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  • 1.       Northwestern  University   IEMS  393   Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle   Charging  Stations  in  Evanston,  Illinois             Ximena  Arias,  Carolina  Pardo,  Harsha  Patel,  Stefano  Pianura,  Santiago  Valdez     June  2,  2011        
  • 2. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Table  of  Contents  INTRODUCTION   3  EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY   4  STAGE  1:  EARLY  IMPLEMENTATION   5  VENDOR  AND  TECHNOLOGY   5  RECOMMENDED  VENDOR  AND  TECHNOLOGY   5  PRICING  STRATEGY   5  KEY  FINANCIAL  CONSIDERATIONS   6  PROMOTIONAL  STRATEGY   7  LOGISTICS:  QUEUING  MODEL   8  STAGE  2:  SCALABLE  GROWTH   10  NEW  TECHNOLOGIES   10  PRICING  STRATEGY   10  NEW  PLACES  TO  EXPAND   11  METRICS  FOR  HOW  TO  EXPAND   12  STAGE  3:  FUTURE  POSSIBILITIES   13  EXPANSION   13  NEW  TECHNOLOGY   13  LEASING  TO  PRIVATE  COMPANIES   13  ASSESSING  THE  STATE  OF  THE  GRID   13  RISKS   13  APPENDICES   15  A.  RESEARCH   15  B.  ANALYSIS   19  B.1  PRICING  AND  FINANCIAL  ANALYSIS   19  B.2  DEMAND  GROWTH   31  B.3  QUEUING  MODEL   33     2  
  • 3. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Introduction    The  following  report  contains  a  compilation  of  our  recommendations  for  the  City  of  Evanston’s  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Station  implementations.  Throughout  the  course  of  our  work  with  the  CoE’s  Sustainability  Office  we  enjoyed  learning  about  the  project  and  exploring  its  potential  for  success  and  growth.    The  high  level  of  foresight  and  initiative  the  CoE  has  taken  with  regards  to  Electric  Vehicles  has  greatly  impressed  our  team.  Our  hope  is  that  these  recommendations  and  deliverables  will  facilitate  this  growth  and  foresight,  helping  translate  ideas  into  action  in  the  near  future.  With  this  goal  in  mind  we  have  structured  our  report  and  deliverables  to  aid  and  inform  CoE’s  decisions,  with  an  emphasis  on  practical  planning  and  analysis.  More  detailed  quantitative  and  academic  research  is  provided  as  a  supplement  to  the  more  practical,  user-­‐centered  portions  of  the  report.    Report  Structure  We  have  divided  this  report  into  three  sections,  corresponding  to  three  stages  of  implementation  for  EV  charging  station  implementation.        An  appendix  supplements  the  report  with  further  detail  on  analysis  and  research,  as  well  as  suggestions  for  further  exploration.       3  
  • 4. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations   Executive  Summary     Stage  1:  Early  Implementation  Goal   Encourage  EV  technology  adoption  and  brand  Evanston  as  a  green  and  forward-­‐looking  city.    Installation     Purchase  two  dual  level  (Level  1&2)  Coulomb  Technologies  Charging  Stations  through  Carbon  Day  vendor   Why?     -­‐ Ownership  of  the  stations  allows  control  over  pricing  decisions   -­‐ Two  stations  will  meet  at  least  97%  of  demand  up  to  five  charges  per  day  on  average  Location   1800  St.  Maple  Parking  Garage   Why?   -­‐ Maple  Garage’s  internal  wiring  allows  a  lower  cost  installation   -­‐ Less  disruption  of  existing  traffic  flow   -­‐ More  exposure  and  visibility  to  Evanston  Community  Publicity   • Offer  free  charging  until  competitors  start  applying  a  fee  for  charging  EVs   • Invest  in  signs  and  publicity   • Partner  with  iGo  and  local  businesses   Why?       -­‐ Ensure  visitors  to  the  garage  know  there  is  an  EV  charging  station  available,  and  are  able  to  find  it   -­‐ Spread  the  word  to  the  broader  community  that  Evanston  is  an  early  adopter  of  this  technology  Financial   • The  estimated  cost  for  purchase  and  installation  of  two  stations  is  $13,500.  Considerations   • We  recommend  enforcing  two  types  of  parking  violation  tickets:   • $30  for  overtime  parking   • $200  for  illegal  parking   • Estimated  revenue  from  parking  tickets  will  cover  electrical  and  other  operating  costs.     • In  this  stage  the  stations  are  not  profitable,  and  instead  act  as  a  promoter  of  growth  and  an   investment   Stage  2:  Scalable  Growth  Goal   Make  the  appropriate  expansion  and  pricing  decisions  based  on  a  monitored  level  of  demand  Expansion   Monitor  demand,  use  provided  metrics  to  respond.  Expand  into  Sherman  Plaza  Garage  Strategy    Why?  To  avoid  turning  away  more  than  3%  of  potential  chargers,  we  provide  indicators  that  Evanston  can   use  to  determine  when  to  purchase  an  additional  charging  station  Pricing  Strategy   Refer  to  our  pricing  guide  to  learn  how  applying  different  fees  per  hour  of  charging  will  affect  financial   estimates  and  payback  periods  Maintain   Watch  for  technology  adaptation.  For  example,  the  state  of  the  technology  of  DC  Fast  Charging  stations  as  Flexibility   plausible  solutions  for  installation  on  strategic  curbside  parking  spots   Stage  3:  Future  Possibilities  Goal   Plan  for  long-­‐term  risks,  challenges,  and  opportunities.  Take  advantage  of  emerging  technologies.  Expansion   • Consider  expanding  to  outside  street  parking  Possibilities   • Implementing  solar  charging  stations  or  other  renewable  energy  sources   • Giving  charging  station  concessions  to  private  companies   • Asses  the  state  of  the  grid  Pricing  Strategy   At  this  stage,  pricing  will  likely  be  dominated  by  market  forces.  Set  prices  to  competitive  levels.       4  
  • 5. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Stage  1:  Early  Implementation    Vendor  and  Technology  Although  we  considered  the  possibility  of  the  City  of  Evanston  leasing  its  parking  spaces  to  a  private  company  in  order  to  decrease  any  expenses  or  risks,  we  ultimately  recommend  that  the  CoE  buy  and  operate  their  own  charging  stations  (See  Appendix  A.1  for  Vendors).  Owning  and  operating  the  EV  charging  stations  will  allow  the  CoE  to  control  charging  rates  and  number  of  stations  without  harming  their  customers.    Recommended  Vendor  and  Technology  Carbon  Day  is  an  Illinois-­‐based  company  and  the  biggest  distributor  of  Coulomb  Technology  charging  stations  in  the  Midwest.  Their  technology  uses  ChargePoint®  Network,  which  allows  the  City  of  Evanston  to  closely  monitor  the  charging  station’s  operations  and  tailor  pricing  strategies  with  a  high  degree  of  control.  Coulomb  Technology  offers  the  3  types  of  charging  levels,  allowing  charges  in  an  enclosed  space  (garage):  Level  1,  2,  and  DC  Quick  Charging.  