appropriate school crosswalks. Ask Class: Why do you think it's important to have uniform traffic controls? Background 761—130.1(321) Manual. The “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices” (MUTCD), 2003 Edition including Revision No. 1 dated November 2004, published by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, shall constitute the manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices for use upon the highways of this state. 130.1(1) The department makes the following exception to the MUTCD for school zones: In Part 2, Section 2B.05 of the MUTCD, STOP Sign Applications, Standard, in lieu of the sentence “Portable or part–time STOP signs shall not be used except for emergency and temporary traffic control zone purposes,” the department adopts the following: “Portable or part–time STOP signs may be used only in the following situations: 1. When necessary for emergency and temporary traffic control zone purposes, or 2. In school zones at appropriate school crosswalks.” Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Regardless of the school location, the best way to achieve reasonably safe and effective traffic control is through the uniform application of realistic policies, practices, and standards developed through engineering judgement. Pedestrian safety depends upon public understanding of accepted methods for efficient traffic control. This principle is especially important in the control of pedestrians, bicycles, and other vehicles in the vicinity of schools. Neither pedestrians on their way to or from school nor road users can be expected to move safely in school areas unless they understand both the need for traffic controls and how these controls function for their benefits. Key Point: It's important that school crossing guards educate students walking and bicycling to and from school on traffic safety and the meaning of traffic controls. Procedures and devices that are not uniform might cause confusion among pedestrians and road users, prompt wrong decisions, and contribute to crashes. To achieve uniformity of traffic control in school areas, comparable traffic situations need to be treated in a consistent manner. MUTCD 2003 Edition Section 7A.01 Reference Picture: Crossing Guard Trainer Course. Ames, Iowa (November, 2009).
  • Message Here are a few definitions of some terms we will be using. - A School Area encompasses the streets and highways abutting the grounds of an active educational institution that includes school property. Only streets and highways that are adjacent to a school are included in the school area. - A School Zone is that portion of a street or highway located within a school area that is subject to a reduced speed limit at certain times of a day. A school zone is defined by traffic control devices and normally adjacent to school property. It may be established at other locations when justified by an engineering study. School zones are not to be applied in a blanket manner for all street and highways within a school area. - A School Crossing is an official school student crossing on an adopted school route plan of a school safety program. Any crossing not so officially designated is termed a “pedestrian crossing.”
  • Message A sign is any traffic control device that is intended to communicate specific information to road users through a word or symbol legend. Signs do not include traffic control signals, pavement markings, delineators, or channelization devices . The signs used for school area traffic control must be retroreflectorized or illuminated. School warning signs can be either yellow or yellow-green backgruond with a black legend and border, and should be placed so they are most visible. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Sign assemblies are groups of signs, located on the same support(s), that supplement one another in conveying information to road users. On the screen are signs that you typically see in school areas, these can all be part of a school sign assembly. I'm sure you recognize all of these. We will discuss them one at a time. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual onUniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Warning signs give notice to road users of a situation that might not be readily apparent. School Advance Warning assembly is installed on the roadway in advance of a Crosswalk Warning assembly or in advance of the first School Speed Limit assembly. It includes the Advance Warning sign and an “AHEAD” sign or sign that gives the distance to the school grounds or school crosswalk. According to the MUTCD, if the School Advance Warning assembly is used, it shall be installed not less than 150 ft (45m) nor more than 700 ft (210m) in advance of the school grounds or school crossing. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message This is an example of the School Advance Warning sign in the real world. If used, the School Advance Warning assembly shall consist of a School Advance Warning (S1-1) sign suplemented with a plaque with the legend AHEAD (W16-9p) or XXX FEET (XXX METERS) (W16-2a or W16-2). Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message A Reduced School Speed Zone Ahead sign may be used to provide motorists advance warning of a pending reduced speed school zone. This is used when traffic engineers feel advance warning is needed due to roadway and/or pedestrians conditions or it is designated by statute. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message A real life example of a Reduced School Speed Zone. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Reduced Speed Limit assemblies in school zones are placed either at a point 200 ft in advance of the crosswalk, or at a point 100 ft from the school property line, based on whichever is encountered first as traffic approaches the school. They must also include a “condition” such as 1) times and effect, 2) “when children present” (this may be an option for schools with early release days), or 3) when flashing if a flashing beacon is attached. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message The overhanging flashing beacon is used to increase the visibility for inside lane vehicles on 4 lane roads. Ask the Class: Why would you add a flashing beacon to a school zone? Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here is a real life example of a Reduced Speed Limit sign. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here is a real life example of an overhanging flashing beacon.
