Message: This module provides crossing guards and trainers with a perspective on pedestrian and vehicle crashes and why school crossing guards are important for the safety of students. Participants should be able to recognize the hazards associated with pedestrians on the roadway. During this module participants will first recall the types and major causes of vehicular and pedestrian crashes. Secondly they will recognize the perspective and limitations of children in traffic.
Message School crossing guards play a vitally important role nationwide in child safety. Pedestrian and motor vehicle crashes are a serious problem throughout the world and the United States has a particular problem with pedestrian death and injury. In 2005 there were 4,881 pedestrian deaths and 64,000 injuries were related to a motor vehicle crash in the United States. Within the 5 to 15 year age group 275 were killed and 15,000 injured Nationally (NHTSA, 2005) Background The word “crash” may develop into a new concept for some participants. It can be described as the event in which a bicyclist or pedestrian collides with the ground, a motor vehicle, or any other solid object in a way that can result in bodily harm and/or property damage. Historically, these events were called accidents. The term accident implies heavy doses of chance, unknown causes, and the connotation that nothing can be done to prevent them. Reference NHTSA (2005). Traffic Safety Facts. 2005.
Message The common threads of crashes can be characterized within the framework of motorist and pedestrian behaviors, roadway characteristics and environmental influences. Pedestrian and motor vehicle crashes are not random events. Crash patterns are predictable because of repetitive motorist and pedestrian behaviors, roadway characteristics and environmental influences. Understanding these factors can help with the development of appropriate countermeasures to reduce pedestrian and motor vehicle crashes. Background In the 1970s, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) began to study the sequence of events and contributing factors leading to pedestrian and motor vehicle crashes. These studies lead to the developmet of crash types that characterize motorist and pedestrian behaviors, roadway characteristics and environmental influences. Reference
Message The U.S. DOT/FHWA in their Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System uses these 13 crash type groups. We will look closer at the first 11 which are more likely to affect children. The 13 Crash types are: 1. Dart-Out/Dash 2. Multiple Threat/Trapped 3. Unique Midblock 4. Through Vehicle at Unsignalized Location 5. Bus-Related 6. Turning Vehicle 7. Through Vehicle at Signalized Location 8. Walking Along Roadway 9. Working/Playing in Roadway 10. Non-Roadway 11. Backing Vehicle 12. Crossing Expressway 13. Miscellaneous
Message The first crash type is Dart-Out/Dash. In this crash, the pedestrian either ran into the roadway in front of a motorist whose view of the pedestrian was blocked until an instant before impact (Dart-Out), or the pedestrian walked or ran into the road and was struck by a motorist whose view was not obstructed (Dash). You will soon see when we review some crash statistics, this scenario is one of the most common for school aged children. After our discussion of a child's perspective of traffic, you should understand why children will suddenly dart out into traffic.
Message In Multiple Threat/Trapped crash type, the pedestrian enters the roadway in front of stopped or slowed traffic and is struck by a second vehicle in an adjacent lane after becoming trapped in the middle of the roadway. Possible causes for this type of crash are: 1. The pedestrian entered the traffic lane in front of stopped traffic and was struck by a vehicle traveling in the same direction as the stopped vehicle. The stopped vehicle may have blocked the visibility between the pedestrian and the striking vehicle, and/or the motorist may have been speeding (multiple threat, see diagram 1). 2. The pedestrian began crossing on green signal and became trapped in the roadway when the signal change (see diagram 2).
Message A Unique Midblock is where a pedestrian is struck while crossing the road to or from a mailbox, newspaper box, or ice-cream truck, or while getting into or out of a stopped vehicle. Possible Causes for this crash type: 1. Pedestrian struck while going to / from a private residence mailbox / newspaper box ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Pedestrian struck while going to / from an ice-cream vendor or similar destination ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Pedestrian struck while getting into / out of parked vehicle ( see diagram 3 ).
Message The Through Vehicle At Unsignalized Location crash type is where a pedestrian is struck at an unsignalized intersection or midblock location. In most cases the cause of this type of collision is that either the motorist or the pedestrian failed to yield. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Motorist fails to yield to pedestrian at two-lane, low-speed road crosswalk (or unmarked crossing). 2. Pedestrian has difficulty crossing multilane road (which may also have high travel speeds and/or high traffic volumes). 3. Motorist is unwilling to yield due to high motorist speeds or high traffic volumes.
