Mt lasut 2007-dissertation-ait-th

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My doctoral dissertation at Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand (2007)

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Mt lasut 2007-dissertation-ait-th

  1. 1. WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN THE CITY OF MANADO, NORTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA by Markus Talintukan Lasut A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Technical Science in Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management Examination Committee: Prof. Ganesh Shivakoti (Chairperson) Dr. Thammarat Koottatep Dr. Wenresti G. Gallardo Dr. Kou Ikejima (External Expert) External Examiner: Dr. Hans Åke Granmo Department of Marine Ecology, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Göteborg University, 450 34 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden Nationality: Indonesian Previous Degree: Engineer in Fisheries (Aquatic Resources Management), Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia Master of Science, Århus University, Århus, Denmark Scholarship Donor: Denmark – AIT Fellowship Asian Institute of Technology School of Environment, Resources and Development Thailand December 2007
  2. 2. ii Acknowledgements This is a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Technical Science in Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management (ITCZM) Program, Asian Institute Technology (AIT). This study was supported by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), Denmark, through the AIT, Thailand. Therefore, I extend my gratitude to both institutions. I am indebted to my present academic advisor, Prof. G. Shivakoti, as the chairperson of my Study Program Committee and Ass. Prof. Dr. K. Ikejima, as former academic advisor and former chairperson of my Study Program Committee, who provide helps and advices during my study, helped to construct my research topic, and helped in preparing my paper for publication. I wish to thank Ass. Prof. Dr. Thammarat Koottatep, Ass. Prof. Dr. Wenresti G. Gallardo, and Ass. Prof. Dr. K. Ikejima (External Experts) as members of my Study Program Committee, who gave comments, corrections, and advises for my dissertation manuscript. Thank you Ass. Prof. Dr. Åke Granmo from Gothenburg University, Sweden, who provided himself as the External Examiner of my dissertation, reviewed my dissertation manuscript and gave comments and corrections on it. I am indebted to Ass. Prof. Dr. Kathe R. Jensen, as my first academic advisor, who kindly gave help during my study, helps to get points of views about my research topic, help in the preparation of my proposal and dissertation manuscripts, and helped in preparing my paper for publication. I would like to thank Ass. Prof. Dr. Ole Pedersen, as a former member my Study Program Committee, who gave advise during my study. My special thanks to Prof. (Emeritus) C. Kwei Lin, who was involved in the first period of my study, as well as Ass. Prof. Dr. A. Yakupitiyage and Ass. Prof. Dr. Yang Yi, who provided help during my study. Thanks to Mrs. Lucia Sukanenya and Mrs. Upa Katchasuwanmanee at the ITCZM-AIT Program Secretariat that always provided help for administrative purposes. Thanks to the Dean of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Sam Ratulangi University, which gave support and accommodated me during my non-residential period of study. Thanks to the Center for Environment and Natural Resources (PPLH-SDA), Sam Ratulangi University, and WWF-Manado, which provided secondary data for my dissertation. I thank John J. Soucy, MAT, English Language Consultant & Programmer, who edited the English. Parts of this dissertation are published in: 1. Lasut, M. T., Jensen, K. R., Arai, T. & Miyazaki, N. 2005. An assessment of water quality along the rivers loading into the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Coastal Marine Science 29(2): 124–132. 2. Lasut, M. T., Jensen, K. R., Shivakoti, G. 2007. Analysis of constraints and potentials for wastewater management in the coastal city of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.06.011.
  3. 3. iii Abstract Wastewater management in the coastal city of Manado is a matter of great importance to prevent and mitigate pollution of the coastal environment by contaminated wastewater. Prior to formulating a wastewater management plan for the city, a survey of the current wastewater management system of the city was carried out. This survey focused on the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude towards wastewater problems, the condition and capacity of existing wastewater treatment systems and wastewater infrastructure and facilities. Also, the water quality of selected rivers was studied by determining certain indicators. The natural characteristics, socio-economic, and institutional arrangement of the city were also studied. Besides, a comprehensive review of the literature of the impacts of human activities on the coastal area with emphasis on wastewater discharge and urban wastewater management system was also done. Based on the information obtained, constraints and potentials of those aspects were analyzed and strategic actions were formulated for recommendation. To collect primary data, two main research methods were applied: (1) field observation and (2) questionnaire interview (individual and household) surveys. Two study sites (district level), Molas and Wenang, were selected and 145 and 139 individuals and 300 and 304 households respectively were interviewed. Secondary data and information was gathered from the administration of Manado City (city level) as the study area. In addition, three rivers (Bailang, Maasing, and Tondano) within the city were observed for water quality status. The results showed that the status of the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude were potentials for management, but the community’s participation was insufficient. The overall status of the wastewater disposal and treatment systems was in good condition and of adequate capacity, but there were also systems in poor and very poor condition and of inadequate capacity, as well as the wastewater infrastructure and facilities at the house level. Moreover, the three observed rivers showed indicator values exceeding international as well as national levels for pollution. In addition, the natural settings, socio- economics, and institutional arrangements pose a challenge for management. The main conclusions of the study were that constraints are formed by: (1) natural settings, which influence land use changes, (2) the rapid increase of population, (3) the frequency of low-income households, (4) the poor condition and capacity of wastewater disposal and treatment systems, (5) the institutional arrangement of the city government, and (6) the lack or inadequacy of city level regulations and policies. Potentials include (1) the city’s religion and ethnicity, (2) good environmental awareness of the community, (3) government institutions at provincial and national levels, and (4) the establishment of policy measures in Agenda 21 at provincial and national levels. Therefore, four strategic actions are recommended to be included in the plan with appropriate modifications for implementation, such as (1) providing and/or improving on- site wastewater treatment systems and sanitation facilities, (2) improving the local city government’s institutional arrangements, (3) improving the community’s participation, and (4) establishing regulations and enforcement.