  • Message The School Crosswalk Warning assembly is installed at a marked school crosswalk, or as close to it as possible, and consists of a School Advance Warning Sign supplemented with a diagonal downward pointing arrow plaque to show the location of the crossing. The School Crosswalk Warning assembly shall not be installed on approaches controlled by a STOP sign. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here is a real life example of a School Crosswalk Warning sign.
  • Message Remember the two different crossing designations we defined earlier – Pedestrian Crossings and School Crossings. School Crossings are found in school areas and are normally marked by a School Assembly Area sign. All other corssings are “pedestrian crossings”, which are identified to pedestrians and motorists by other signs. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here is another exampel of a pedestrian crosswalk that has a pedestrian actuation button, and arrow pointing to the crosswalk, a yield to sign, and a sign to tell the pedestrian how to handle the crosswalk. There is a lot going on, which may be somewhat distracting, but it's a cool idea.
  • Message The end of an authorized school speed zone can be indicated with either a standard speed limit sign or an End of School Zone sign. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message An example of a real life End of School Zone sign.
  • Message This slide puts it all together. Starting at the school crosswalk, it is identified by School Warning assemblies. Remembering the rule for placement of the School Speed Limit Sign (200 ft from the crosswalk or 100 ft from the school property line, whichever is encountered first by approaching traffic), the sign is placed 100 ft from the school property line. Next, is the School Advance Warning Sign placed 150 – 700 ft in advance of the school grounds or a crossing. The placement of the signs is determined by the placement of the crosswalk. Of course, a driver sees the signs in reverse order – School Advance Warning sign, School Speed Limit sign, School Crosswalk Warning sign, then either a regular speed limit sign or an End School Zone sign. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message In Iowa State Code regarding Traffic Operations [ 761-130.1(1) ], makes the following exception to the MUTCD recommendations for School Zones: (a) In Part 2, Section 2B.05 of the MUTCD, STOP Sign Applications, Standard, in lieu of the sentence, “ Portable or part-time STOP signs shall not be used except for emergency and temporary traffic control zone purposes,” the department adopts the following sentence: “Portable or part-time STOP signs may be used in school zones at appropriate school crosswalks.” (b) In Part 7, Section 7A.04 of the MUTCD, Scope, Standard, in lieu of the sentence “ Portable school signs shall not be used,” the department adopts the following sentence: “ Portable or part-time STOP signs may be used in school zones at appropriate school crosswalks.” Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here are some examples of rollout stop signs that have been in use in Iowa's School Areas.
  • Message Parking and stopping regulatory signs may be used to prevent parked or waiting vehicles from blocking pedestrians' views, and drivers' views of pedestrians, and to control vehicles as a part of the school traffic plan. Key Point: Remember crossing guards are required to obey parking signs. Key Point: Keep signage simple Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Markings can be a useful form of traffic-control. Markings are in the form of words or symbols and are used for the purpose of guiding, warning, or regulating traffic. They are used to support the message of standard signs. Pavement markings are much more susceptible to damage than signs as they are subjected to the constant wear and tear from vehicle tires and snow plows. Guards should make a note to periodically check these and report ineffective markings to their supervisor. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message The SCHOOL marking is used generally in conjunction with a School Advance Warning Sign. Pavement markings should be only one lane in width; however, SCHOOL markings may extend to the width of two approach lanes. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message The SCHOOL marking is used generally in conjunction with a School Advance Warning Sign. Pavement markings should be only one lane in width; however, SCHOOL markings may extend to the width of two approach lanes. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians who are crossing roadways by defining and delineating paths on approaches to and within signalized intersections, and on approaches to other intersections where traffic stops. Crosswalk markings also serve to alert road users of a pedestrian crossing point across roadways not controlled by highway traffic signals or STOP signs. At non-intersection locations, crosswalk markings legally establish the crosswalk. As I mentioned before, crosswalks legally exist on every leg of every intersection. They do not have to be marked to be legal. Any of the 3 styles shown may be used. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Real life examples of the three styles of crosswalks.
