2. This study codes all of the prior studies based on the sources. The various keywords used include innovation, Sheremata  theoretical frame, including codes organizational innovation and quantitative innovation. for innovation type, innovation phase and The search on the term innovation alone resulted in over organizational type in order to analytically validate 42,000 possible matches while the term organizational the hypotheses shown, using the definitions of innovation resulted in 5600 possible matches. These centrifugal and centripetal forces as defined by matches in turn yielded additional references that were Sheremata . screened against the criteria for this meta-analysis. All 5600 matches were screened against the followingHypotheses criteria:Hypothesis 1 1. Quantitative studies from a refereed journal or fromOrganizations using centrifugal forces during the a published paperinitiation phase of a radical innovation will have a 2. Analysis showing rate of adoption of innovation orpositive moderating effect on innovation. innovativeness as the dependent variableHypothesis 2 3. Analysis showing measurable independent variablesOrganizations using centripetal forces during the and not just some model of innovation lackingimplementation phase of an incremental innovation will discrete independent variableshave a positive moderating effect on innovation.Hypothesis 3Organizations using centripetal forces during the initiation The search process yielded a total of 94 outcomes with asphase of a radical innovation will have a negative many germane bi-variate correlations with a combined nmoderating effect on innovation. of 11,723. This is a relatively large sample to study ratioHypothesis 4 (124 to 1). Statistics from these correlations could only beOrganizations using centripetal forces during the combined if they reflect similar study characteristics .implementation phase of a radical innovation will have a The studies on which this studied relied have similarpositive moderating effect on innovation. study characteristics as the categories ofHypothesis 5 incremental/radical and implementation/initiation haveOrganizations using centrifugal forces during the become well established in the extant empirical literatureimplementation phase of a radical innovation will have a and the studies were easily combined based on theirpositive moderating effect on innovation. similar study characteristics, i.e., they all used innovationHypothesis 6 as the dependent variable.Organizations using centrifugal forces during theimplementation phase of an incremental innovation will III. RESULTShave a negative moderating effect on innovation.Hypothesis 7 Hypothesis TestingOrganizations using centrifugal forces during the The hypotheses all involved analyzing multipleinitiation phase of an incremental innovation will have a moderating variables simultaneously. It is important tonegative moderating effect on innovation. note that the directionality of the moderating effect was Hypothesis 8 hypothesized as negative for hypotheses 3, 6, and 7. ThisOrganizations using centripetal forces during the initiation means that the presupposition in these hypotheses was forphase of an incremental innovation will have a positive a negative moderating effect on the dependent variable. Inmoderating effect on innovation. the case of hypotheses 3, 6, and 7, a negative moderating effect was not clearly witnessed as the 95% confidence II. METHODOLOGY interval for the Rc was not negative. Therefore, withThis meta-analysis codes and analyzes 94 quantitative respect to hypotheses 3, 6, and 7, the direction of thestudy outcomes from 22 different sources including hypotheses was not supported by the data as the Rcpublished doctoral papers. The goal of this research was confidence interval was in the positive and not negativeto test the relationship between the dependent and direction, and in the case of hypothesis 6, the confidenceindependent variables using the moderators described in interval did include zero; therefore, no moderatingthe theory of this paper, using the applicable quantitative relationship can be inferred between the dependent andstudies in the field, and to extend the theory based on independent variables.contextual variables such as innovation types and phase ofinnovation. In reviewing the subsets of data, grouped by hypothesis, this analysis indicates that improvements in best case RsStudies were selected using from two principal sources: were achieved in hypotheses 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8, whilepublished journal articles from peer reviewed professional degradations in best case R were clearly noted injournals and master’s level and doctoral papers. The hypotheses 1, 6, and 7. In order for best case Rs to besearch for published studies was conducted in the EBSCO significant, the 95% confidence intervals for the affectedhost databases, utilizing both academic and business hypothesis must not include zero. In this analysis, the best
case Rs are all significant, with the exception of 7(IN-INC- 4 .08 .13 Not supportedhypothesis 6, where the 95% confidence interval includes FG)zero. Note that best case Rs ranged from .1292 to .649. 