  4. 4. iv Table of Contents CHAPTER TITLE PAGE Title page i Acknowledgements ii Abstract iii Table of Contents iv List of Tables vi List of Figures viii Acronyms ix Glossary xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Wastewater problem in the city of Manado 3 1.3 Rationale of the study 6 1.4 Objectives of the study 6 1.5 Scope of the study 6 2 Literature Review 7 2.1 Definitions and characteristics 7 2.2 Wastewater in coastal and marine areas 9 2.3 Coastal environmental management in Indonesia 14 2.4 Major coastal planning & management techniques 15 3 General Research Methodology 23 3.1 Research approach 23 3.2 Research framework 24 3.3 Research design 26 3.4 Data gathering procedure 29 4 Existing Situation and Condition of Manado City 31 4.1 Natural characteristics 31 4.2 Classification of the city 39 4.3 Socio-economic aspects 40 4.4 Government institutional arrangement 44 4.5 Policies, strategies, and actions 45 5 Community’s Environmental Knowledge and Attitude 47 5.1 Introduction 47 5.2 Research methodology 47 5.3 Results and discussion 50 6 Condition and Capacity of Household Wastewater Treatment Systems 58 6.1 Introduction 58 6.2 Research methodology 58
  5. 5. v 6.3 Results and discussion 60 7 Water Quality Assessment 65 7.1 Introduction 65 7.2 Research methodology 67 7.3 Results and discussion 69 8 Constraints and Potential Aspects and Their Implications 80 8.1 Introduction 80 8.2 Wastewater discharge-related aspect (WRA) 80 8.3 Governmental/administrative-related aspect (GRA) 82 8.4 Community-related aspect (CRA) 83 8.5 Financial aspect 83 9 Suitable Option of Wastewater Management 85 9.1 Objectives and considerations 85 9.2 Strategic actions of wastewater management: a recommendation 86 10 Conclusions and Recommendations 90 10.1 Conclusions 90 10.2 Recommendations 91 References 93 Appendices 102 Annexes 108
  6. 6. vi List of Tables NO. TITLE PAGE 2.1 Variation in domestic wastewater composition 9 2.2 Constituents of wastewater and their impacts on the marine environment 10 2.3 Some legal tools for controlling coastal and marine pollution and degradation in Indonesia 16 2.4 Characteristic of collaborative and community-based management 19 3.1 Selection of the two specific study sites 27 3.2 Calculated and applied sample size 28 3.3a Distribution of sample size in Molas District 29 3.3b Distribution of sample size in Wenang Districts 29 4.1 Total area of Manado based on land slope condition 31 4.2 Land use classification of the Manado Area in 1999 36 4.3 Rivers and predominant land use a long the rivers’ watershed 38 4.4 Population and density of Manado in 2003 42 4.5 The result of household surveys on socio-economic parameters 44 4.6 Number of tourists visiting the Bunaken National Marine Park (BNMP) in 2001-2006 45 5.1 Degree of knowledge (DK) of community (at household basis) about general environmental issues and issues related to wastewater 51 5.2 Degree of concern (DC) of community (at personal basis) about general environmental conditions and impacts (Topic 1) 52 5.3 Degree of concern (DC) of community (at personal basis) about environmental conditions and impacts related to wastewater discharge (Topic 2) 53 5.4 Community’s (household basis) preference regarding problem solving of environmental issues, including wastewater problems 54 5.5 Community’s preference (personal basis) on problem solving of environmental issue, including wastewater 55 6.1a Distribution of sample size in Molas District (SS 1) used in wastewater treatment system (septic tank) capacity evaluation 59 6.1b Distribution of sample size in Wenang District (SS 2) used in wastewater treatment system (septic tank) capacity evaluation 59 6.2 Criteria for condition and capacity of wastewater treatment system (septic tank) and wastewater infrastructures and facilities (sewer system) used in this present study 61 6.3 Condition, capacity, and presence of residential wastewater treatment system (septic-tank) and wastewater infrastructures and facilities (sewer system). 62 6.4 Pearson’s correlation coefficient (PC) by using the Bivariate Correlations procedure 64 7.1 Characterization and environmental condition (salinity, temperature, and conductivity) of sampling stations during dry (September-October 2002) and wet (January-March 2003) seasons 68 7.2 Concentration of Total coliform (TC), and Escherichia coli (EC) during dry (September-October 2002) and wet (January-March 2003) seasons 75
  7. 7. vii 7.3 Water quality status of the river of Bailang (SB), Maasing (SM), and Tondano (ST) 77 8.1 The slum areas in 3 districts of Manado City in 1999 81 8.2 Cases of diseases in Manado City in 2002 82
  8. 8. viii List of Figures NO. TITLE PAGE 1.1 The area of Manado City with five divided districts 2 1.2 The schematic process of the planning and implementation in integrated coastal management (ICM) 3 1.3 The schematic diagram of existing situation related to problems, pressures and impacts of wastewater discharge in the coastal area in Manado 5 2.1 Municipal wastewater components 8 3.1 Scheme of research approach 23 3.2 Conceptual framework of the study on wastewater management in the city of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia 25 3.3 Schematic construction of the Study Area and Study Sites 28 4.1 The area of Manado City 32 4.2 Topographic condition of Manado City 33 4.3 Slope gradient of Manado area 34 4.4 Hydrological condition of Manado City 35 4.5 Tondano Watershed with Manado City area 37 4.6 Average annual rainfall (1991-2000) and temperature (1994-2000) 39 4.7 Bunaken National Marine Park (BNMP) 40 4.8 Administrative of Manado with 9 districts 41 5.1 Participation of NGOs in integrated coastal zone management activities 57 7.1 Map of Indonesia, North Sulawesi Province, Manado City, Study area, and sampling stations 66 7.2 BOD5 values for 3 rivers in Manado City, SB (a), SM (b), and ST (c) during dry and wet seasons. Stations are shown on Fig. 7.1 70 7.3 NO3 - values for 3 rivers in Manado City, SB (a), SM (b), and ST (c) during dry and wet seasons. Stations are shown on Fig. 7.1 72 7.4 PO4 3- values for 3 rivers in Manado City, SB (a), SM (b), and ST (c) during dry and wet seasons. Stations are shown on Fig. 7.1 74 7.5 Concentration of Hg-tot in water (a) and sediment (b) of ST during dry and wet seasons. Stations are shown on Fig. 7.1 76 7.6 Concentration of Hg-tot in water and sediment of ST during dry (a) and wet (b) seasons. Stations are shown on Fig. 7.1 78 7.7 Concentration of Hg-tot accumulated in the marine bivalve Soletellina sp. at the mouth of the river ST 79
  9. 9. ix Acronyms ASEAN-MWQC : ASEAN Marine Water Quality Criteria ASL : Above Sea Level AV : Aggregated Values BNMP : Bunaken National Marine Park BOD : Biological Oxygen Demand CAA : City Arrangement Agency CAM : Coastal Area Management CBD : Central Business District CBOs : Community-Based Organizations CE : Cumulative Effects CEO : Community Empowerment Organizations CMB : Cleaning Management Board COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand CRA : Community-Related Aspect DC : Degree of Concern DK : Degree of Knowledge DO : Dissolved Oxygen DWF : Dry-Weather Flow EA : Environmental Assessment EC : Effluent Charges EC : Eschericia coli EEZ : Economic Exclusive Zone EHA : Environmental Health Agency EIA : Environmental Impact Assessment EMB : Environmental Management Board ENCORE : Enrichment of Nutrients on a Coral Reef Experiment ES : Effluent Standards FC : Faecal Coliform GIS : Geographical Information System GPS : Global Positioning System GRA : Governmental/administrative-Related Aspect ICM : Integrated Coastal Management IGR : Indonesian Government Regulation IL : Indonesian Law INS : Indonesian National Standard LGR : Local Government Regulation MB : Manado Bay MC : Manado City MFA : Marine and Fisheries Agency MoE : Ministry of Environment MoF : Ministry of Forestry MPN : Most Probable Number MR : Minahasa Regency N : Nitrogen NAEIM : National Agency for Environmental Impact Management NGOs : Non-Government Organizations OSDS : On-site Sewage Disposal System
  10. 10. x P : Phosphorous PAEICB : Provincial Agency of Environmental Impact Control Board PC : Pearson’s correlation Coefficient POPs : Persistent Organic Pollutants PS : Public Sector PWA : Public Works Agency RWQS : Receiving Water Quality Standards SA : Study Area SP : Strength of Preference SS : Study Sites TC : Total Coliform TDS : Total Dissolved Solids TSS : Total Suspended Solids UM : Urban Management WQC-GRRI : Water Quality Criteria of Government Regulation of Republic of Indonesia WRA : Wastewater discharge-Related Aspect WWF : Wet-Weather Flow ASEAN-MWQC : ASEAN Marine Water Quality Criteria ASL : Above Sea Level AV : Aggregated Values BNMP : Bunaken National Marine Park BOD : Biological Oxygen Demand CAA : City Arrangement Agency CAM : Coastal Area Management CBD : Central Business District CBOs : Community-Based Organizations