We  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  to  acquire  charging  stations  that  offer  dual  levels,  level  1  and  2,  allowing  two  cars  to  charge  simultaneously.  (See  Appendix  A.2  for  Technology)  Given  the  early  stage  of  the  project  and  size  of  the  current  market,  we  recommend  avoiding  DC:  Quick  Charging  stations,  given  their  high  upfront  cost  and  installation  expenses,  as  well  as  potential  compatibility  issues  with  existing  EV  cars  on  the  market.  Each  dual  charging  station  has  a  cost  of  $5,000  and  an  approximate  installation  cost  of  $2,500;  costs  are  explained  thoroughly  in  the  upcoming  sections.    Although  charging  time  varies  among  types  of  cars,  a  Level  1  station  charges  a  car  in  approximately  8-­‐13  hours  and  uses  120  Volts.  Level  2  charging  stations  require  4-­‐8  hours  to  charge  a  car  and  use  208-­‐240  Volts.  (See  Appendix  A.3  for  current  cars  in  the  market).    Pricing  Strategy    For  the  initial  stage,  we  recommend  EV  charging  stations  be  free  for  use.  There  are  two  main  reasons  why  we  recommend  adopting  this  strategy.  Firstly,  we  believe  that  charging  a  fee  can  be  counterproductive  to  the  main  goal  for  this  initial  stage:  encouraging  the  adoption  of  EV  technology  and  sending  a  message  of  sustainability  and  social  responsibility.  In  fact,  offering  free  charging  will  be  an  incentive  for  current  EV  drivers  to  park  in  the  garage  or  for  potential  EV  buyers  to  consider  acquiring  an  EV.  Secondly,  due  to  the  small  market  size  for  EVs  and  the  young  stage  of  the  technology,  offering  free  charging  will  not  constitute  a  large  source  of  lost  revenues;  In  fact,  this  is  the  strategy  that  is  currently  adopted  by  the  large  majority  of  EV  charging  stations’  owners  in  the  United  States,  including  those  in  the  Chicago  area.  Because  in  this  initial  stage  the  charging  stations  won’t  generate  revenue  directly,  we  considered  an  alternative  source  of  revenue:  parking  violation  tickets.    Particularly  we  recommend  the  CoE  enforce  the  following  two  types  of  parking  violation  tickets  (please  see  Appendix  B.1  for  more  details  on  the  financial  model):   1.  Overtime  Parking  Tickets:  tickets  given  to  violators  who  fail  to  remove  their  vehicle  after  the   30-­‐minute  grace  period  following  the  time  when  the  vehicle  is  fully  charged  (the  EV  driver  will   receive  an  e-­‐mail  or  SMS  notification  for  charging  complete)     5  
  • 6. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations   2. Illegal  Parking  Tickets:    tickets  given  to  violators  who  park  in  the  spots  reserved  for  EV  charging   without  charging  their  vehicles.    Key  Financial  Considerations  The  estimated  cost  for  the  purchase  and  installation  of  two  EV  charging  stations  is  $13,460.  This  amount  includes  a  5-­‐year  extended  warranty,  an  annual  network  fee  and  a  30%  federal  tax  credit.  The  cost  of  operating  the  stations  will  depend  on  the  EV  model  and  the  level  of  charging.  An  average  charging  session  lasting  3.4  hours  without  processing  fee  applied  will  cost  $0.99    ($0.49  for  electricity  +  $0.5  for  the  vendor’s  authorization  fee)  (see  Appendix  B.1  for  more  details  on  the  financial  model)  We  estimated  that  even  without  applying  a  fee  for  the  use  of  the  charging  stations,  electrical  costs  and  additional  costs  of  operating  the  charging  stations  would  be  fully  covered  by  revenues  generated  from  parking  violation  tickets.  This  is  illustrated  by  the  following  graph  showing  annual  costs  and  revenues  from  operations  based  on  different  levels  of  demand  (see  Appendix  B.1  for  more  details  on  our  financial  analysis  for  the  Free  Charging  Scenario).         6  
  • 7. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Promotional  Strategy    A  crucial  criterion  for  the  success  of  Stage  1  is  the  effectiveness  of  the  promotional  strategy.  First  and  foremost,  people  who  live  or  work  in  the  city  of  Evanston  need  to  be  aware  of  charging  stations  in  the  1800  Maple  Avenue  parking  garage.  There  are  a  few  simple  ways  to  do  this:     1.  A  clear  and  visible  sign  should  be  put  up  on  the  outside  wall  of  the  entrance  of  the  parking  garage.  Further  signs  should  be  installed  inside  to  guide  potential  users  to  the  charging  stations.  Using  white  and  green  colors  could  also  serve  as  a  way  to  show  drivers  that  this  was  a  green  initiative  started  by  the  city.       2.  A  series  of  broadcasted  announcements  on  the  radio  about  the  inauguration  of  the  stations,  with  the  locations  and  rate  of  operation,  would  also  help  alert  Evanston  of  this  development.     3.  An  announcement  or  even  a  brief  article  explaining  the  new  developments  would  also  help  inform  people.  Potential  Partnerships  Another  potentially  valuable  promotional  strategy  is  to  find  strategic  partners  who  could  also  benefit  from  the  EV  charging  stations.  An  ideal  candidate  would  be  I-­‐Go  Car  Sharing.  The  company  recently  released  an  announcement  stating  their  desire  to  put  as  many  as  30  EVs  on  the  road  by  the  end  of  2011.    A  partnership  with  I-­‐Go  presents  several  advantages.  From  a  marketing  point  of  view,  each  I-­‐Go  car  services  many  users,  increasing  the  “audience”  of  residents  that  can  experience  the  technology.  Further,  I-­‐Go  can  act  as  a  stable  customer  of  the  stations,  potentially  providing  an  initial  stream  of  revenue.  Car  dealerships  are  another  potential  partner.  They  stand  to  benefit  from  the  added  infrastructure  by  an  increase  in  car  sales,  and  as  a  result  may  be  willing  to  share  some  of  the  burden  of  advertisement,  or  even  installation  costs.  Equally  important,  car  dealerships  can  serve  as  a  source  of  information  to  residents  thinking  of  buying  an  EV.  Keeping  car  dealerships  aware  of  charging  capabilities  in  Evanston  helps  ensure  that  the  information  gets  to  the  residents  who  need  it  most.      The  City  of  Evanston  could  also  look  into  implementing  a  similar  process  of  ticket  validation  that  is  already  in  place  in  some  restaurants,  shops  and  theaters  close  to  this  parking  garage.  This  way,  people  with  EV  would  get  that  extra  privilege,  thus  bringing  in  more  revenue  from  those  shoppers  and  rewarding  people  who  made  the  change.     7  