  • Message These markings may be used at crosswalks with speed humps. The chevron pattern draws attention to the speed hump. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Since you do not want vehicles to stop in the crosswalk to yield for pedestrians or stop in the crosswalk in response to a traffic signal or stop sign, yield or stop lines may be used to provide a visual reference on how far in advance of the crosswalk motorists are required to stop. If used, yield lines consist of a row of solid white isosceles triangles pointing toward approaching vehicles extending across approach lanes to indicate the point at which the yield is intended or required to be made. Yield lines should be placed between 20 and 50 ft in advance of the nearest crosswalk line at unsignalized midblock crosswalks and a minimum of 4 ft in advance of yield controlled intersections. Parking should be prohibited in the area between the yield line and the crosswalk. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Stop lines consist of solid white lines extending across approach lanes to indicate the point at which the stop is intended or required to be made. They are placed a minimum of 4 ft in advance of the crosswalk at controlled intersections and at least 40 ft in advance of a stop controlled midblock crosswalk. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message The last marking we will discuss is the “stand-back” line. Yellow stand-back lines provide a visual cue where students should wait as they are gathering and waiting to be crossed. If there are not stand-back lines at your crossing location and you would like to add them, talk to your crossing guard supervisor. If the sidewalk is equipped with a detectable warning for the visually impaired, this can be used as a stand-back visual cue for students. Ask the class: Does anyone have any questions about the markings that we covered?
  • Message Now let's see how well you remember the different signs and markings we went over and where they are placed within a school area. Can you tell me where to place the signs and school marking? - Reduce Speed Zone Ahead sign = may be used to provide advance notice of a reduced speed zone. - Advance Warning Assembly = 150 to 700 ft in advance of school grounds or school crossing - SCHOOL Marking = at Advance Warning Assembly location - School Speed Limit Sign = 200 ft from crosswalk or 100 ft from school grounds whichever is encountered first. - Crosswalk Warning Assembly = located at crosswalk - End of School Zone Sign or Regular Speed Sign = at end of speed zone.
  • Message Provided are the general rules for traffic control lights at a midblock pedestrian crossing. At non-intersection crossings, such as signalized midblock crossings, the traffic control signal is actuated by pedestrians. Background At intersections, the signal is normally actuated in response to traffic, but should include pedestrian detectors to sequence the light after pedestrians are present in the crosswalk. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message The design and operation of traffic control signals must take into consideration the needs of pedestrians as well as vehicular traffic. If there are regular pedestrian movements, crosswalks may need pedestrian signal heads, and the facing green signal should be of sufficient time to cross the roadway. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in I.C. 321.325 , Iowa Code 321.257 states a “ steady circuluar green light ” or “ steady green arrow ” means, vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of way to other vehicular and pedestrian traffic lawfully within the intersection. Background For applicable scheduled fines, see I.C. 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph a, and subsection 9.
  • Message When pedestrians face a “steady circular yellow” or “steady yellow arrow”, unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in I.C. 321.325 , they are warned that there is insufficient time to cross the intersection. Any pedestrian starting to cross the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ]. Background For applicable schedule scheduled fines, see I.C. 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph a, and subsection 9.
  • Message Pedestrians facing a steady red signal shall not enter the roadway, unless the pedestrian can safely cross the roadway without interfering with any vehicular traffic [ Iowa Code 321.257 ]. Background For applicable schedule scheduled fines, see I.C. 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph a, and subsection 9.
  • Message To supplement traffic signal controls, traffic signal signs may be used to provide instructions to pedestrians or drivers. This slide shows signs commonly used for pedestrians. When used, traffic signal signs should be located adjacent to the signal face to which they apply. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Sometimes pedestrian control signals are installed in conjunction with traffic control signals (traffic lights) at crosswalk locations. These are installed: - Considering pedestrian volume; - At an established school crossing at any signalized location; - If an exclusive signal phase is provided or made available for pedestrian movements in one or more directions, with all conflicting vehicular movements being stopped; or - In situations that may confuse or cause conflicts with pedestrians using a crosswalk guided only by vehicluar signal indications. This slide shows two different variants of the symbol signal head that you may see. One has both the “hand” and “walking person” symbol on one screen. The other variant has two screens, one for the hand and one for the walking person. Some of the old style “WALK” and “DON'T WALK” signal heads are still in use. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message Here are some real life examples of the WALKING PERSON and HAND pedestrian signals.