  11. 11. xi Glossary Agenda 21. The forty-chapter action plan emanating from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) that provides guidelines to nations on a wide range of matters related to environment and development Anthropogenic. Referring to pollutants and other forms of impacts on natural environments that occur because of, or influenced by, human activities Aquaculture. The farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants Biodiversity. Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), and variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity) Coast. The geographical area between terrestrial and marine environments Coastal area. See ‘Coastal zone’ Coastal zone. The area at the interface between land and sea, where the sea influences the land and vice versa. Coastal zone boundaries vary depending on bio-geographical conditions, the mix of uses and problems present, and the legal system. Also, it is defined as Coastal area Coliform. A type of bacteria that resides in the human intestine whose presence in water is used to indicate whether the water may be contaminated with disease organisms Dissolved oxygen (DO). Oxygen gas molecules (O2) dissolved in water Domestic sewage. The liquid wastes from housing Ecosystem. A natural entity (or a system) with distinct structures and relationships that interlink biotic communities (of plants and animals) to each other and link them to their abiotic environment Ecotourism. Tourism focusing on environmental and cultural resources and usually based on a conservation theme Environmental Impact Assessment. A process whereby a detailed prediction is made of the effects of a proposed development project on the environment and natural resources. Estuary. Broadest portion of a river or stream near its outlet that is influenced by the marine water body into which it flows Eutrophication. Physical, chemical and biological changes that take place after a lake, an estuary, or a slow-flowing stream receives inputs of plant nutrients-mostly nitrates and phosphates-from natural erosion and runoff from the surrounding land basin Exclusive Economic Zone. The maritime zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea but not exceeding 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured Global. Relating to or including the whole earth; or complete or comprehensive Hazard assessment. The process of examining evidence linking a particular hazard to its harmful effects Heavy metals. Any of the high atomic weight metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and zinc Human settlements. An integrative concept that comprises (a) physical components of shelter and infrastructure and (b) services to which the physical elements provide support, that is, community services such as education, health, culture, welfare, recreation and nutrition Institutions. The rules that operate in a society
  12. 12. xii Integrated coastal management (ICM). A continuous and dynamic process by which decisions are made for the sustainable use, development, and protection of coastal and marine areas and resources Land reclamation. A type of coastal construction activity aimed at gaining land from the sea Mariculture. The farming of marine finfish, molluscs, crustaceans, and seaweed Mitigation. The prevention, elimination, reduction, or control of a project’s negative environmental effects by avoiding or minimising the effects Natural resources. Any portion of the environment, such as air, water, soil, botanical and zoological resources and minerals PAHs. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon PCBs. Group of 209 different toxic, oily, synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds that can be biologically amplified in food chains and webs Pathogen. An organism that produces diseases Peri-urban areas. Areas are characterized by a mixture of land uses associated with a range of urban and rural livelihoods Pollutant. A particular chemical or form of energy that can adversely affect the health, activities, or survival of humans or other living organism Pollution. An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristic of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, activities or survival of humans or other living organism Precautionary principle. The principle that preventive or remedial action should be taken, on the basis of the best available scientific evidence, to avoid making policy decisions that have irreversible adverse effects on the environment Risk assessment. A technique to quantify risks Risk management. The task of regulators, involving reviewing the risk data and making regulatory, decisions based on the evidence Stakeholder. Individuals and groups of individuals (including government and non- governmental institutions, traditional communities, universities, research institutions, development agencies, banks and donors) with an interest or claim (whether stated or implied) that has the potential of being affected by or affecting a given project and its objectives Sustainable development. A development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Tropical Area. It refers to low-latitude climate that is characterised by consistently warm and humid conditions Upland. A term describing land areas sufficiently inland from the shoreline to have limited interaction with the sea Wastes. Useless or discarded material, as ashes, garbage, sewage, etc or matter excreted from the body, as faeces or urine Watershed. The total land area that drains directly or indirectly into a particular stream or river
  13. 13. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction This chapter presents the general background of the present study and discusses wastewater problems in the city of Manado. The rationale of the study and research objectives are presented, and the expected contribution of the study is also provided. 1.1 Background Wastewater discharge, especially wastewater containing harmful contaminants, is of great concern due to its impact on the environment of coastal and terrestrial areas. In the coastal area it may cause the degradation and destruction of the coastal environment and resources, while degradation of environmental quality may occur in the terrestrial areas. This issue has often been addressed partially on an ad hoc basis as it became apparent, for example: the implementations of a policy to regulate COD (chemical oxygen demand) of industrial effluents in 1979 in order to improve the environmental quality of Tokyo Bay due to organic pollution (Kawabe, 1998) and the occurrence of environmental degradation on the marine coastal area of Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, due to wastewater discharge from the Jakarta City (Williams et al., 2000; Nur et al., 2001). In both cases, apparently, the measures were partially taken and the other aspects (for instance, sources of wastewater and community participation) were not taken into account. Moreover, the measures were taken in a short period of time. The result was that the wastewater discharge was not comprehensively solved, and the impact of wastewater may still continue in Tokyo Bay (MoE-GoJ, 2004) and in Jakarta Bay (Nur et al. 2001). In recent years, management measures to solve environmental problems due to wastewater discharge in coastal areas have been emphasized with a more holistic approach and for long-term solutions. In this regard integrated coastal management (ICM) has recently been applied as a problem solving approach in many countries. For example, coastal area management (CAM) in Singapore (Chia, 1992), ‘Beneficial Uses’ in Hong Kong (Wu et al., 1998), and by implementing legislation and several acts in the context of ICM for the coastal area of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (Murthy et al., 2001). As wastewater discharge in the coastal area is predicted to be an increasing problem in the future, it is considered to be one of the major future challenges of ICM (Hale and Olsen, 2003). In addressing wastewater problems in Indonesia, such management measures have not been fully applied in cities within the country, in particular where there is still occurring environmental degradation due to wastewater impact. In addition, the ICM approach has not yet been fully adopted as an alternative to solve the environmental problems due to wastewater discharge in coastal cities within the country, though it has been proposed to be included in the ICM (Nur et al., 2001). For example, the coastal city of Manado (Fig. 1.1), like other coastal cities in Indonesia, is a medium-sized city which is formed along the waterfront of Manado Bay, and is facing various environmental problems due to wastewater discharge. Wastewater is discharging into the bay through rivers and canals which cross through the city. It is a matter of fact that the bay is used for fisheries and tourism. Since measures are needed to overcome the problems, a wastewater management plan, alternatively using the ICM approach, is needed to prevent and mitigate further wastewater impact.
