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Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
Cooked Sausage
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Cooked Sausage

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Technical presentation on the science and manufacture of cooked and fresh sausage.

Technical presentation on the science and manufacture of cooked and fresh sausage.

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Material
    •  Meat
    •  Fat
    •  Water/ice
    •  Casing
  • 3.
    • Additives
    •  Phosphate
    •  Salt
    •  Colour stabilizer
    •  Spice/herbs
    •  Salt of food grade
    •  Acids (citrate….)
  • 4. 3. Technology  Emulsion technology  Filling - stuffing  Pasteurising  Cooling  Storage
  • 5.
    • Meat:
    • Use only well chilled meat, temp < 4°C
    • Low bacteria count  impact on shelf life, & colour development
    • Pre-grinding/mincing is recommended
    • Not more than 20% PSE or DFD - meat from the total amount of lean meat
    •  PSE: negative influence on water binding, pale (bright) colour
    •  DFD: negative impact on colour development, short shelf life
    • Free of sinews
    • Meat should contain a certain amount of inter-muscular connective tissue (positive impact on bite and structure)
  • 6.
    • ‘ Hot – carcass - meat’ shows best water binding  no addition of phosphate needed ! ! ! !
    •  No connecting bridges between actin and myosin
    •  Large space between actin and myosin
    •  Large amount of water can be bound
    •  Solubility of protein is high  no connecting bridges and therefore higher solubility
  • 7.
    • Beef within 3 - 4 hours, pork within one hour
    • Preserving of ‘hot - carcass - meat’:
    • 1. Mincing - salting
    • Storage time max. 3 - 4 days
    • 2. Fast freezing
    • Defrosting not necessary  usage of water instead of ice
    • Usage of meat in slightly frozen conditions & addition of
    • salt  risk of “Tau Rigor”
  • 8.
    • Fat:
    • Use only well chilled fat only, temp < 4°C
    • Fresh, low bacteria count
    • No fat containing long - chained saturated fatty acid  suet taste
    • No rancid fat
    • Pre - grinding is recommended
    • Water/Ice:
    • Must be of good quality (food grade)
    • Cooling during chopping
    • Solubility of protein
  • 9.
    • Casings:
    • Natural or artificial casings
    • Treatment as recommended according to the type of casing
    • Wash natural casings well before usage
    • Store natural casings under cold conditions with sufficient salt
    • Ensure adequate soaking time for artificial casings
  • 10.
    • Phosphate:
    • Solubility of protein immensely improved
    •  Positive impact on water binding and texture (firmness)
    • Pyro (di) – phosphate shows greatest impact
    • Proper dosage is required  otherwise negative impact in taste
    • Store in a dry area
    • Add at the beginning of your cutting process
  • 11.
    • Curing salt:
    • Store in a dry area
    • Min. 16g/kg  increase of ionic concentration
    •  impact on protein activation  water binding, texture taste….
    • Nitrite:  colour  curing flavour  inhibits bacterial growth
    • Add total amount of salt to lean meat
    •  activation of protein improved
  • 12.
    • Colour stabilizer: (ascorbic acid…)
    • Store in dry area
    • Never add ascorbic acid directly to nitrite curing salt  chemical reaction  nitrite falls out (pop)
    • Spice / Herbs:
    • According to the product
    • Salts of food grade acids:
    • Increase of ionic concentration  improved solubility of muscular protein
    •  Positive impact on water binding, texture, bite…
  • 13.
    • 1) MSG Mono - Sodium - Glutamate or Potassium Glutamate
    •  Salt of glutamic acid
    •  Enhances meaty and salty taste
    •  Reduces bitter taste
    •  No impact on sweet and sour taste
    •  0.5 – 5 grams per kg of production
    • 2) Ribotide
    •  IMP: inosin - 5 Monophosphate
    •  GMP: Guanosin - 5 Monophosphate
    •  Strong synergistic effect when mixed in a ratio of 1:1
    •  Mix is called ‘Ribotide’
    •  40 to 50 times stronger than MSG
    •  Mix 19kg MSG & 1kg Ribotides = same effect as 100kg of MSG
  • 14.
    • Goal: To reactivate protein as much as possible
    Before starting the emulsion process, standardizing of the materials to be used is of utmost importance!!!
  • 15.
    • 1. Lean Meat Method:
    • Start chopping the lean meat in slow gear and add phosphate blend…, Spice,  temp: < 4°C
    • Add approx 60% of ice / water and curing salt  temperature approximately 0°C
    • Once 4°C is reached > add remaining ice and fat
    • Continue chopping with high rotational speed until approximately 12°C
    •  Advantages:  Optimal activation of the protein
    •  Good meat bite
    •  Point of time for adding ice can be controlled
    •  Disadvantage:  Quite labour intensive
  • 16.
    • 2. Fat Method:
    • Start chopping the lean meat 4°C by adding phosphate, approx 60% of ice/ water, salt and spice  temperature approximately 0°C