  • Message A steady WALKING PERSON or WALK light means that a pedestrian facing the illuminated pedestrain signal may proceed to start to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal, possibly in conflict with turning vehicles, and shall be given the right-of-way by drivers of all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ]. Background For applicable schedule scheduled fines, see I.C. 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph a, and subsection 9.
  • Message A flashing UPRAISED HAND or DON'T WALK light is a pedestrian signal which means that pedestrian traffic facing the illuminated pedestrian signal shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal, but that any pedestrian who has already started to cross on a steady WALKING PERSON signal indication shall proceed out of the traveled way [ I.C.321.257 ]. Background For applicable scheduled fines, see I.C. 805.8A , subsection 7, paragraph a, and subsection 9.
  • Message Sometimes a pedestrian interval countdown display is added to the flashing hand phase to inform pedestrians of the number of seconds remaining in the pedestrian change interval. A pedestrian interval countdown display may be added to a pedestrian signal head in order to inform pedestrians of the number of seconds remaining in the pedestrian change interval. The countdown pedestrian signal shall be located immediately adjacent to the associated UPRAISED HAND pedestrian signal head indication. If used, the display of the number of remaining seconds shall begin only at the beginning of the pedestrian change interval. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message A steady UPRAISED HAND signal indication means that a pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the signal indication. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message If a particular signalized location presents difficulties for pedestrians who have visual disabilities to cross reasonably safely and effectively, an engineering study should be conducted that considers the safety and effectiveness for pedestrians in general, as well as the information needs of pedestrians with visual disabilities. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message When pedestrian actuation is used, pedestrian push button detectors should be capable of easy activation and conveniently located near each end of the crosswalk. Signs shall be mounted adjacent to or integral with pedestrian push button detectors, explaining their purpose and use. Key Point: Normally, push button detectors and signs that give crossing instructions are installed near the near-side signal head. Reference U.S. Department of Transportation ( USDOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 2003 Edition, R1 2004 & R2 2007. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/2003r1r2/pdf_index.htm
  • Message This is how the pedestrian control signal works with the traffic control signal. If installed in conjunction with a traffic control signal, the pedestrian signal changes in sequence with the traffic signal. The WALKING PERSON indication comes on with the facing Green light, indicating you may begin to cross. A flashing hand signal will then follow (still with the facing Green). The FLASHING HAND indicates to pedestrians, do not begin to cross. If you have started and are in crosswalk, you may continue across (some pedestrian signal heads have a countdown with the remaining seconds until the STEADY HAND signal). The STEADY HAND signal comes on with the facing Yellow traffic light and remains as a STEADY HAND until the next facing Green light. The time from the start of the FLASHING HAND to the facing Red signal is called the Pedestrian Clearance Time. The time between the facing Red light and the change from a Red to Green signal on the conflicting traffic signal is the Red Clearance Interval (helps to avoid collisions when motorists run Red lights). If the crossing interval (Walking indication time and pedestrian clearance time) is too short for the width of the road and/or large groups of children being crossed, guards should contact their supervisor to arrange for an evaluation / engineering study. Remember, there needs to be enough time for the guard to enter the crosswalk, stop all traffic safely cross the children, and return to the sidewalk before the STEADY HAND SIGNAL.
  • Message This is a real life example of the pedestrian signals in conjunction with traffic signals. That completes Module 3 Ask the class: Does anyone have any questions about the vehicle and pedestrian laws that we went over or traffic control devices?

Transcript

  • 1. MODULE 2 – Law & Traffic Control Devices
    • Module Goal
    • Participants will apply knowledge of pedestrian and vehicle laws in their school crossing guard program duties.
    • Objective One
    • Participants will demonstrate a knowledge of school area traffic regulations and the basic workings of school zone traffic controls.
     
  • 2.
    • Crosswalk – portion of a roadway ordinarily included within the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections, or any portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.
    • Intersection – area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.
    • Official traffic-control signal – any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed.
    DEFINITIONS
  • 3. DEFINITIONS
    • Right-of-Way – privilege of the immediate use of the highway.
    • School District – territory contiguous to and including a highway for a distance of two hundred feet in either direction from a schoolhouse in a city.
    • Traffic – pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel.
    • Vehicle – every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway.