  14. 14. 2 Figure1.1TheareaofManadoCitywithfivedivideddistricts(Molas,Mapanget,Wenang,Sario,Malalayang) 2
  15. 15. 3 The need to manage the coastal city of Manado in relation to wastewater discharge is a matter of great importance. However, it should be planned and designed comprehensively prior to implementation. Hence, the present study is focused on the wastewater management of the city by formulating strategic actions prior to designing a management plan in order to improve the wastewater management of the city. In formulating such actions, an important first step is that the status of various aspects associated with the wastewater discharge issues should be identified, described, analyzed and understood comprehensively. In this regard, research, encompassing problem identification, analysis and evaluation, was conducted prior to the formulation. In addition, the ICM approach is used as a basic concept approach in designing this study (Fig. 1.2). 1.2 Wastewater Problem in the City of Manado In Indonesia, many policies, strategies and actions of environmental management related to wastewaters have been formulated at regional (provincial) and national levels in Agenda 21 of North Sulawesi Province (Bapedal-Sulut, 2003) and Agenda 21 of Indonesia (KMNLH, 1996a), respectively. However, at the city level of Manado City, such measures are apparently not available, whereas in fact, wastewater discharge is predicted to increase as the coastal and coast-related inland areas of Manado are being developed for various PLANNING Figure 1.2 The schematic process of the planning and implementation in integrated coastal management (ICM) (Adopted from NOAA, 1995). Problem Identification Research Analysis Designing IMPLEMEN- TATION Installation Operation & Maintenance Monitoring Enforcement Financing Desired product & Services Evaluation Present study
  16. 16. 4 economic activities. At present, the opportunity to establish such management is more realistic since the Indonesian Law (IL) No. 22 of 1999, concerning autonomy and decentralization, has been implemented since early January 2000. The IL states that a city- or a regency-level of government has its own authority to manage the resources found in their areas including protection and conservation measures. Based on a preliminary observation of the wastewater problem in the city of Manado, there are two main factors acting as driving forces, which may cause the destruction of the coastal ecosystem habitat and the reduction of coastal resources of Manado Bay. They are: increasing population, and development activity (Fig. 1.3). The rapid increase of population in the city of Manado is stimulating the increase of housing settlements and other related infrastructures and facilities. This causes an increase of wastewater-point sources, and may increase the quality and quantity of wastewater discharge from the city. In the end, this situation may have an impact on the environment of the terrestrial and coastal marine areas of the city. The development of economic activities, particularly in the tourism and trade sectors, is increasing in the city. Both sectors, together with education, have been selected by the Manado City’s Council as the ‘sectors of priority’ for development. Many policies are being established and acted upon to accommodate such priorities, especially for economic activities (small- and large-scale). For example, there are plans for the coastal area of Manado to be a centre of business, the so-called ‘central business district’ (CBD). Related to this, various commercial buildings (tourist facilities, shops/malls, cottages, and hotels), transportation (marinas, ports, harbors) and infrastructures are being developed in order to support this development. In contrast, those economic activities will threaten the environment of the terrestrial and coastal areas of the city by increasing wastes and wastewater discharges. With regards to wastewater management in the city of Manado, several issues have been identified that are grouped into the community-related aspect (CRA), the wastewater- related aspect (WRA), and the government/administrative-related aspect (GRA). Those issues encompass community participation, physical and technical aspects, environmental conditions related to discharge wastewater, and policy and program related to wastewater management. The following are descriptions of the issues: 1. At the city-level of Manado, there are no cases where the community has taken an initiative to prevent and mitigate wastewater problems. On the contrary, they are the source of discharged wastewater. This may be due to a lack of environmental awareness in the community. Therefore, the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude in relation to the wastewater issue are still in question. 2. Household activities that produce wastewater increase as the population increases. This is predicted to have a negative impact on the coastal and marine environment. To prevent and mitigate the impact, adequate physical measures (wastewater treatments, infrastructures and facilities) at household level should be introduced. In order to formulate measures related to this issue, the status of wastewater treatment and facilities at the household level are still in question. 3. Most enterprises and households can freely discharge their wastewater including pollutant-containing wastewater into the coastal environment through sewers, drainage, and river systems. The impact of the discharge to the river systems is still unknown.
  17. 17. 5 4. Measures for management and planning (policy, program, etc.) related to wastewater issues have not been established at the city-level of Manado and the institutional structure of the government, seemingly, is not adequate to support the management of this. Therefore, suitable options for wastewater management system and strategic actions to prevent and/or mitigate wastewater impact should be formulated, and government’s institutional structure should be evaluated. 5. The socio-economic status of the city’s residents is unknown; though, low personal incomes for most people are known throughout the country. Hence, the socio-economic status for the city of Manado should be evaluated. Figure 1.3 The schematic diagram of the existing situation related to problems, pressures and impacts of wastewater discharge in the coastal area in Manado Rapid population increase Increasing economic growth Human activities Human settlement Increasing large-& small- scale commercial enterprises Tourism & commercial buildings Population Harbor, port infrastructures Destruction of coastal ecosystem habitats & reduction of coastal resources of Manado Bay Development Policy Increasing wastes & wastewater discharge
  18. 18. 6 1.3 Rationale of the Study Wastewater discharge in the city of Manado should be managed in order to prevent and mitigate its impact on the environment of the terrestrial and the coastal and marine ecosystems of Manado Bay. In such management, various aspects should be taken into account and understood comprehensively as the city has its own characteristics. Therefore, a management plan should be designed based on the city’s characteristics. Prior to the designing, the status of various aspects related to wastewater discharge should be described, evaluated, and analyzed, and primary strategic actions should be formulated. 1.4 Objective of the Study The overall goal of the research is to study the current wastewater management system, identify constraints and potentials of wastewater-related aspects, and formulate strategic actions prior to designing a wastewater management plan, and to improve the management for mitigation and protection measures to address wastewater discharge in the coastal area of Manado City. In order to achieve this goal, several specific topics were studied, which have the following objectives: 1. To describe and assess existing aspects (natural settings and population, socio- economic aspects, present government institutional structure) related to wastewater management in the city; 2. To evaluate and assess the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude related to wastewater problems in the city; 3. To evaluate and assess the wastewater treatment system (septic tank) and wastewater infrastructures and facilities (sewer system) at households level; 4. To evaluate and assess the water quality of rivers, as wastewater receivers, which cross the city; 5. To analyze the constraint and potential aspects for wastewater management in the city; 6. To formulate strategic actions as a recommendation to improve wastewater management in the city. 1.5 Scope of the Study This study is limited to domestic wastewater from household activities and urban runoff, while other wastewater sources (for instance, from industrial activity) was not included, as such activity was none in the city of Manado. Besides, the data for domestic wastewater were collected at a house unit/household level in which a household is consisted more than two individuals (parents and their children); and for urban runoff, water samples for analysis were collected at river systems. The study covered the city of Manado, especially at two selected districts Molas and Wenang. The secondary data about districts of Molas and Wenang used in this study were mostly up to 2001 and from 2003 (when the number of districts had changed from 5 to 9). There are several parameters for assessment of water quality. Due to time limitation, budget constraints and limited laboratory equipments and facilities, this study measured BOD5, NO3 - , PO4 -3 , Eschericia coli and total coliform, and mercury only for environmental parameters.