  • 8. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Logistics:  Queuing  Model      Since  demand  for  the  charging  station  is  uncertain  we  relied  on  simulation  in  order  to  determine  the  optimal  number  of  stations  to  acquire  for  a  given  level  of  demand.  The  model  varies  demand  while  minimizing  the  percent  of  customers  who  are  being  denied  a  spot  to  charge.  We  provided  three  tolerance  levels  for  blocking  customers  (3%,  5%  and  10%).  In  each  model,  when  the  number  of  customers  blocked  goes  over  the  tolerance  level  we  acquire  another  station.  (See  Appendix  B.3  for  further  detail  on  the  queuing  model).  Determining  the  Optimal  Number  of  Stations    During  stage  one  the  city  of  Evanston  should  aim  to  meet  all  the  demand  that  comes  into  the  garage.  Therefore  for  this  initial  stage,  we  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  to  adopt  the  first  tolerance  level  simulation  model  (3%  blockage  rate).The  graph  below  shows  the  optimal  number  of  stations  to  acquire  as  charges  per  day  increases:    Graph  1:  Optimal  number  of  stations  needed  to  meet  97%  of  charges  per  day    We  recommend  the  city  of  Evanston  to  acquire  for  this  initial  stage  2  stations.  We  believe  this  is  the  best  way  to  start  since  2  stations  will  meet  97%  of  demand  until  the  charges  go  up  to  5  per  day.  If  we  acquire  1  station  the  city  will  be  forced  to  acquire  a  second  one  shortly  after  (after  0.8  charges  a  day).  Furthermore,  in  this  initial  stage  we  want  the  city  to  establish  a  strong  first  impression  by  minimizing  the  amount  of  customers  they  cannot  serve.  This  initial  target  to  meet  97%  of  demand  shows  that  the  city  is  seriously  committed  to  the  electric  vehicle  initiative.  The  graph  provided  above  will  allow  the  city  to  monitor  the  charges  per  day  as  time  goes  by  and  adapt  the  number  of  stations  as  they  see  fit.  We  are  also  providing  the  graphs  for  both  the  5%  and  10%  tolerance  levels  (See  Appendix  B.3).  These  two  other  tolerance  levels  will  be  useful  when  demand  starts  to  pick  up  and  the  city  can  now  afford  to  turn  away  a  slightly  larger  customer  base.  Another  factor  the  city  should  monitor  is  the  utilization  of  each  machine.  This  is  necessary  since  there  are  risks  to  running  machines  at  full  capacity.  When  machines  are  in  continuous  use  they  are  more  likely  to  break  down,  and  the  rest  of  the  system  tends  to  be  extremely  dependent  and  unstable.    At  a  3%  utilization  tolerance  level  we  have  the  following  utilization  graph:       8  
  • 9. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Graph  2:  Utilization  of  Level  1  and  Level  2  stations  as  charges  per  day  increases    As  demand  increases,  the  utilization  of  the  stations  will  increase.  However,  is  important  to  point  out  that  at  certain  points  in  the  graph  utilization  declines  reflecting  the  exact  point  a  new  station  was  acquired.  When  a  new  station  is  acquired,  the  new  machine  temporarily  alleviates  the  utilization  of  the  entire  set  of  stations  until  demand  catches  up  again.  We  do  not  recommend  running  the  stations  at  a  utilization  rate  higher  than  90%,  as  mentioned  earlier.  Therefore,  when  demand  reaches  7.5  charges  per  day,  the  city  should  not  only  have  the  appropriate  number  of  stations  (6  according  to  the  graph  above),  but  they  should  also  consider  expanding  to  other  facilities  in  order  to  capture  the  increased  demand.     9  
  • 10. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Stage  2:  Scalable  Growth    New  Technologies  As  the  market  for  EVs  increase,  the  City  of  Evanston  should  consider  investing  in  DC  (quick  charging)  stations,  which  are  already  available  in  the  market.  This  type  of  charging  station  is  able  to  charge  cars  in  approximately  30  minutes,  making  EVs  more  appealing  to  customers.  Taking  into  consideration  the  high  cost  of  the  machine,  the  small  number  of  current  demand,  and  certain  compatibility  issues  with  the  available  electrical  vehicles,  we  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  to  consider  this  investment  as  a  future  implementation.    Currently  the  Chicago  Metro  Area  is  installing  73  DC  charging  stations  that  should  be  available  to  the  public  by  the  end  of  2011.  This  is  why  we  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  to  watch  the  usage  of  these  stations  as  well  as  any  expansion  that  might  take  place.  The  City  of  Evanston  should  make  this  investment  decision  in  order  to  keep  up  with  market’s  needs.    It  is  important  that  any  decision  made  is  based  on  the  current  demand,  using  the  provided  chart,  which  explains  the  number  of  machines  needed  given  the  demand  (See  Graph  1).      If  such  an  investment  is  made,  the  City  of  Evanston  should  consider  implementing  these  stations  first  in  the  Maple  Garage,  since  customers  who  park  their  cars  for  a  shorter  time  mostly  frequent  it,  given  the  amount  of  surrounding  local  businesses.  Having  these  stations  in  the  garages  will  help  increase  the  amount  of  traffic  in  the  City  of  Evanston.    Pricing  Strategy  With  increased  demand  the  CoE  might  start  charging  a  fee  for  the  use  of  the  charging  stations  and  therefore  collect  revenue  form  charging  sessions.  However,  due  to  the  young  stage  of  the  technology  and  the  uncertainty  of  the  market,  we  cannot  predict  when  the  CoE  can  start  applying  a  fee  for  the  use  of  the  charging  stations.  We  suggest  sensitivity  to  the  pricing  behavior  of  other  charging  station  owners  in  the  Chicago  area  and  adjust  accordingly.  In  addition,  to  assist  the  CoE  in  making  the  right  pricing  decision  when  the  time  comes,  we  are  providing  the  CoE  with  matrix  tables  showing  how  applying  different  fees  per  hour  of  charging  will  affect  their  costs,  revenues  and  profits  based  on  different  levels  of  demand  (See  tables  B.1.3,  B.1.4,  B.1.5,  B.1.6  in  the  Appendix).  The  following  two  graphs  summarize  the  results  of  our  financial  discounted  payback  analysis  considering  different  levels  of  fee  rates  per  hour  of  charge.                   10  