    • Continue chopping until you reach 4°C and add the remaining ice
    • Temperature drops  continue chopping to approximately 0°C
    • Take cold, lean mass out of the bowl cutter
    • Place fat only in the cutter and cut fat fine  final temperature approximately 10°C
    • Gradually mix the cold lean mass to the fine fat and cut until 12°C is reached
    •  Advantages:  For special types of sausages only (Weisswurst…), extremely soft bite, light colour
    •  Disadvantage:  Very labour intensive
  • 17.
    • 3. All – in - method
    • Place all materials and additives in the cutter and continue chopping until 12°C is reached
    •  Advantages:  Little work and simple
    •  Disadvantages:  Large fat surface > soft bite
    •  Lighter colour as lean meat method
    •  Less protein is activated due to the presence of fat right at the beginning of the chopping process
    • All these methods can be done in a bowl - cutter
    •  Advantages of a bowl cutter:  Controlled process
    •  Disadvantage of a bowl cutter:  Batch production
    •  Loss in time through loading and unloading
  • 18. 4°C Start chopping process in slow gear with raw materials used according to the recipe, lean meat, phosphate… Approx. 0°C After mixing add about 60% of ice and salt 4°C 4°C Approx. 12°C Spices are added Rest of the ice is added Fat material is added Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear          
  • 19. 4°C Approx. 0°C After mixing add about 60% of ice and salt Spices are added 4°C 0°C to 2°C Take the ‘lean mass’ out of the cutter and place fat into cutter Approx. 8°C Chop the well chilled fat material finely & then gradually mix the ‘lean mass’ with the ‘fat mass’ Approx.12°C Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear Start chopping process in slow gear with raw materials used according to the recipe, lean meat, phosphate…           
  • 20. Comminute the lean meat, fat, ice, salt, additives… in one step Approx. 12°C Finishing chopping after approx. 5 turns on slow gear 
  • 21.
    • Chopping without a vacuum:
    • High speed of the knives  considerable amount of oxygen is incorporated into the sausage mix
    • Effect on:
    •  C olour (too pale, graying, bad colour stability
    •  Taste (off taste, rancidity is accelerated)
    •  C onsistency (soft in bite)
  • 22.
    • Chopping under vacuum:
    • Removal of oxygen
    • Stronger colour
    • Reduction of oxidative processes
    • Reduction of the number of pores (pockets) which may turn gray
    • ★ Note:
    • Complete absence of air during chopping  compression of the mix  volume reduction and firm bite
    • Re-gasing with nitrogen is possible
  • 23.
    • To handle the temperature problem more effective  cooling of the sausage mix
    •  CO 2 (carbon dioxide):
    • This gas reacts with the water in the sausage mix  formation of carbonic acid  pH-value drops down  water binding negatively influenced
    • Release of bound gas  bursting of the casings possible
    •  N 2 (nitrogen):
    • This gas doesn’t react with water  inert gas
    •  When coarse meat particles (pre-salted) are mixed with the fine mass
      • Difference in temperature is little
      • Water separation
  • 24.
    • Filling - stuffing:
    • Mechanical treatment of the sausage mix  always negative impact on the emulsion
    • Speed (pressure) not too high
    • Application of vacuum is recommended
    • Keep filling machine clean & sterilised
  • 25.
    • Smoking – pasteurising:
    •  Smoking  according to the product type
    •  impact on:
    • * Colour
    • * Flavour (taste)
    • * Bite (formaldehyde reacts with amino acids -hardening of the casing)
    • * Shelf life
  • 26.
    • Pasteurising:
    • Min. 70°C core temperature
    • Coagulation of protein
    • Reduction of bacteria count  impact on shelf life
    • Stabilization of the colour
    • Avoid long resting time of the sausage mix before pasteurization
    •  microorganism ferment sugar into lactic acid  pH drops  less water binding  water separation
    • Pasteurizing by F- value is possible as well
  • 27.
    • Cooling:
    • Cold water shower or cold water bath
    • Don’t cool down too fast (ice/water…)  negative impact on the structure of the protein
    • Temperature range of 20 to 50°C should be passed through fast  spores germinate  negative impact on shelf life
  • 28.
    • Storage:
    • Temperature <4°C, inhibits bacterial growth
    • Exclude light and oxygen
    •  Impact on shelf life, colour, taste….
  • 29.
    • Frozen meat is flaked/cut into cubes
    • Meat + ice + water + premix is mixed thoroughly
    • Mass is put through at: - 2 to 2°C
    • Fine mass can be done in bowl chopper (emulsifier)
    • Fill into casing
    • ★ Important :
    • Personal hygiene
    • Low bacteria count of the meat
    • 3) Temperature of mass must never be above 4°C during production, filling, packing, transport and storage
  • 30.  

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