  19. 19. 7 Chapter 2 Literature Review This chapter presents the results of a comprehensive literature review on the impacts of human activities to the coastal area with emphasis on wastewater discharge and urban wastewater management systems. It discusses the basic definitions of coastal area and wastewater including their characteristics, impacts of wastewater in the coastal areas, and some coastal planning and management measures related to wastewater. 2.1 Definition and Characteristic 2.1.1 Coastal area ‘Coastal zone’ or ‘coastal area’? Some authors use one or the other of these terms in order to discuss the dynamics of coastal systems. Clark (1992), Hoozemans et al., (1995), and Cicin-Sain & Knecht (1998), use ‘coastal zone’; while Chia (1992), Scialabba (1998), and Kay & Alder (1999) use ‘coastal area’; but Brown (1997) did not mention the terms at all when she discussed integrated coastal management. None of them discussed the use of this unstable term, except that Kay & Alder (1999) briefly stated that ‘zone’ and ‘area’ have little distinction in common English. However, they suggest that ‘zone’ could be implied to mean a planning zone, and they use ‘area’ or simply ‘at the coast’ or ‘on the coast’, except when they quote from original sources which use the term ‘coastal zone’. In the present review the terms are used in the way that Kay & Alder (1999) used them, without any consideration to quotations, i.e. ‘coastal area’ will be used except when referring to planning zones. Coastal areas are defined in many ways by different authors depending on the purpose of the description and their professional background, while there is no internationally accepted definition (ADB, 1991; Hoozemans et al., 1995). The purposes could be oriented towards academic interest for planning and management, and governments for administration, etc. Some definitions from various sources provided are: an interaction between terrestrial and marine components (ADB, 1991); the gradual transitional region forming the boundary between the land and ocean (Kay & Alder, 1999). Ketchum (1972) cf Kay & Alder (1999) defined this area as the band of dry land and adjacent ocean space (water and submerged land) in which terrestrial processes and land uses directly affect oceanic processes and uses, and vice versa. However, the 200 nautical miles limit from land over which coastal nations exert sovereignty [Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ)] is an international legal definition for the coastal zone (Brown, 1997; Cicin-Sain & Knecht, 1998; Kullenberg, 1999). The coastal area is characterized by three elements, i.e., 1) it contains both land and ocean components; 2) it has land and ocean boundaries that are determined by the degree of influence of the land on the ocean and the ocean on the land; 3) and it is not of uniform width, depth, or height. After the geographical boundaries are used to define the coastal area, all components found inside the area can be characterized. Such specific characteristics have been discussed in detail by ADB (1991), Chia (1992), Hoozemans et al. (1995), Brown (1997) and Scialabba (1998). In addition, urban (city) waterfront is also included (Vallega, 2001).
  20. 20. 8 2.1.2 Wastewater Wastewater is sewage, storm-water and water that have been used for various purposes within a community. Most communities generate wastewater from both residential and non-residential sources (Anonymous, 2001a). It contains a mixture of liquid wastes, which consist of domestic wastewater, urban runoff, and effluents from commercial and industrial activities (Fig. 2.1). The non-residential component is generated from a variety of sources, such as offices, businesses, department stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, farms, manufacturers, and other commercial, industrial, and institutional entities (Anonymous, 2001a & b). Storm-water is a non-residential source; it carries trash and other pollutants from streets, as well as pesticides and fertilizers from yards and fields (Anonymous, 2001b & c). There are two types of domestic wastewater, i.e., (1) black-water, or wastewater from toilets; (2) and grey-water, which is wastewater from all sources except toilets. Both contain pollutants and disease-causing agents (Anonymous, 2001a). The proportions of liquid and solid parts are about 99.9 and 0.1%, respectively, and the solid part consists of 70% organic (especially protein, carbohydrate, and fat) and 30% in-organic materials (sand particles, salts, and metals) (Kusnoputranto, 1997). Composition of the materials (TDS, TSS, N, P), BOD, COD and coliform bacteria in the domestic wastewater are shown in Table 2.1. The usual BOD values for domestic wastewater range between 100 and 500 mg/l. The number of coliform in domestic wastewater is about 1.9 x 107 per 100ml (Ortiz- Hernandez & Saenz-Morales 1999). Faecal coliform (FC) together with total coliform (TC) is used as indicators for human- generated microbial pollution (Ortiz-Hernandez & Saenz-Morales, 1999; Dionisio, et al. 2000). According to Vandermeulen (1998), FC contamination could be used to assess human pathogens, biotoxins and diseases in the marine environment. The FC is used as an indicator of the level of sewage treatment of coastal communities, bacterial counts in shellfish growing areas and marine bathing beaches, and to decide about closure of shellfish growing areas. Household activity, hotels, etc. Industrial activity Urban runoff Black water (toilet) Grey water (kitchen, bathroom) Pre-treated & Untreated Domestic wastewater Combined sewer Municipal wastewater Separated sewer Stormwater drainage Figure 2.1 Municipal wastewater components (modified from Anonymous, 2001b)
  21. 21. 9 Concerning the black-water, such wastewater has specific characteristics. It is generated from daily human activity and may cause diseases in humans. Pathogenic micro- organisms, especially bacteria, may be found in this wastewater (Reed et al,. 1995; Kusnoputranto, 1997). Feachem et al. (1983 cf Kusnoputranto 1997) reported that Klebsiella pneumonia and K. rhinoscleromatis are characteristically found in black-water. Previously, Bacillus coli (the former name of Escherichia coli) were isolated by Escherich in 1885 from choleric faeces (Kusnoputranto, 1997). Table 2.1 Variation in Domestic Wastewater Composition (Veenstra et al., 1997) Parameter Specific production (per capita/day) Concentration (Based on 60 and 250 liters of water consumption per capita/day) (mg/l) Total dissolved solids (TDS) 100–150 g 400–2,500 Total suspended solids (TSS) 40–80 g 160–1,350 Biological oxygen demand (BOD) 30–60 g 120–1,000 Chemical oxygen demand (COD) 70–150 g 280–2,500 Nitrogen (Kjeldahl-N) 8–12 g 30–200 Total phosphorous (P) 1–3 g 4–50 Faecal coliform 108 –109 104 –106 /100 ml 2.2 Wastewater in Coastal and Marine Areas 2.2.1 Status of wastewater Wastewater entering coastal and marine environments (environment of coastal and marine areas have significant relationships in this regard) carry all components ranging from organic to inorganic, from degradable to un-degradable, and from less to highly toxic, etc. Those components may come from urban and rural areas, and all sites inland (up- and low- land). Because of this, wastewater is considered as an important source of contamination in coastal areas (Ortiz-Hernandez & Saenz-Morales, 1999; Dyer et al., 2003; Ukwe et al., 2003). Wastewater is not a pollutant per se (NOAA, 1995). The wastewater discharged into the environment can be categorized as a pollutant if it destroys the living and non-living constituents in the environment, or reduces the productivity of the environment or dislocates the normal uses of the environment. A pollutant can be defined as a matter and energy discharge into an environment which destroys the living and non-living constituents in the environment and causes harm to humans (Ouano, 1988; Miller, 1996). Tebbutt (1992) considered two types of pollutants, namely (1) conservative, i.e. materials that are not affected by natural processes; and (2) non-conservative, i.e. materials that can be degraded by natural processes, including most organics, some in-organics and many micro- organisms. 2.2.2 Wastewater impact from an ecological aspect Wastewater is mostly water by weight. Other materials make up only a small portion, but can be present in large enough quantities to endanger public health and the environment (Anonymous 2001a, b & c). And, since anything can be flushed out in a toilet, drain, or