Message The Bus-Related crash type is another crash that is prevalent with school aged children. The pedestrian was struck by a vehicle while walking or crossing to a bus stop, waiting at a bus stop or crossing in front of a bus stopped at a bus stop. Although many states have laws that require motorists to stop for school buses, injuries and deaths still occur. Students should be taught about school bus danger zones. They should approach or exit the school bus from at least 10 feet in front of the bus. This helps them be visible to both the bus driver and other motorists. You probably have seen the crossing control arm on the newer buses. These force kids to walk a safe distance in front of the bus to make them visible to the driver. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Overtaking motorist fails to stop behind stopped school bus ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Pedestrian has difficulty crossing midblock at transit stop ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Pedestrian has difficulty walking along roadway or crossing to bus stop at midblock location with high vehicle speeds, high volumes, or unlighted conditions ( see diagram 2 ).
Message Turning Vehicle is a common pedestrian and motor vehicle crash affecting pedestrians of all ages. In this scenario, the pedestrian attempts to cross at an intersection, driveway, or alley and is struck by a vehicle that is turning right or left. This includes vehicles turning into crosswalks, failing to yield to pedestrians when they are legally crossing on a green light and pedestrian signal. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Conflict between pedestrian and left-turning vehicle ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Conflict between pedestrian and right-turning vehicle ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Inadequate sight distance and/or intersection geometrics.
Message The Through Vehicle at Signalized Location crash is where a pedestrian is struck at a signalized intersection or midblock location by a vehicle that is traveling straight ahead. This includes scenarios where the motorist and pedestrian are at fault. Possible Causes of this type of crash are: 1. Pedestrain could not see traffic signal ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Excessive delay to pedestrians prior to getting the WALK interval ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Lack of pedestrian compliance with WALK phase due to other causes ( see diagram 2 ). 4. Motorist ran red light at signalized intersection ( see diagram 2 ).
Message In a Walking Along Roadway, a pedestrian is walking or running along the roadway and is struck from the front or from behind by a vehicle. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Inadequate walking area. 2. High vehicle speeds and/or volume. 3. Inadequate route to school. 4. Sidewalks are not fully accessible, or are blocked by parked cars, garbage and recycling containers. It's important that when schools develop their walk route plan, there are sidewalks present to prevent children from walking in the streets. We will discuss school walk routes in more detail in the next module.
Message Another crash type that typically involves children is Working/Playing in Roadway . In this crash, a vehicle strikes a pedestrian who is standing or walking near a disabled vehicle, riding a play vehicle (such as a wagon, sled, or tricycle), playing in the roadway or working in the roadway. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Worker, policeman, etc. struck in roadway (arterial street) ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Pedestrian was struck playing on foot or on play vehicle (e.g., skateboard, wagon, sled, in-line skates) on local/collector street. ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Vehicle speeds are excessive on local streets ( see diagram 2 ). 4. Walking to or from disabled vehicle ( see diagram 2 ).
Message A Non-Roadway crash type involves a pedestrian standing or walking near the roadway edge, on the sidewalk, in a driveway or alley, or in a parking lot, when struck by a vehicle. Possible Causes of this crash type are: 1. Pedestrain was struck while waiting to cross roadway, standing at or near curb ( see diagram 1 ). 2. Pedestrian was struck in parking lot, driveway, private road, gas station, alley, etc. ( see diagram 2 ). 3. Vehicle entered or exited a driveway or alley and struck pedestrian ( see diagram 2 ).
Message Backing Vehicle crash type is just as its name suggests. A pedestrian is struck by a backing vehicle on a street, in a driveway, on a sidewalk, in a parking lot, or at another location. Ask the Class: Does anyone have any questions or comments regarding crash types?
Message Let's review some high points of the DVD. Children See Differently: 1. They have lower eye level. Parked cars and other obstacles block their view of oncoming traffic. 2. Their field of vision is only two-third's that of an adult so cars come into view later. 3. They do not judge speed and distance well. Children may dart into the road because they feel they have plenty of time to make it across, and sometimes they mistakenly think that. 4. If I can see the car...then it can see me.
Message Children Hear Differently. They can't determine the source of sounds as well as adults. Children may think that the sound they are hearing is far away or coming from another direction.
Message Children Perceive Traffic Situations Differently. They do not possess the time and experience in traffic situations and don't know what to expect from cars. This means that they may not recognize a dangerous situation. For instance, they may assume that a car will automatically stop at a crosswalk or once one car stops all will.