  • 11. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations        New  Places  to  expand    Given  our  recommendation  of  initially  installing  2  charging  stations,  this  section  will  look  into  new  places  to  expand  in  the  future.  For  simplicity,  this  section  will  ignore  payback  periods  for  the  initial  2  stations  as  well  as  the  decision  to  start  collecting  fees  for  users  to  charge  their  EV,  hence  only  expected  yearly  changes  in  demand  would  be  analyzed.  The  original  scope  of  the  project  included  the  Sherman  Plaza  Parking  Garage  as  the  second  garage  where  charging  stations  would  be  installed.  Given  the  noticeable  higher  logistical  costs  involved  in  installing  the  stations  at  that  location,  we  decided  to  ignore  this  parking  garage  from  the  stage  1  recommendations.  As  soon  as  the  City  of  Evanston  decides  to  expand  out  of  the  1800  Maple  Avenue  garage,  our  first  suggestion  would  be  to  install  1  or  more  stations  in  the  821  Davis  Street  garage.  The  number  of  stations  would  depend  on  the  current  demand  for  EV  stations,  given  by  our  included  simulation  results.  Installing  stations  in  this  garage  will  not  only  create  a  more  adequate  supply  for  customers,  but  it  will  also  enable  a  different  customer  segment  to  get  easy  access  to  charging.  People  living  in  the  Sherman  Apartment  building  could  get  to  charge  their  EVs  while  being  in  their  apartment,  opening  up  an  entire  new  dynamic  to  the  way  charging  stations  would  be  used.       11  
  • 12. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  A  second  option  of  expansion  would  be  to  install  charging  stations  in  strategic  curbside  parking  spots  around  Evanston.  This  move  would  also  increase  the  customer  base  by  enabling  people  who  normally  do  not  use  parking  garages  to  charge  their  EVs  in  a  convenient  location  for  them.    Installing  parking  garages  in  the  rest  of  the  City  of  Evanston  owned  parking  garages  could  be  considered  the  last  logical  step  for  the  completion  of  this  program.  The  City  would  also  need  to  keep  in  mind  that  a  good  promotional  job  for  these  new  stations  is  a  crucial  factor  for  the  success  of  the  expansion  program.  If  people  do  not  know  they  are  there,  they  will  not  be  used.  Following  the  recommended  promotional  strategies  in  this  report  would  be  an  ideal  way  of  getting  the  same  result  when  adding  stations  around  Evanston.  Metrics  for  how  to  expand    One  of  the  goals  of  our  analysis  is  to  provide  the  CoE  with  information  about  how  to  expand.  There  are  two  metrics  the  city  can  use  to  determine  when  to  purchase  additional  charging  stations:  blocked  customer  limits  and  marginal  station  benefits.    As  long  as  the  focus  is  on  encouraging  demand  we  recommend  a  3%  blocked  customer  limit.  Under  this  metric,  the  CoE  purchases  stations  as  needed  to  ensure  that  no  more  than  3%  of  customers  are  turned  away  because  stations  are  in  use.    Note  that  we  have  also  included  analysis  at  the  5%  and  10%  level  should  the  CoE  choose  to  relax  this  limit.    The  second  metric  is  applicable  when  the  City  feels  demand  is  on  a  stable  trajectory.  At  this  stage  we  recommend  purchasing  stations  based  on  the  lost  revenue  of  customers  turned  away.  When  this  amount  exceeds  the  cost  of  an  additional  station  it  is  logical  to  purchase  an  additional  station.  These  purchase  points  are  highly  sensitive  to  changes  in  costs  and  fees  charged  by  Evanston.  For  example,  a  change  in  electricity  costs,  or  an  increase  in  the  willingness-­‐to-­‐pay  of  EV  owners  could  both  drastically  change  the  results.  Therefore  we  have  focused  our  analysis  on  providing  information  for  multiple  scenarios.  This  analysis  can  be  seen  in  the  previous  sections  as  well  as  in  the  appendix.                 12  
  • 13. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Stage  3:  Future  Possibilities  Expansion    When  the  market  has  increased  considerably,  requiring  more  charging  stations  than  existent  in  Maple  and  Sherman  Garages,  we  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  to  consider  installing  charging  stations  in  other  available  locations;  either  within  garages  or  outdoors.  This  future  step  is  very  important  in  order  to  increase  the  market  by  offering  variety  in  charging  locations  and  potentially  increasing  commuters  in  the  Evanston  area.    New  technology  If  expansion  in  outdoor  stations  takes  place,  we  recommend  the  City  of  Evanston  look  into  solar  charging  stations,  which  are  already  on  the  market.  By  installing  these  kinds  of  stations,  the  City  of  Evanston  would  be  contributing  to  Evanston’s  goal  of  decreasing  it’s  carbon  footprint,  as  well  as  help  reduce  electricity  costs  throughout  the  whole  system.  This  would  also  help  brand  the  City  of  Evanston  as  a  leader  in  innovation,  gaining  prestige  throughout  surrounding  counties,  which  could  help  the  City  create  some  sort  of  branding  for  future  projects.      Leasing  to  Private  Companies    To  City  of  Evanston  should  consider  bringing  private  companies  to  operate  the  charging  stations.  It  is  likely  that  at  this  stage  of  demand  private  businesses  already  play  a  significant  role  in  the  market.  This  possibility  could  be  implemented  when  the  City  of  Evanston  has  broken-­‐even  from  the  initial  investments.  At  this  stage  the  City  of  Evanston  would  no  longer  need  to  dedicate  as  much  attention  to  encouraging  adoption  of  EV  technology,  and  can  turn  it  over  to  private  enterprise  for  management.  Furthermore,  as  the  number  of  stations  increase  they  become  a  larger  management  issue  perhaps  better  suited  to  be  run  by  a  separate  organization.  This  strategy  would  create  revenue  for  the  City  since  it  would  cut  off  operational  expenses  as  well  as  potentially  earn  commissions  from  the  gross  revenues  the  company  make,  opening  other  opportunities  for  the  City  of  Evanston  to  invest  in  different  projects.    Assessing  the  State  of  the  Grid    Although  it  might  be  considered  a  distant  scenario,  the  City  of  Evanston  may  have  to  consider  the  position  and  capacity  of  the  electric  grid.  When  demand  is  higher,  if  several  charging  stations  were  added  without  taking  in  consideration  the  state  of  the  grid,  the  City  of  Evanston  would  exceed  the  available  capacity  and  potentially  cause  failure  in  the  system,  incurring  more  costs.  Looking  into  alternative  sources  of  electricity  (such  as  solar  charging  stations)  might  help  alleviate  this.    Risks    The  Electric  Vehicle  industry  as  a  whole  is  entirely  new,  which  brings  about  additional  risks  and  problems  that  more  established  industries  do  not  have.  What  we  consider  to  be  the  most  important  risk  is  the  fact  that  demand  forecasting  is  extremely  limited  right  now.  Many  particular  factors  could  influence  how  the  market  reacts  to  EVs,  which  in  turn  will  have  great  influence  on  the  demand  for  EV  charging  stations.  This  is  one  factor  that  cannot  be  stressed  enough:  Demand  for  EV  charging  stations  have  a  positive  correlation  with  the  demand  for  EVs.         13  