  22. 22. 10 sewer, many potential pollutants can be found in the wastewater that can cause disease or have detrimental environmental effects. Such wastewater should be of the most concern to communities. Various impacts are caused by wastewater discharge to coastal water (Table 2.2). It may influence dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, and the conductivity of receiving waters (Daniel, et al. 2002). For example, in Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico, the BOD of coastal water reached 32.26 mg/l (mean value) and ranged from 22.61-38.96 mg/l due to wastewater discharge. Standard BOD5 for coastal waters is less than 10 mg/l (Clark, 1996) and usual BOD values for domestic wastewater range between 100 and 500 mg/l. The mean dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.63 mg/l, with a range from 0.47-3.73 mg/l at the mouth of the discharge. The most important source of water pollution in that area was attributable to wastewater discharges (Ortiz-Hernandez & Saenz-Morales, 1999; Dyer et al., 2003; Ukwe et al., 2003). Table 2.2 Constituents of Wastewater and Their Impacts on the Marine Environment (Windom, 1992) Type of Constituent Impact Solids High levels of suspended solids may cause excessive turbidity and shading of sea grasses and result in sedimentation, which is potentially damaging to benthic habitats and can cause anaerobic conditions at the sea bottom. Fine particles may be associated with toxic organics, metals, and pathogens that adhere to these solids. Organic matter Biological degradation of organic matter requires oxygen and can deplete available dissolved oxygen. The strength of wastewater is commonly expressed in terms of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) parameter. High BOD levels in natural waters can cause hypoxia and anoxia, especially in shallow and enclosed aquatic systems, resulting in fish death and anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic conditions subsequently result in the release of bad odors from the formation of hydrogen sulphide. Nutrients Nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorous, increase primary production rates (of oxygen and algal biomass); adverse levels cause nuisance algal blooms (including toxic algal blooms), dieback of corals and sea grasses, and eutrophication that can lead to hypoxia and anoxia, suffocating living resources (fish). Massive die-off of algal matter will result in additional organic matter. Pathogens Pathogens can cause human illness and possible death. Exposure to pathogens via contact with contaminated water or consumption of contaminated shellfish can result in infection and disease. Toxic organic chemicals (Persistent organic pollutants, or POPs) Many toxic materials are suspected carcinogens and mutagens. These materials can concentrate in shellfish and fish tissue, putting humans at risk through consumption. Bioaccumulation affects fish and wildlife at higher levels of the food chain. Metals Metals in specific forms can be toxic to various marine organisms and humans; shellfish are especially vulnerable in areas with highly contaminated sediment. Fats, oil, and grease Fats, oil, and grease float on the surface of seawater, interfere with natural aeration, are possibly toxic to aquatic life, destroy coastal vegetation, reduce recreational use of water and beaches, and threaten waterfowl.
  23. 23. 11 Tourism activity in coastal areas should also be considered as a source of wastewater. Existence of this activity is associated with several types of impacts, such as environmental, economic and socio-cultural, positive or negative, direct or indirect, immediate or cumulative, short-term or long-term (Wong, 1998). It has been found that such activity is a main cause of a decline in local water quality (Saenger, 1989 cf Clark, 1992). Sewage discharge resulting from tourism activity, particularly if poorly sited or inadequately treated, is the most common source of adverse effects on the biota. For example, in the Caribbean region, less than 10 % of the sewage generated is treated and bacterial levels regularly exceed international standards for recreational contact waters, typically 200 MPN (Most Probable Number) coliform (Clark, 1992). Another study reported that an on-site sewage disposal system (OSDS), for example septic tank, in recreational and tourist areas caused the infection of human enteric pathogen (Cryptosporodium, Giardia and enteroviruses) in Sarasota Bay (Lipp et al., 2001) and Gulf of Guinea (Ukwe et al., 2003). The relationship between the consumption of polluted fish and human health has become more firmly established. Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish concentrate bacteria and viruses such as hepatitis, typhoid, dysentery and cholera, present in untreated discharges of human sewage, along with other particulate materials. The consumption of contaminated shellfish may cause enteric infections, and the transmission of infectious hepatitis through the consumption of raw, sewage-contaminated shellfish is well documented. Dysentery is thought to have been transmitted by the consumption of cockles in Malaysia, and epidemics of typhoid and hepatitis are linked to the consumption of the shellfish contaminated by sewage in Vietnam. Because the decomposition of sewage contaminants competes for oxygen with finfish larvae and shellfish, this may lead to economic losses by reducing the fish production. In the Philippines, for example, the production of mussel and oyster beds in Manila Bay as well as brackish water fishponds north of Manila is thought to be reduced as a result of sewage discharge (Ruddle, 1982). Generally, the effect of urban development and anthropogenic activities (industry, settlement, agriculture, etc.) cause substantial physical changes in coastal waterways through the hardening and reclamation of river banks, alteration of water flow, affected coastal communities, and the diffuse and point-source discharge of pollutants (Ahn & Choi, 1998; Rawlins et al., 1998; Tuncer et al., 1998; Virkanen, 1998; Inglis & Kross, 2000; Dyer et al., 2003; Mallin et al., 2007). However, research on the effect of discharging municipal wastewater to benthic macrofauna and community structure in Futian National Mangrove Reserve concluded that there was no significant effect on total mean biomass and density (particularly of molluscs and crustaceans) (Yu et al., 1997). Pollution of near shore waters adjacent to coastal cities has long been a problem due to the discharge of wastewater. For example Jakarta, Indonesia, like many capital cities in developing countries, has experienced a rapid population and industrial growth, which has caused pollution (metals contamination) in Jakarta Bay (Williams et al., 2000; Nur et al., 2001). This growth, however, has been at a cost, namely the degradation of the coastal environment of Jakarta Bay and adjacent coral reefs (Kepulauan Seribu), primarily from pollution (Kay & Alder 1999). Such land-based pollution is one of the causes of reef degradation and decreased coral biodiversity in other marine coastal areas (Ambon, Jepara, Karimun Jawa Islands, and South Sulawesi) in Indonesia (Edinger et al., 1998). In Hong Kong, sewage and industrial pollution have resulted in a decrease in dissolved oxygen and an increase in nutrients and Escherichia coli in many coastal areas (Wu et al., 1998). It is
  24. 24. 12 also the cause of the occurrence of persistent organic contaminants (Connell et al. 1998), and of heavy metal accumulation (Owen & Sandhu, 2000) in the marine areas. Wastewater contains a large number of organic materials and the impact of such materials in coastal water causes euthrophication. Euthrophication is the process of the enrichment of water with plant nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus that results in the increase of aquatic primary production and leads to visible algal blooms. Such euthrophication is not characterized as an adverse effect on the ecosystem during the first stage, since it has many positive aspects. The impact is the continuous and unlimited increase of the concentration of plant nutrients that can have a negative environmental impact, such as the reduction of oxygen concentration, the change of marine biodiversity, poor water quality, turbidity and an increase of organic matter concentrations (Clark, 1996; Kitsiou & Karydis, 2001). Nutrient enrichment in marine coastal areas, based on the ENCORE (Enrichment of Nutrients on a Coral Reef Experiment) study, may also affect coral reproduction, induce significant biotic responses on reef organisms, affect the calcification rate and linear extension making coral more susceptible to breakage, reduce all coral larval settlements, and affect other activities related to reef organisms (Koop et al., 2001). The occurrence of pollutants in the ecosystem of coastal and marine areas and discharge together with wastewater from urban areas may be influenced by many factors. Two of these are characteristics of the pollutants and prevailing weather in that area. For instance, pesticides and heavy metals may potentially contaminate soil and plants after being discharged to a wastewater disposal site. In this case, the distribution of pesticides in the soil and wastewater was influenced by the solubility of such pesticides so that the higher the solubility the more is present in the water phase (Jiries et al., 2002). Besides, contamination is also influenced by weather (wet or dry). McPherson et al., (2002) investigated the difference in annual pollutant loads between two different weathers, dry [dry-weather flow (DWF)] and wet [wet-weather flow (WWF)]. They indicated that the WWF was the major non-point source of pollutants including trace metals in the Ballona Creek watershed, California, while the DWF contribution is low. However, DWF loads may still be adversely affecting near coastal ecosystems such as wetlands and small estuaries. Buffleben et al. (2002) have also indicated that the WWF carries a significant amount of hazardous metals into the Santa Monica Bay, California as the receiving water area. To understand more about the source, fate, behavior, and effect of chemicals and other pollutants in the environment is an academic challenge. However, it is more that that; it requires understanding of issues that affect and shape the use, regulation and control of thousands of chemicals of commerce (Jones, 2007). 