Message Children React Spontaneously and Unexpectedly. Children tend to concentrate on only one thing at a time. That can be dangerous around roads when the focus is not on traffic. Once they are moving it's hard to stop that motion. It's hard to get them disengaged from the activity that they are focused on, even if it takes them into the street, whether it's chasing after a ball or running to follow a friend across the street. They overestimate their ability. They may think they are faster than the car and can make it across the street in time.
Message A study (Dunne et al., 1992), asserts that parents overestimate their children's ability to handle street crossings. They overestimate what the children know and how well they will perform. The discrepancy between expectations and performance is greatest for younger children (5 years). Reference U.S. Department of Transportation (2004, January). A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad . Publication Number FHWA-RD-03-042/
Message In conclusion, kids are different from adults in the way they perceive traffic because: 1. Parked cars block a motorist and child's view. 2. Children have a narrower field of view – you may see them, but they may not see you. 3. Kids have not developed the ability to judge speed and distance, may run into traffic. 4. Kids may not understand traffic patterns while crossing a roadway. 5. When kids are focused, they may not see a traffic hazard. Key Point: A child's physical and psychological development affects their ability to detect and recognize traffic risks and make safe choices.
MODULE 1 – Hazards of the RoadwayModule GoalRecognize pedestrian hazards.Objective OneRecall the types of vehicular and pedestrian crashes.Objective TwoRecognize the perspective and limitations of children in traffic.
SCHOOL CROSSING GUARDS ARE IMPORTANT • 5 to 15 years olds - 183 Killed and 13,000 injured • “Safety of trips to and from school can be enhanced by sidewalks and proper signalization, but also by well-trained adult crossing guards and selective police enforcement.”. A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad / U.S. DOT, Jan 2004
PEDESTRIAN CRASH TYPES • Pedestrian / motor vehicle crashes are not random events. • Understanding these factors can help develop counter measures to reduce pedestrian / motor vehicle crashes.
PEDESTRIAN CRASH TYPES1. Dart-Out / Dash2. Multiple Threat / Trapped3. Unique Mid-block4. Through Vehicle at Un-signalized Location5. Bus-Related6. Turning Vehicle7. Through Vehicle at Signalized Location8. Walking Along Roadway9. Working / Playing in Roadway10.Non-Roadway11.Backing Vehicle12.Crossing Expressway13.Miscellaneous
DART-OUT/DASH Dart-Out DashPedestrian ran in front of a Pedestrian walked or ran into motorist whose view of them road and was struck by a was blocked. motorist whose view was not blocked.
MULTIPLE THREAT/TRAPPEDThe pedestrian entered the roadway in front of stopped orslowed traffic and was struck by a second vehicle in an adjacentlane after becoming trapped in the middle of the roadway.
UNIQUE MIDBLOCKThe pedestrian was struck while crossing the road to / from a unique locationExample: mailbox, newspaper box, or ice-cream truck, or while getting into or out of a stopped vehicle.
THROUGH VEHICLE AT UNSIGNALIZED LOCATION• The pedestrian was struck at an unsignalized intersection or mid-block location.• Either the motorist or the pedestrian may have failed to yield.
BUS-RELATED• Walking or crossing to a bus stop;• Waiting at a bus stop; or• Crossing in front of a bus stopped at a bus stop.
TURNING VEHICLEPedestrian crossing at an intersection,driveway, or alley.Vehicle turning right or left.
THROUGH VEHICLE AT SIGNALIZED LOCATION The pedestrian was struck at a signalized intersection or mid- block location by a vehicle that was traveling straight ahead. Diagram 1 Diagram 2
WALKING ALONG ROADWAYPedestrian was walking along the roadway.Struck from the front or from behind by avehicle.
WORKING/PLAYING IN ROADWAY A vehicle struck a pedestrian who was: • Standing or walking near a disabled vehicle, • Riding a play vehicle • Playing in the roadway • Working in the roadway
NON-ROADWAYPedestrian near roadway edge, sidewalk,driveway, alley, or parking lot.
CONCLUSION• Parked cars block a motorist’s and child’s view• Children have a narrower field of view – you may see them, but they may not see you• Kids have not developed the ability to judge speed and distance – may run into traffic• Children’s sense of hearing is still developing – may not respond quickly to a horn• Kids may not understand traffic patterns while crossing a roadway• When kids are focused, they may not see a traffic hazard