  • 4. DEFINITIONS
    • Shall – imposes duty
    • Will – future tense
    • May – optional practice
  • 5. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS
    • Important Vehicle Laws to Know:
      • Vehicles entering stop or yield intersections must stop at clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk [ I.C. 321.322 ]
      • Yeild to Pedestrians within intersections or crosswalks [ I.C. 321.327 ]
      • Driver's of vehicles shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with pedestrians upon a roadway including observing children [ I.C.321.329 ].
      • No Stopping, standing, or parking on a crosswalk, sidewalk or in front of a ramp or curb cut [ I.C. 321.358 ]
  • 6. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When required to stop, vehicular traffic must stop before entering the crosswalk or behind a clearly marked stop line [ I.C. 321.322 ]
  • 7. “ Does Anyone Stop at Stop Signs?” Watch Clip!
  • 8. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When traffic control signals are not in place, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians in crosswalks or any unmarked crosswalk at an intersecion [ I.C. 321.327 ]
  • 9. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Every driver of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian upon any roadway and shall exercise due care upon observing any child upon the roadway. [ I.C.321.329 ]
  • 10. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS No parking on a sidewalk, in a crosswalk, in front of a curb cut or ramp or within 10’ of a flashing beacon, stop sign, or traffic-control signal on the side of the road [ I.C. 321.358 ]
  • 11. What's Wrong with this Picture?
  • 12. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS
    • Pedestrian laws to know:
      • Pedestrians are subject to signals [ I.C. 321.325 ]
      • Pedestrians shall walk on left side of road [ I.C. 321.326 ]
      • Pedestrians have the right-of-way where traffic control signals are not in place or in operation [ I.C. 321.327 ]
      • Pedestrians crossing other than at crosswalk shall yield right-of-way to all vehicles upon roadway [ I.C. 321.328 ]
      • Pedestrian shall move upon right half of crosswalk [ I.C.321.330 ].
  • 13. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control signals at intersections [ I.C. 321.325 ]
  • 14. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Pedestrians shall at all times walk on or along the left side of the road [ I.C. 321.326 ]
  • 15. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS When crossing the roadway at any point other than a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection the pedestrian shall yield to the vehicle upon the roadway [ I.C. 321.328 ]
  • 16. VEHICLE/PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC LAWS Where traffic-control signals are in operation at any place not an intersection pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk [ I.C. 321.328 ]
  • 17. Vehicle/Pedestrian Traffic Laws Pedestrians shall move, wherever practicable, upon the right half of crosswalks [ I.C.321.330 ].
  • 18. VEHICLE/BICYCLE TRAFFIC LAWS
    • Bicycle Law
      • Every person propelling a device by human power has all of the rights and all of the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle [ I.C. 321.1 & 321.234 ]
  • 19. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, AND MARKINGS
    • Traffic Control Devices Include:
      • Traffic signs
      • Traffic signals
      • Pedestrian signals
      • Pavement markings
    • Must satisfy five basic requirements:
      • Fulfill a need;
      • Command attention;
      • Convey a clear, simple meaning;
      • Command respect from road users;
      • Give adequate time for response.
  • 20. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, and MARKINGS
    • Early Traffic Control Devices:
      • 1911, a centerline is painted on a Michigan road
      • 1914, the first electric traffic signal is installed in Cleveland
      • 1915, the first STOP sign appears in Detroit
      • 1916, the Federal-Aid Act requires that a State have a highway department before it can get Federal money
      • 1918, Wisconsin is the first state to erect official route signs as part of its maintenance functions
      • 1920, the first 3-color traffic signal is installed in Detroit
  • 21. TRAFFIC SIGNS, SIGNALS, and MARKINGS
    • Background Law:
      • I.C. 761-130.1(321) Constitutes the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), 2003 ed. As the manual and specifications a uniform system of traffic control devices in Iowa.
      • 130.1(1) Gives exceptions to manual for specific for school zones regarding portable or part-time stop signs:
        • Emergency and temporary traffic control purpose
        • At appropriate school crosswalks.
  • 22. Uniformity
    • Reasonably safe and effective traffic control through uniformity:
      • Policies
      • Practices
      • Standards
  • 23. Definitions
    • School Area – Those streets and highways abutting the grounds of an active educational institution that includes school property. Only streets and highways that are adjacent to a school are included in the school area.
    • School Zone – That portion of a street or highway located within a school area that is subject to a reduced speed limit at certain times of a day. A school zone is defined by traffic control devices and normally adjacent to school property. It may be established at other locations when justified by an engineering study. School zones are not to be applied in a blanket manner for all streets and highways within a school area.