2.2.3 Mitigation of wastewater problems and management Wastewater management is urgently needed in order to prevent and mitigate the wastewater impacts (Engin & Demir, 2006) besides the establishment of pollution monitoring programs (Zhang et al., 2006; Sheppard, 2007). From this point of view, wastewater problem solving measures applied in a coastal area should be put into a more integrated context than the on-site management. As so many different stakeholders, types, sources and impacts of pollutants are involved, the wastewater aspect should be evaluated
  25. 25. 13 and analyzed from an integrated point of view [taking all parts of the system, that is the sewer system, wastewater treatment plant, and receiving waters into consideration (Buffleben et al., 2002)]. In this case, communities (including private sectors) and governments should combine their efforts and resources into an integrated management measure (Shatkin, 2007). This could be an option to increase participation for conducting wastewater management. However, institutional and political factors could be barriers to implementing this issue option (Akbar et al., 2007). A certain model of wastewater management system could be applied by a city, whether a centralized or decentralized system. In former times, a centralized system was thought to be easier to be planned and managed. But nowadays, based on some experiences, such a system has deficiencies, in which it is particularly poor at reaching peri-urban areas and, therefore, a decentralized system is adopted as appropriate for such areas (Parkinson and Tayler, 2003). According to Parkinson and Tayler (2003), decentralized systems are more compatible with decentralized approaches to urban management than centralized systems. In a broad sense “… the implications of decentralization on wastewater management systems relate to planning and decision-making, design of physical infrastructure, and management arrangements for operations and maintenance” (Parkinson and Tayler, 2003). A wastewater treatment system is a component of wastewater management; it is important for sustainable wastewater management (Engin & Demir, 2006). Several techniques could be applied; they can be from a direct wastewater treatment system (Reed et al., 1995; Engin & Demir, 2006) to a reused wastewater system (Brown, 1997; Ye et al., 2001; Morgan, 2004; Friedler et al., 2006). Niemczynowicz suggested two possible scenarios for a wastewater treatment system (Kärrman, 2001). Firstly, is the high technology option with continuation, development and complementation of present technology. Secondly, are low-cost, low-energy solutions based on the application of biological systems and the recycling of resources. The second scenario will lead to a less vulnerable and more sustainable society, compared with the first one. Based on Niemczynowicz’s action plan, another two scenarios can be suggested; first is a centralized wastewater treatment system with off-site concentration and storage, second is the decentralized wastewater treatment system with on-site concentration and storage. However, the application of such systems has various implications (Bakir, 2001; Roomratanapun, 2001; Tsagarakis et al., 2001; Al-Sa’ed and Mubarak, 2006). The decentralized wastewater treatment system mainly focuses on an on-site wastewater treatment and disposal system, in which the typical system for individual homes consists of a septic tank and a gravity-operated, subsurface soil absorption system (Reed et al., 1995). This system includes either fully high-tech technology or an in-community participation system. The system provides a simple, low-cost and low maintenance method (Burkhard et al., 2000; Parkinson and Tayler, 2003) and implies managing wastewater as close as is practical to where it is generated and to where its potential beneficial reuse is located. This comprises systems from the smallest single household system to a system with several smaller subsystems for collection, treatment, and reuse for a small community (Bakir, 2001). This system has been applied worldwide in several countries, such as the Middle East and North African countries (Bakir, 2001). However, for small Palestinian communities, the system is unsustainable as it was not appropriate for the community (Al- Sa’ed and Mubarak, 2006).
  26. 26. 14 The centralized system is mostly associated with a large wastewater treatment plant to provide services for large areas and generally requires large capital investment and specialized operators (Burkhard et al., 2000). This system has been applied mostly in developed countries; some of these are Greece (Tsagarakis et al., 2001), several other Mediterranean countries (Massoud et al., 2003), Sweden (Kärrman, 2001), and Bangkok (Roomratanapun, 2001). The use of wastewater for agricultural production has been applied in Calcutta (Brown, 1997), Saudi Arabia (Abu-Rizaiza, 1999), Australia (Parameswaran, 1999) and Israel (Friedler et al., 2006). However, this practice may cause contamination with Salmonella of vegetables (lettuce, parsley, tomatoes, and pimento) as it irrigates with raw wastewater in El Azzouzia, Marrakesh city, Morocco (Melloul et al., 2001). Another wastewater treatment system is by using mangroves (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel) (Ye et al., 2001), particularly suitable for the treatment of wastewater rich in nutrients. The system using mangroves is considered to be low-cost and effective for pollutants from many sources, and especially efficient in the removal and beneficial reuse of nutrients (Ye et al., 2001). Wastewater from households (human excreta) may be reused into something useful in agriculture to enhance food production, with a minimal risk of pollution of the environment and with a minimal threat to human health as well; this concept has been developed by the Ecological Sanitation Program (Morgan, 2004). 2.3 Coastal Environmental Management in Indonesia Indonesia’s archipelagic coastal and marine environment is one of the world’s richest areas in coastal resources, with an 81,000 km long coastline and 5.8 million km2 of marine areas (70% of its total area). The region’s long coastline contains highly productive coral reefs (500 species of corals) and mangrove ecosystems (Anonymous, 1996a and b). Many development activities are taking place in urban areas, as well as in the coastal area. Such activities in the coastal area include investments, exploitation of non-renewable and renewable resources. Although Indonesians get benefits from them, all the activities together, with an ever-increasing population, are resulting in a rapid increase in the quantity of wastes and wastewater (ATB, 2002), including pollutant-containing wastewater in marine and coastal areas. This may lead, directly or indirectly, to the degradation of marine and coastal resources due to impacts of pollution from various hazardous substances contained in the wastes and wastewaters resulting from human activities, so- called anthropogenic pollution. In addressing such a situation, Indonesia has been seriously focusing its national policies, strategies and actions on environmental management in a context of sustainable development. Thus, the Indonesian Government has established regulations to control all development and exploitation of its coastal resources. Previously, Braadbaart (1995) suggested that to combat water pollution in particular, especially from industries, a regulatory framework be set up in three phases: (1) allocate responsibility for environmental policing along sectoral lines; (2) create a Board for the Control of Environmental Impact (Bapedal); and (3) environmental impact analysis report evaluation be embedded in an organizational setting replete with a good incentives policies. In addition, the users, in their activities and targets, have to consider the sustainability of their