  • 14. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Uncertain  Demand  The  rise  in  oil  prices  and  the  expectancy  that  they  will  continue  to  rise  in  the  future  will  have  a  positive  impact  on  the  demand  for  EV  charging  stations,  as  consumers  realize  that  making  the  shift  to  an  EV  can  save  money  and  is  also  beneficial  to  the  environment.  Although  this  is  a  positive  thing  for  the  sustainability  initiative  in  Evanston,  there  is  no  way  to  certainly  tell  how  the  rise  in  oil  prices  will  affect  the  demand  for  EV  charging  stations  beforehand,  in  order  to  be  able  to  make  the  changes  necessary.  This  risk  may  lead  to  an  over-­‐  or  under-­‐capacity  of  charging  stations  in  1800  Maple  Avenue  and  a  tardiness  in  installing  new  stations  elsewhere.  The  financial  recommendations  put  forth  in  this  document  rely  on  several  assumptions,  each  of  which  is  capable  of  disrupting  our  results.  For  example,  if  the  cost  of  electricity  increases,  the  cost  of  charging  would  increase,  which  in  turn  would  delay  the  payback  period  as  the  City  of  Evanston  would  be  recouping  less  money  each  year  than  previously  expected.  Similarly,  if  there  are  more  frequent  illegal  parking  and  overtime  tickets  on  the  reserved  spaces  for  the  stations,  the  revenue  would  increase,  reducing  the  payback  period.  The  possibility  of  these  different  scenarios  has  been  taken  into  account  in  our  calculations,  but  the  fact  that  there  have  never  been  privileged  parking  spaces  for  EV  charging  stations  leaves  rooms  for  unexpected  consequences  during  their  operation.    Emerging  Technology  We  are  in  the  first  generation  of  electric  vehicles.  The  possibility  of  a  malfunction  or  a  necessary  callback  from  part  of  the  manufacturer  is  still  relatively  high  compared  to  gasoline  vehicles.  This  could  affect  the  demand  for  stations  in  two  ways:  Delivering  a  major  hit  to  demand  if  such  a  situation  would  occur  to  a  EV  model  or  the  existence  of  too  many  consumers  who  decide  to  wait  more  time  before  buying  an  EV  to  assure  that  manufacturers  are  delivering  on  their  promises.    In  a  similar  vein,  because  the  technology  is  only  now  emerging,  it  is  likely  to  change  rapidly  and  unexpectedly.  For  this  reason,  throughout  our  recommendations  we  emphasize  monitoring  technology  change  in  order  to  avoid  making  clumsy  or  inflexible  investments  that  cannot  then  be  recouped.    Variable  Market  Pricing  Lastly,  it  is  expected  that  letting  customers  charge  their  EV  for  free  will  not  be  the  modus  operandi  for  a  long  time.  As  more  businesses  and  capital  flow  into  this  industry,  the  costs  of  operating  these  stations  will  be  passed  on  to  the  consumer  by  charging  a  price.  This  implementation  would  greatly  reduce  our  projected  payback  period  for  the  EV  charging  station  investment.  Even  without  charging  customers  to  charge  their  EV,  our  model  shows  that  you  could  make  back  the  investment.  The  risk  here  is  the  fact  that  the  City  of  Evanston  can  never  be  100%  sure  of  what  the  payback  period  will  be,  since  whether  or  not  to  charge  a  price  and  what  price  that  may  be  will  be  dictated  by  market  forces,  which  may  take  time  to  reach  price  equilibrium.           14  
  • 15. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Appendices  A.  Research    A.1  Vendors       Carbon  Day     Car  Charging      Group     350  Green  LLC    Business  Model     Sells  charging  stations  to   Leases  parking  space  and   Leases  parking  space   client.  The  client  takes   takes  care  of  installation,   and  takes  care  of   take  care  of  installation,   operation  and  maintenance   installation,  operation   operating,  and   of  the  charging  stations   and  maintenance  of  the   maintenance  costs.   charging  stations  Costs     • Product:  Approx.  $5-­‐6K   None     Depending  on  project   per  station   size  an  upfront   • Installation:  Approx.   investment  would  be   $2,500  for  2  stations   required   • Billing  +Customer   service:  $15/month  per   station   • 7.5%    of  the  gross   revenue  +  $0.5  for   every  transaction  Pros     • Allows  to  control   • 6  months  trial  (starting   More  flexibility  in   pricing  and  access  to   with  1  station)   technology  used   stations   • The  city  would  collect  5%   • Allows  collection  of   from  total  revenue   revenue   • No  upfront  payment  or   • Consolidated,  relatively   installation/operating   large  market  in  the   costs   Midwest   • Installers  and   maintainers  (Revcon)   already  familiar  with   parking  garages  Cons     • Upfront  investment  is   • No  control  over  pricing   • No  control  over   needed,  increasing  risks   ($3/hour  today.  $2.5/hour   pricing  (Pricing  not   • The  City  will  need  to   by  next  year)   available  until  August   assign  workforce  for   • Limited  control  over   2011)   maintaining  and   logistics  (which  and  how   • Limited  control  over   operating  the  stations   many  parking  spaces  to   logistics  (which  and   use)   how  many  parking   spaces  to  use)   • Possibility  of  an   upfront  investment   required,  thus   increasing  risk.   • Many  partners  but   few  installations  done  Product     Coulomb  Technologies:   Coulomb  Technologies:   AeroVironment:  Level   Level  1,  2,  and  DC/quick   Level  1,  2,   1  and  2   charge  stations     15  