    • School Crossing – An official school student crossing on an adopted school route plan of a school safety program. Any crossing not so officially designated is termed a “pedestrian crossing.”
  • 24. SCHOOL AREA TRAFFIC SIGNS
    • Standard
      • shall be retroreflectorized or illuminated.
      • shall have a yellow or yellow-green background with a black legend and border.
      • should be placed where messages are most effective without restricting lateral clearance or sight distances.
      • Placement should consider highway design, alignment, vehicle speed, and roadside development.
    MUTCD
  • 25. SCHOOL AREA TRAFFIC SIGNS MUTCD
  • 26. SCHOOL ADVANCE WARNING Installed in advance of the school grounds or school crossings*. Used in advance of any installation of the School Crosswalk Warning assembly , or in advance of the first installation of the School Speed Limit assembly . The assembly shall be installed not less than 150 ft (45m) nor more than 700 ft (210m). Reduced speed zone Crosswalk Warning assembly MUTCD
  • 27. SCHOOL ADVANCE WARNING
  • 28. REDUCED SCHOOL SPEED ZONE AHEAD May be used to provide road users advance notice of a reduced speed zone *. The speed limit displayed on the Reduced Speed School Zone Ahead sign shall be identical to the speed limit displayed on the subsequent School Speed Limit sign or School Speed Limit assembly. Reduced speed zone MUTCD * Note: Placement in advance of school speed zone dictated by MUTCD Design Standards.
  • 29.
  • 30.
    • Reduced speed zones should begin 200 ft (60m) from a school crosswalk, or 100 ft (30m) prior to the school property line *.
    • The School Speed Limit assembly shall be
      • fixed-message sign assembly
      • changeable message sign.
    • A Speed Limit Sign Beacon also may be used, with a WHEN FLASHING legend, to identify the periods that the school speed limit is in effect.
    SCHOOL SPEED LIMIT MUTCD * Note: Placement dictated by MUTCD Design Standards.
  • 31. SCHOOL SPEED ZONE SIGNS
  • 32. SCHOOL SPEED ZONE
  • 33. SCHOOL SPEED ZONE
  • 34.
    • Installed at the marked crosswalk, or as close as possible.
    • Shall not be used at marked crosswalks except those:
      • Adjacent to schools
      • onn established school pedestrian routes.
    • Shall not be installed on if controlled by a STOP sign.
    SCHOOL CROSSWALK WARNING R1-6 not used at signalized crosswalks OR MUTCD Located in Street Old Style
  • 35. School Crosswalk Warning Old Style High Visibility
  • 36. SEE THE DIFFERENCE??
  • 37. PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK SIGN
  • 38. PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK
  • 39.
    • Shall be marked with standard Speed Limit sign for the section of highway that follows
    • Or with an END SCHOOL ZONE sign.
    END SCHOOL ZONE School speed zone MUTCD
  • 40. END OF SCHOOL ZONE
  • 41. Or Or Or Or MUTCD
  • 42. PORTABLE STOP SIGNS
    • “ Portable or part-time STOP signs may be used in school zones at appropriate school crosswalks.”
    • Iowa State Code makes the following exception to the MUTCD for School Zones [ 761-130.1(1) ]:
  • 43. PORTABLE STOP SIGNS
  • 44.
    • May Use:
    • To prevent vehicles blocking pedestrians' and driver views.
    • As school traffic plan to control vehicles.
    PARKING AND STOPPING SIGNS
    • No Parking X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only;
    • No Stopping X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only;
    • X Min Loading X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only; and
    • No Standing X:XX AM to X:XX PM School Days Only
    MUTCD
  • 45. MARKINGS
    • Pavement word (preferred) and symbol markings can:
      • Guide, Warn, & Regulate.
      • Shall be white
      • Shall not be used for mandatory messages except in support of standard signs
      • Supplement warning and regulatory signs.
      • Not used as sole protection for children
      • Should be limited to roadways adjacent to school grounds
      • Need to be maintained!
      • Can be hidden by vehicles
    MUTCD
  • 46. MARKINGS The SCHOOL marking is generally used in conjunction with a School Advance Warning Sign. White
  • 47. MARKINGS
  • 48. CROSSWALK
    • Provide guidance for pedstrians
      • Define and delineating paths
    • Serve to alert road users of a pedestrian crossing point
    • At non-intersection locations, crosswalk markings legally establish the crosswalk.