8(IN-INC- 7 .58 .65 SupportedIt should also be noted that percentage variation due to PT)sampling error for the hypotheses tested increased for all Legend:hypotheses tested with the exception of hypotheses 4 and IN-Initiation phase of innovation5, while still staying well below the 60% criteria for the IM-Implementation phase of innovationpresence of moderators for all hypotheses. It seems INC-Incremental type of innovationapparent that although this framework does increase the RAD-Radical type of innovationexplained variance, in general we were well below the PT-Centripetal force dominated60% criteria used for assessing the presence of additional FG-Centrifugal force dominatedmoderators. Therefore, the presence of additionalmoderators is still likely. Possible additional moderators TABLE 2might include distinguishing by industry types, sector and Statistical results by subgroupstructure as Mintzberg  and Damanpour suggested. One other avenue for future moderator Ro-investigations might include evaluating the threats to the uncoorganization and environmental opportunities as r- Rc-suggested by Butler . This might be of particular recte correct-interest during dramatic business cycle shifts. d ed for Effec FixedAll hypotheses tested showed improvement in the percent K N t Size Effectsvariability indicator for inclusion of moderators with theexception of the hypotheses 4 and 5. The fixed effects All studies 94 11723 0.27 0.28range at a 95% confidence interval supports therelationships for all hypotheses except hypothesis 3, 6, Centripetal-All 48 4497 0.41 0.43and 7 at the 95% confidence interval for these hypotheses Centrifugal-All 39 4758 0.17 0.17are directionally incorrect as the data reflects the oppositerelationship from that hypothesized for hypotheses 3 and Centripetal radical 23 2394 0.37 0.397. As the interval for hypothesis 6 includes zero, it cannottherefore be concluded that hypothesis 6 shows any Centripetalrelationship between the independent and dependent incremental 23 2080 0.45 0.48variables. Centripetal implement-ation 33 3298 0.38 0.40 TABLE I Summary of results by hypothesis Centripetal initiation 12 935 0.52 0.58Hypothesis K Rc Upper Accept/reject Centrifugal radical 24 3105 0.33 0.34# corrected 95% for Fixed confidenc Centrifugal effect e interval incremental 16 1830 -0.02 -0.021(IN-RAD- 7 .14 .20 Supported CentrifugalFG) initiation 7 1674 0.09 0.092(IM-INC- 1 .42 .48 Supported CentrifugalPT) 6 implement-ation 34 5199 0.20 0.213(IN-RAD- 8 .46 .56 Not supported FG-RAD-IN-PT) Hypothesis 1 7 1324 0.14 0.144(IM- 1 .41 .45 Supported PT-INC-IM-RAD-PT) 9 Hypothesis 2 16 1282 0.40 0.425(IM- 2 .28 .31 Supported PT-RAD-IN-RAD-FG) 1 Hypothesis 3 8 397 0.43 0.466(IM-INC- 1 0 .04 Not supported PT-RAD-IM-FG) 2 Hypothesis 4 19 2078 0.39 0.41
Ro- enable the innovation process to succeed. These team-like unco environments are centripetal in nature and are often r- Rc- protected or isolated from the rest of the organization to recte correct- enable the innovation process to proceed unimpeded. d ed for Implications for Radical Innovations Effec Fixed The results of this study can be used by managers to K N t Size Effects properly staff innovation projects based on the scale of the innovation. As the stage of the innovation will notFG-RAD-IM- differentiate the type of team needed, what becomes clearHypothesis 5 21 3907 0.28 0.28 is that a blend of centrifugal and centripetal forces must be carefully architected for the entire lifecycle of theFG-INC-IM- innovation project. In practical terms, a project managerHypothesis 6 12 2006 0.00 0.00 with a project team may be needed from the veryFG-INC-IN- beginning of an innovation while at the same time,Hypothesis 7 4 1597 0.08 0.08 innovative thinking as often comes from system or process architects or people with high degrees ofPT-INC-IN- professionalization who are also needed for the life of theHypothesis 8 7 798 0.53 0.58 innovation in order to bring the proper amount of variation (centrifugal forces) to ensure that sufficient degrees of radical innovation are achieved TABLE 3 Summary of relationships established This study does not indicate the proper staffing levels required to achieve this blend. Qualitative interviews suggest that larger staffs with a centripetal nature areType of Initiation phase Implementation needed when compared to the centrifugal forces asinnovatio phase variation can happen with only a few key innovativen contributors while the organizational energy needed toRadical Centrifugal is positive. Centripetal is achieve reduced variation and “a consensus on the plan” positive. is much larger. Centripetal is positive. Centrifugal is Implications for Incremental Innovations positive. What this study can conclude about incrementalIncrement Centripetal is positive. Centripetal is innovations is that centripetal forces are neededal Centrifugal is positive positive. throughout the lifecycle of the innovation project. It is (weak). Centrifugal is also clear in the case of incremental innovations that undetermined. centrifugal forces are needed only selectively and perhaps only sparingly to ensure that centripetal forces fully leveraged. While Sheremata  did not deal with the IV. DISCUSSION case of incremental innovations, Damanpour  did, and the results of this study contradict Damanpour’s While the need for more innovation has become ever conclusions that “type of innovation is not a highlymore apparent in today’s economy, the ability to innovate effective moderator for determinants-innovationby most major corporations has become severely relations” .diminished by the need to reduce structural costs and toenable sustained profitability in a time of significantly Incremental innovations seem to benefit least from the useshrinking economic growth. No doubt, innovation will be of centrifugal forces and, based on this research, shouldthe key to the next productivity “bubble” ahead, just as be avoided at least at the implementation stage ofthe last productivity growth spurt was motivated by innovation.significant innovations in the areas of informationtechnology, supply chain optimization and manufacturing.What has been shown in this analysis, is thatorganizations need to achieve the right balance of forces V. CONCLUSIONthroughout the life of a project and must create processesthat enable these forces to stay in balance as clearly this Damanpour’s  vision of a contingency theory ofstudy has shown that no force or type of force will innovation has been significantly progressed by this work.dominate the innovation process. Radical types of By using the centrifugal/centripetal delineation, this studyinnovations typically require a cross-functional, business makes clear that centripetal forces are always applicablefocused, customer-oriented, team-like environment to to positively affect the initiation and implementation of
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