  • 16. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations    Information     • Leaders  in  the  Midwest   • Miami-­‐based   • San  Diego-­‐based   (150  stations  today,   • Has  some  projects  in   • Won  the  Chicago   250-­‐300  forecasted  by   Chicago  (Equity   project  (280  stations   the  end  of  2011)   Residential)   by  2011)   • Exclusive  distributor  of     Coulomb  Technologies   for  the  Midwest   • Warranty  on  parts  and   labor:  1  year       16  
  • 17. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  A.2  Technology      Figure  1.  Dual  Level  Charging  Station    Charging  Station  Specifications       17  
  • 18. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  A.3  Current  and  Upcoming  Electric  Cars      A.3.1  Plug-­‐In  Hybrids       Chevy  Volt     Toyota  Prius    (in  2012)  Range     640  (40  on  battery)   600  (6  on  battery)  Top  Speed  (mph)   100   106  Time  to  charge     5   2    A.3.2  Electric  Cars       Tesla  Roadster   Nissan  Leaf     Th!nk  City   Ford  Focus    Range     244   75   124   100  Top  Speed   125   89   65   85  (mph)    Time  to  Charge     3.5   8   10   6    A.3.3  Comparison  between  Plug-­‐In  Hybrids  and  Electric  Cars           Nissan  Leaf  (EV)   Chevy  Volt  (PHEV)       Level  1   Level  2   Level  1   Level  2   Battery  Capacity  (kWh)   24   24   16   16   Charge  Voltage   120   220   120   220               Charge  Current   15   15   15   15   kW   1.8   3.3   1.8   3.3   Charging  time  (full  charge)   13.3   7.3   8.9   4.8         18  
  • 19. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  B.  Analysis      B.1  Pricing  and  Financial  Analysis      Financial  Model  Our  financial  model  is  based  on  the  following  sources  of  revenues  and  costs  and  assumptions:    Revenues  • Charging  Sessions    Revenue   can   be   collected   from   applying   a   fee   for   the   use   of   the   EV   charging   stations.   The   charging  stations   manufactured   by   Coulomb   Technologies   allow   the   CoE   to   remotely   configure   the   charging   fee  on  a  session  or  hour  basis.    • Parking  Violation  Tickets  Parking  tickets  will  be  given  based  on  two  types  of  parking  violations:  Overtime   Parking:   tickets   will   be   given   to   violators   who   will   fail   to   remove   their   vehicle   after   the   30-­‐minute  grace  period  following  the  time  when  the  vehicle  is  fully  charged.  Illegal   Parking:     tickets   will   be   given   to   violators   who   will   park   in   the   spots   reserved   for   EV   charging  without  charging  their  vehicles  Costs  • EV  Charging  Stations  The  following  cost  estimates  were  obtained  from  Brian  Levin,  vice-­‐president  of  Carbon  Day  Fixed   Coulomb  Technologies  Charging  Station  Cost   $5,000.00   Installation  Cost   $2,500.00   Annual  Network  Fee   $180.00   5  yr  Extended  Warranty   $1,300.00   Federal  Tax  Credit  @  30%   $(2,250.00)   Total  Cost  per  Station   $6,730.00  Variable     Authorization  Fee  per  Charging  Session   $0.50   7.5%  of  the  gross  revenue  per   Processing  Fee  per  Charging  Session   charging  session           19  
  • 20. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  • Electricity  $0.05   per   kWh   was   used   in   our   model   since   that   is   the   cost   of   electricity   that   CoE   will   fix   for   the   next  years  with  its  electricity  provider,  ComEd.  Based  on  the  preceding  cost  estimates  and  the  following  assumptions  on  charging  sessions,  an  average  charging   session   lasting   3.4   hours   without   processing   fee   applied   will   cost   $0.99     ($0.49   for   electricity   +  $0.5  for  the  authorization  fee)  :  [20%*(5  hr)*(1.8  kW)+80%*(3hr)*(3.3  kW)]*[0.05  $/kwH]  +  $0.5  =  $0.99  Assumptions  • Charging  sessions  The  model  assumes  that  all  the  demand  is  met.  Based  on  the  results  of  the  queuing  simulations,  a  single  charging  session  was  modeled  as  follows:       Level  1   Level  2     Probability  of  occurrence     20%   80%     Voltage  (V)   120   220     Current  (A)   15   15     Power  (kW)   1.8   3.3   =Voltage/Current*1000   Charging  session  (hour)   5   3      • Parking  Violation  Tickets     Overtime  parking     Overtime  parking  ticket  fee   $30   Tickets  issued     1  every  30  charges   Illegal  parking     Illegal  parking  ticket  fee   $200   Tickets  issued   1  every  500  charges    Illegal  parking  tickets  are  modeled  based  on  the  tickets  currently  given  to  violators  who  illegally  park  on  the  handicapped  parking  spaces  in  our  two  target  garages:  Maple  and  Sherman  Plaza.  Overtime  Parking  tickets  are  modeled  based  on  the  1-­‐hr  maximum  parking  spaces  in  the  Maple  garage.  As  estimated  by  Mark  Turenne,  Parking  Facilities  Supervisor  for  the  CoE,  1  to  3  tickets  are  issued  every  week   and   considering   that   the   Maple   garage   has   25   1-­‐hr   maximum   parking   spaces,   a   total   capacity   of  1400  spaces  and  5595  cars  entering  the  garage  per  week,  we  could  estimate  that:  A  ticket  will  be  given  every  3  *  (25/1400)*5595  =  33.3  ~  30  customers       20  
  • 21. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Financial  Results  and  Analysis    Our   financial   Analysis   was   conducted   through   two   different   scenarios:   Free   Charging   and   Charging   for   a  Fee.  Both  scenarios  present  cost,  revenue  and  profit  estimates  modeled  using  the  demand  growth  rate  of  12%   calculated   in   our   demand   projection   analysis   (see   Appendix   B.2).   Also   for   both   scenarios,   we  conducted  a  discounted  payback  analysis  using  a  discount  rate  of  5%.  Free  Charging  Scenario  This  scenario  assumes  that  the  CoE  applies  no  fee  for  the  use  of  the  charging  stations.  The  following  graphs  showing  the  financial  results  for  the  Free  Charging  Scenario  are  generated  using  the  data  reported  in  table  B.1.1               21  
  • 22. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations     Discounted  Payback  Period   1st  Station   41  years   2nd  Station   51  years    Despite  the  extremely  large  discounted  payback  period,  it  should  be  noted  that  even  without  applying  a  fee  to  EV  drivers  for  the  use  of  the  stations,  we  estimate  that  the  CoE  will  incur  a  positive  discounted  operational  profit  meaning  that  the  we  forecast  that  the  cost  of  electricity  and  additional  operational  costs  of  operating  the  stations  will  be  completely  covered  by  the  revenue  generated  from  enforcing  parking  violation  tickets.       22  