    MUTCD
  • 49. CROSSWALK EXAMPLES Any of these 3 styles may be used.
  • 50. CROSSWALK Speed Humps with Crosswalks MUTCD
  • 51. YIELD LINES Unsignalized midblock crosswalk May use to indicate the point behind which vehicles are required to yield. Minimum of 4 ft in advance at signalized crosswalk MUTCD Yield Poin t
  • 52. STOP LINES Stop lines may be used to indicate the point behind which vehicles are required to stop. Stop Point ≥ 4 ft Stop Point MUTCD or or
  • 53. Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program SIDEWALK Gives children a visual cue to keep them a safe distance back from the curb or edge of the street. Yellow “stand-back” line is marked or taped on sidewalk. OPTIONAL Detectable Warning
  • 54. 400 Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program Module - 2 / Law & Traffic Control Devices 200 ft
  • 55. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS
    • Midblock pedestrian crossing:
    • Should be pedestrian-actuated.
    • Parking and other sight obstructions should be prohibited for at least 100 ft in advance of and at least 20 ft beyond the crosswalk.
    • Should include suitable standard signs and pavement markings.
    MUTCD
  • 56. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS
    • Design and operation shall consider the needs of pedestrian as well as vehicular traffic.
    • Signal faces conveniently visible to pedestrians shall be provided by pedestrian signal heads or a signal face for an adjacent vehicular movement.
    • Pedestrians should be provided with sufficient time to cross the roadway
      • Adjustments can be made for more time, call traffic engineer to observe and adjust
    Iowa Adult School Crossing Guard Training Program Module - 2 / Law & Traffic Control Devices MUTCD
  • 57. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS “ steady circular green light ” or “ steady green arrow ” vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicular and pedestrian traffic lawfully within the intersection [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  • 58. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS “ steady circular yellow ” or “ steady yellow arrow ” Are advised that there is insufficient time to cross the intersection. Any pedestrian starting to cross the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  • 59. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS
    • “ steady circular red ”
    • Shall not enter the roadway, unless the pedestrian can safely cross the roadway without interfering with any vehicular traffic [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  • 60.
    • May be used to provide instructions to pedestrians or drivers with traffic signal controls.
    • Should be located adjacent to the signal face to wich they apply.
    • Applicable to pedestrians include:
    TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS Signage MUTCD
  • 61. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS
    • Shall be used in conjunction with traffic control signals if justified by an engineering study.
    • Exclusively intened for controlling pedestrian traffic
    • Consist of the illuninated symbols of a WALKING PERSON (symbolizing WALK) and an UPRAISED HAND (symbolizing DONT WALK)
    MUTCD OR
  • 62.
  • 63. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS
    • A steady WALKING PERSON or WALK light means
      • Pedestrian facing the illuminated pedestrian signal indication may proceed to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal, possibly in conflict with turning vehicles
      • Shall be given the right-of-way by drivers of all vehicles [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  • 64. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS
    • A flashing UPRAISED HAND or DON'T WALK light means
      • pedestrian traffic facing the illuminated pedestrian signal shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian signal
      • Any pedestrian already crossing on a steady WALKING PERSON signal indication shall proceed [ I.C. 321.257 ].
  • 65. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS
    • A pedestrian interval countdown display
      • May be added to inform pedestrians of time left to cross.
      • Shall be located immediately adjacent to the associated UPRAISED HAND pedestrian signal head indication.
      • Displayed of the number of remaining seconds shall begin only at the beginning of the pedestrian change interval.
    MUTCD 4 4
  • 66.
    • A steady UPRAISED HAND signal indication means
    • Pedestrian shall not enter the roadway in the direction of the illuminated pedestrian signal.
    PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD
  • 67. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD Some pedestrian signals provide audio cues to inform pedestrians with visual disabilities. OR
  • 68.
    • Pedestrian Detectors and Signage
    • Detectors should be capable of easy activation and conveniently located near each end of the crosswalk.
    • Signs shall be mounted adjacent to or integral with pedestrian push button detectors, explaining their purpose and use.
    PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS MUTCD
  • 69. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL SIGNALS Pedestrian Clearance Time Facing Traffic Signal Red Clearance Interval (≤ 6 SEC) Conflicting Traffic Signal
  • 70.
  • 71. PEDESTRIAN LEAD INTERVAL