  • 23. !"#$%$&( &!"#$%)"#$%$&(* &($")!% Free  Charging  Scenario  –  Financial  Estimates  +"#$%$&(*Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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($,%++ & (,$$ & )-),++ & (,-+ &!--,!* & %,.! &*%$,!) &--,-. & +((,#+ (- (,.* (),#.# & (,.% & .)!,)% & *,($ &##.,-$ & %,!$ &**+,)* &+.,$$ & ("%%#,(( (+ (,#( (!,!*! & (,!+ & !(.,!% & *,$+ &-#),%# & %,#( &*.-,)- & (%*,*+ & ("(%+,)% *% (,+$ (-,#$* & (,+% & !+$,.. & *,#% &+-),#! & %,-% &*+(,*( & (%+,#. & ("*(+,(! *( *,(# *(,(%) & *,() & #-(,$- & $,%) &("(%+,)# & %,+% &$*-,%- & ((#,#! & ("$$!,+* ** *,). *$,##! & *,)( & --%,$$ & $,)* &("*)+,+! & (,%( &$!+,!$ & (*!,$! & (")!$,*- *$ *,#! *!,#-# & *,#* & ++(,-( & $,-! &(")%-,*. & (,() &)(!,)) & ($.,.- & (".+-,-! *) $,(% $%,(#+ & $,%! & ("((#,)( & ),$. &(".-!,.- & (,*+ &)!+,(- & ().,)- & ("#)),$) *. $,.% $),%%( & $,). & ("*.-,+( & ),+% &("#-#,.% & (,). &.*-,.+ & (.!,%+ & ("+%%,)$ *! $,+) $-,$%# & $,-+ & (")(-,$$ & .,.* &*"%($,-! & (,!$ &.+.,.$ & (!#,)+ & *"%!#,+* *# ),)) )$,(.- & ),$- & (".+#,+) & !,** &*"*!-,-+ & (,-) &!#%,+) & (#+,#( & *"*)#,!$ *- .,%% )-,!*$ & ),+$ & ("-%%,$% & #,%% &*"..!,*( & *,%# &#..,+( & (+*,-$ & *"))%,). *+ .,!) .),#-% & .,.! & *"%*-,*- & #,-+ &*"-#+,+( & *,$$ &-.(,!$ & *%!,+% & *"!)#,$. $% !,$. !(,#(# & !,*! & *"*-.,($ & -,-+ &$"*)),!( & *,!$ &+.+,)- & ***,%% & *"-!+,$. $( #,(. !+,.$$ & #,%. & *".#),.( & (%,%* &$"!..,)+ & *,+! &("%-%,+- & *$-,*% & $"(%#,.! $* -,%! #-,$$- & #,+. & *"+%%,.$ & ((,*- &)"((-,)% & $,$) &("*(#,-# & *..,.+ & $"$!$,(. $$ +,%- --,*.+ & -,+. & $"*!#,-) & (*,#( &)"!$+,+$ & $,#! &("$#*,%+ & *#),*) & $"!$#,$+ $) (%,*$ ++,)$. &(%,%+ & $"!-(,!! & (),$* &."**#,.( & ),*) &(".).,-. & *+),*! & $"+$(,!. $. ((,.$ ((*,%*# &((,$! & )"()#,-- & (!,() &."--+,)+ & ),## &("#)(,!( & $(.,#) & )"*)#,$+ $! (*,+- (*!,*() &(*,-% & )"!#$,(. & (-,(- &!"!$.,$( & .,$- &("+!*,(. & $$-,#- & )".-!,(# $# (),!$ ()*,(+# &(),)* & ."*!),+$ & *%,)- &#")#.,.# & !,%! &*"*(%,!$ & $!$,.( & )"+)+,!- $- (!,)- (!%,*%) &(!,*. & ."+$(,!! & *$,%# &-")**,*$ & !,-* &*")+%,.# & $+%,%) & ."$$+,#( $+ (-,.# (-%,)+( &(-,$( & !"!-*,-( & *!,%% &+")--,#- & #,!+ &*"-%.,+# & )(-,.% & ."#.-,** )% *%,+* *%$,$)- &*%,!$ & #".*+,%+ & *+,*+ &(%"!+%,$+ & -,!! &$"(!(,$% & ))+,%. & !"*%#,*# )( *$,.# **+,%+- &*$,*) & -")-*,.$ & $$,%% &(*"%)),(! & +,#! &$".!(,!$ & )-(,-* & !"!-+,%+ )* *!,.. *.-,((% &*!,(- & +"..!,#* & $#,(- &($".!+,$# &(%,++ &)"%(*,!! & .(!,++ & #"*%!,%- )$ *+,+* *+%,#+! &*+,.% &(%"#!!,+$ & )(,-- &(."*-#,#$ &(*,$+ &)".*%,-% & ..),#* & #"#!%,-% )) $$,#( $*#,!*( &$$,*$ &(*"($%,)% & )#,(+ &(#"**$,!+ &($,+. &."%+$,*+ & .+.,*( & -"$.!,%( ). $#,+# $!+,(%+ &$#,)) &($"!!!,.* & .$,(! &(+")%),-% &(.,#* &."#$-,*- & !$-,!. & -"++),!! )! )*,#- )(.,-.( &)*,(- &(."$+#,(- & .+,+% &*("-!*,(* &(#,#( &!")!),+) & !-.,*! & +"!#+,+* )# )-,*% )!-,.(* &)#,.$ &(#"$)#,%% & !#,)- &*)"!$%,!$ &(+,+! &#"*-$,!$ & #$.,*- &(%")(.,*% )- .),$% .*#,-)* &.$,.) &(+".)$,#$ & #!,%$ &*#"#)+,#* &**,)- &-"*%.,++ & #--,+) &(("*%),() )+ !(,(- .+),!-. &!%,$$ &**"%(-,!. & -.,!. &$("*!$,-% &*.,$$ &+"*).,(. & -)!,.* &(*"%.%,!! .% !-,+$ !!+,++$ &!#,+! &*)"-%!,+- & +!,.% &$."***,-+ &*-,.) & (%")(.,+( & +%-,$( &(*"+.-,+# .( ##,!! #.),-$# &#!,.# &*#"+)-,)% &(%-,#* &$+"!-$,$$ &$*,(. & (("#$),+$ & +#),!% &($"+$$,.# .* -#,)+ -.%,)*! &-!,*# &$(")-#,!) &(**,)+ &))"#%-,!* &$!,** & ($"**%,+- & ("%).,#$ &()"+#+,$% .$ +-,.# +.-,(*% &+#,(+ &$.")#.,%# &($-,%% &.%"$#%,*- &)%,-( & ()"-+.,*( & ("(**,%. &(!"(%(,$. .) (((,%. (%#+,).( &(%+,.% &$+"+!#,). &(..,)- &.!"#)-,+( &).,+- & (!"#-(,)! & ("*%$,+. &(#"$%.,$% .. (*.,(* (*(!,()# &(*$,$# &)."%*-,#( &(#.,(# &!$"+$.,*+ &.(,-% & (-"+%!,.- & ("*+(,-* &(-".+#,(* .! ()%,+! ($#%,(.$ &($-,++ &.%"#$%,+( &(+#,$. &#*"%$(,#* &.-,$! & *("$%%,-( & ("$-!,(% &(+"+-$,** .# (.-,-( (.)$,!!* &(.!,.+ &.#"(..,*( &***,$) &-("(.$,)) &!.,#. & *$"++-,*$ & (")-#,*# &*(")#%,)+ .- (#-,+* (#$+,()) &(#!,)* &!)"$+$,%. &*.%,)+ &+(")$%,*+ &#),%# & *#"%$#,*) & (".+.,-* &*$"%!!,$( .+ *%(,.- (+.+,$-% &(+-,#! &#*".)#,)) &*-*,** & (%$"%%-,.) &-$,)! & $%")!(,(% & ("#(*,*+ &*)"##-,!% !% **#,(( **%#,.%. &**$,+$ &-("#$),)# &$(#,+. & ((!"%.$,%% &+),%* & $)"$(-,.$ & ("-$#,*! &*!"!(.,-! Table  B.1.1:  Financial  data  (Free  Charging  Scenario)     23  
  • 24. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Charging  for  a  Fee  Scenario  For  this  scenario,  we  conducted  sensitivity  analysis  to  investigate  how  applying  different  fees  per  hour  of  charging  will  affect  costs,  revenues  and  profits  based  on  different  levels  of  demand.  The  following  graphs  are  generated  from  the  financial  data  contained  in  tables  B.1.5  andie  B.1.6             24  
  • 25.      YEARLY  REVENUE  with  Parking  Violation  Tickets  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easibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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able  B.1.2:  Yearly  Revenues  without  Parking  Violation  Tickets  25  
  • 26.    YEARLY  REVENUE  with  Parking  Violation  Tickets  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easibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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able  B.1.3:  Yearly  Revenues  with  Parking  Violation  Tickets  26  
  • 27.      YEARLY  OPERATING  PROFITS  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easibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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able  B.1.4:  Yearly  Operating  Profits  27  
  • 28. YEARLY  DISCOUNTED  OPERATING  PROFITS      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easibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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able  B.1.5:  Yearly  Discounted  Operating  Profits  28  
  • 29. YEARLY  DISCOUNTED  CUMULATIVE  PROFITS        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easibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  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able  B.1.6:  Yearly  Discounted  Cumulative  Profits  29  
  • 30. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Vehicle  Charging  Stations  Electricity  Usage  and  Cost           30  
  • 31.  B.2  Demand  Growth      The  young  stage  of  the  technology  and  the  uncertainty  of  this  new  market  suggested  us  using  a  conservative  approach  to  forecast  future  demand  growth  for  EVs.  Our  forecasted  growth  is  based  on  two  published  forecasts  of  EV  sales  in  the  US:  an  optimistic  forecast  (blue  line)  and  a  pessimist  forecast  (red  line)  with  calculated  annual  growth  rate  of  17.35%  and  10.12%  respectively.  Our  sales  forecast  for  EVs  (green  line)  was  obtained  by  weighting  the  pessimistic  forecast  by  75%  and  the  optimistic  forecast  by  20%  This  resulted  in  an  annual  exponential  demand  growth  rate  of  11.9235%.    As  the  following  graph  shows,  our  forecast  predicts  around  235,000  EVs  by  2015  nationwide.  This  estimate  is  77%  lower  than  the  President  Obama’s  plan  of  putting  1  million  EVs  in  the  streets  by  2015.  However,  due  to  the  promising  but  very  uncertain  market  for  EVs,  we  believe  that  a  conservative  approach  might  provide  the  CoE  with  a  better  and  less  misleading  picture  of  the  future  outlook  of  the  market  and  related  financial  analysis.       Optimistic  Forecast:  Electric  Power  Research  Institute  ©  2007.     Pessimistic  Forecast:  Annual  Energy  Outlook  USDOE  ©  2010.   Source:  http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/rstanfield/CCCLGLP2-­‐148080-­‐ ComEd%20PEV%20Initial%20Assessment_1012151.pdf    
  • 32. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   32    Using  our  forecasted  weighted  average  demand  growth  rate  of  11.93%,  we  estimated  the  demand  of  charging  sessions  in  our  targeted  parking  garage  in  Evanston.  The  initial  value  of  charges  per  day  was  set  to  a  reasonable  value  of  0.2  corresponding  to  7  charges  per  month.  The  forecast  is  shown  below.           32  
  • 33. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   33    B.3  Queuing  Model      Explanation  of  queuing  model  In  order  to  determine  the  optimal  number  of  stations  in  each  garage  we  followed  the  two  criteria  below:   o Reducing  the  amount  of  blocked  customers:  We  created  three  tolerance  levels  3%,  5%  and  10%   of  blocked  customers.  In  each  model  once  the  number  of  blocked  customers  exceeded  the   respective  tolerance  level,  we  added  an  additional  charging  station  in  order  to  meet  the  extra   demand.   o Determining  the  utilization  of  resources:  We  monitored  the  utilization  of  each  charging  station.   However,  we  did  not  set  any  condition  on  acquiring  an  additional  station  based  on  this  criterion.   This  information  was  only  acquired  for  the  City  of  Evanston  to  reference  when  running  their   charging  stations.  Since  demand  was  uncertain  we  simulated  different  arrival  rates.  In  this  manner,  the  City  of  Evanston  only  need  to  monitor  charges  per  day  and  adapt  the  number  of  optimal  station  according  to  the  analysis  provided.       1   3   4   2   4   3   2   2   4   4       33  
  • 34. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   34    Using  the  Arena  simulation  software,  we  recreated  the  decision  process  electric  car  users  will  go  through  in  order  to  charge  their  cars  inside  the  parking  garages.  The  system  is  explained  below:   1. Arrivals:  This  module  created  the  entities  that  are  going  to  go  through  the  system.  In  this  case  the   entities  are  the  electric  cars.  This  module  also  simulates  the  specified  inter  arrival  rate.     2. Decision  modules:     Level  2  available?  This  module  determines  if  the  level  2  charging  station  is  being  used  or  not.  If  it  is  not   being  used  then  the  module  sends  the  car  through  the  “true”  exit  onto  the  charging  station  level  2  (Stage   3  -­‐  Center  Level  2).  If  it  is  not  available  then  it  goes  to  Level  1  available?  This  is  the  same  type  of   module  but  checks  if  level  1  charging  stations  are  being  used.  If  they  are  not  being  used  then  the  electric   car  goes  out  the  “true”  exit  onto  Level  1  or  Leave  module.  On  the  other  hand  if  it  is  not  available  then  it   goes  out  the  system  through  the  Blocked  customer’s  module.   Level  1  or  Leave  module:  This  module  it’s  a  decision  module  that  according  to  a  specified  percentage   sends  electric  vehicles  onto  level  1  charging  stations  and  others  out  of  the  system.  This  module   represents  the  small  amount  of  customers  that  are  only  looking  to  charge  on  level  2  stations  and   therefore  leave  the  system  if  level  2  is  not  available.  Since  there  is  no  downside  on  just  plugging  in  your   electric  vehicle  regardless  of  the  available  charging  level  (free  charging),  we  assumed  that  90%  of   electric  cars  are  going  to  plug  in  to  level  1  charging  stations  and  only  10%  will  prefer  level  2  and  leave   the  system.   3. Process  modules:   Center  Level  2:  This  module  simulates  the  charging  process  of  a  level  2  charging  station.  We  assumed  a   triangular  distribution  with  a  minimum  of  zero  hours,  a  most  likely  time  of  3  hours  and  a  maximum   charging  time  of  8  hours.  The  min  is  when  you  decide  to  not  charge,  the  max.  was  determined  by  the  car   currently  in  the  market,  which  takes  the  longest  to  charge  in  level  2  (Nissan  Leaf);  and  the  most  likely   was  the  average  time  people  spent  parked  in  the  Maple  Garages  (Data  from  the  garage).   Center  Level  1:  This  module  simulates  the  charging  process  of  a  level  1  charging  station.  The  triangular   distribution  used  here  was  a  minimum  of  zero,  a  most  likely  time  of  3  hours  and  a  maximum  of  15  hours.   4. Dispose  modules;   Charged  2  and  leave,  charged  1  and  leave,  prefer  level  2  and  blocked  customers:  These  are  all  dispose   modules  which  delete  the  entity  from  the  system.  It  simulates  when  a  car  leaves  the  system  either   charged,  blocked  or  by  preference.   Model  Assumptions   o No  waiting  time  to  retry  to  use  station.  Since  very  few  people  will  actually  wait  in  their  cars  for   hours  in  order  to  plug  in.  They  would  just  rather  look  for  another  charging  station  in  another   place  or  simply  not  charge.   o 2  charging  spots,  one  station   o Sherman  Plaza:  30%  of  the  customers  stay  between  1-­‐2  hours.     o We  assume  the  mean  time  people  stay  in  the  garage  is  3  hours.  We  added  one  hour  to  the  most   likely  estimate  above,  assuming  people  that  are  charging  will  stay  a  little  longer  in  order  to  get   the  extra  charge.   o We  believe  that  customers  that  find  level  2  full  will  take  advantage  of  level  1  because  they  can   only  benefit  from  charging  (the  charge  is  free)  and  they  will  probably  be  back  before  they  are   required  to  leave.  90%  retention  rate.   o Cycle  length:  1  month.  50  replications.   o Charging  process  is  simulated  by  a  triangular  distribution  (Min,  Avg,  Max)   § Level  1:  (0,3,15)   § Level2:  (0,3,8)     34  
  • 35. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   35    Results  3%  Blockage           35  
  • 36. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   36    5%  Blockage             36  
  • 37. Feasibility  Study  for  Electric  Charging  Stations  in  Evanston   37    10%  Blockage                     37  

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