  27. 27. 15 utilization of the resources and minimize the impacts on the environment. Major Indonesian coastal and marine resources management issues include the degradation of coral reefs (Anonymous, 1996a and b; ADB, 2000); the increase in phosphate, nitrate and sediment loading of marine estuaries from upstream intensive paddy cultivation; the conversion of intertidal zones to rice paddies; and the incursion of mechanized and technologically sophisticated foreign fishing fleets (KMNLH, 1996 a and b). Regarding sustainable development, Indonesia has developed Indonesia’s Agenda 21 (KMNLH, 1996a). Some action programs have been formulated to improve the quality of the living environment for sustainable development for the future of the 21st century (1998- 2020). There are seven priority programs, which have been discussed and proposed for ocean and coastal areas (KMNLH, 1996a); they are: • Integrated planning and resource development in coastal zones; • Monitoring and protecting coastal and marine environments; • Sustainable utilization of marine resources; • Strengthening and empowering coastal communities; • Sustainable development of small islands; • Maintaining security of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ); and • Managing the impacts of climate change and tidal waves. As the priority programs of Agenda 21 are being implemented, coastal and marine resources have been considered for an integrated management system, which involves integration of policies from other concerned sectors. However, enforcement related to the coastal and marine environmental quality standards has been limited because regulation still needs to be implemented as a national legislation. Indonesia has developed significant legislations (legal tools) for environmental standards (Table 2.3), including those for the coastal zones and marine areas, which also include the use of environmental impact assessment (EIA). The process of establishing coastal and marine management reached an important milestone with the recognition of this environment as a new sector in REPELITA (Five Year Development Plan) IV. The marine sector is now officially a key element of Indonesia's present and future economic development, and so the future coastal and marine strategy depends on today's decisions. A program that has been implemented to protect and control the coastal environment is the coastal and marine integrated conservation program (Pantai dan Laut Lestari Terpadu). The program which was implemented in 1996 consists of three packages of working programs, namely (1) cleaning of coastal tourism areas, (2) valuable harbors (harbor zones), and (3) conservation (coral reef and mangrove zones). 2.4 Major Coastal Planning & Management Techniques The absence of management measures that are indicated by the absence of adequate policies, legislation, and public participation in addressing environmental issues may cause further negative impact on the environment and health (Mrayyan and Hamdi, 2006). Therefore, appropriate management measures and techniques should be identified.
  28. 28. 16 Table 2.3 Some Legal Tools for Controlling Coastal and Marine Pollution and Degradation in Indonesia Year Number Concerning 1969 Convention International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 1972 Convention Prevention Of Marine Pollution by Dumping from ship and Aircraft, 1972. 1973 Convention International Convention For The Prevention of Pollution from Ship 1974 GR (Government Regulation) No. 17 Concerning Controlling of Oil and Gas Exploration and Exploitation in the Coastal Zone 1978 Protocol International Convention For the Prevention of Pollution from Ship, 1973 1982 Act No. 4 Concerning Environmental Management 1982 Convention United Nations Conventions on the Law of the sea 1983 Act No. 5 Economic Exclusive Zone 1988 Decree of State Minister for Population and Environment Guideline for Environmental Quality Standard Establishment 1990 Act No. 5 Conservation of Living Resources and Their Ecosystems 1992 Act No. 21 Concerning Shipping 1992 Act No. 24 Spatial Planning 1993 GR No. 51 Environmental Impact Analysis (revision) 1994 GR No. 19 Management of Dangerous and Toxic Wastes 1995 Environmental Impact Management Agency (BAPEDAL) Decree of The State Minister For The Environment Number KEP- 51/MENLH/10/1995 Liquid waste Standards For Industrial Activities 1996 Decree of State Minister for Environment Number 42 Environmental Quality Standard Liquid Waste for Oil, Gas and Global Warming Activities. 1996 State Ministerial Decree: Kep-42/MENLH/10/1996 Environmental Standard for Liquid Waste for The Oil and Gas Activities and Global Warning : October 1996 1999 GR No. 19 Marine Pollution and Degradation With regards to coastal areas, Kay & Alder (1999) suggested three groups of major approaches for coastal management and planning. They are (a) administrative, (b) social, and (c) technical measures. Those approaches consist of applications, which are each composed of some tools. 2.4.1 Administrative aspect Many countries have adopted laws, decrees, and other regulatory acts to specify the environmental requirements for development activities. In this sense, it is the role of the government to ensure and promote environmental conservation, and therefore, on behalf of society, to set standards for all industrial activities (including public-owned ones), to establish an effective permit or licensing system, and to take measures to ensure that it is adhered to (UNEP, 1992). The following tools are included in the administrative aspect:
  29. 29. 17 • Policy and legislation Policy and legislation can be powerful tools for managing the coast, where policy is a basis for decision-making. Anderson et al. (1984, cf Kay & Alder, 1999) suggest a definition of “policy” as a purposive course of action followed by appropriately dealing with a problem. Examples of policies applied in coastal management are: coral reef conservation in Honduras in which they focus on the policy for individual behavior inside the boundaries of the reserve, such as the prohibition of anchoring (facilitated by a successful mooring buoy program that had been previously accomplished), spearfishing, coral collection or destruction, and others (Luttinger, 1997). Other examples are shown in Table 2.3. In 1979 the National Government of Japan concentrated on eliminating the organic contamination problem by implementing a policy to regulate COD from industrial effluents, and added nitrogen and phosphorus levels to the list of effluents to come under regulation in October 1993 (Kawabe, 1998). “Legislation” or “law” is defined through a parliamentary or legislative process and the outcome is often expressed as an ‘Act’ or ‘Law’. It can be defined as “the government of the time’s response to community demands for government action or management of particular issues, areas or activities” (Kay & Alder, 1999). • Guidelines The term of “guidelines” is used to describe a group of documents, which are less prescriptive and or forceful than formal legislation, policies or regulations. It is also used as guidance for decision makers to act upon. • Regulation and enforcement Regulation permits and licenses. Permits and licenses are written approvals from a government to conduct specified activities in specified areas. The processes and criteria for issuing permits are generally controlled by either policy directions or regulations, or are specified in legislation (Kay & Alder, 1999). In addition, permits can be used in some activities to assist in day-to-day coastal management activities. Enforcement. Enforcement is a management tool used to effect compliance with acts, regulations, permits, licenses, policies or plans with a legislative basis (Kay & Alder, 1999). • Incentive instruments The need for incentive instruments for managing marine resources and uses, criteria for evaluating, and principles for instrument design is discussed by Greiner et al. (2000). The authors further state that for a policy evaluation there are three criteria that are commonly applied, namely economic efficiency, equity, and environmental implication. Some principles related to incentives in terms of how they are designed, are user pays and polluter pays; cost sharing; sense of community, ownership, and stewardship; adaptive systems; and ecosystem approach (Greiner et al., 2000).
  30. 30. 18 2.4.2 Social aspect • Participation Hildebrand (1997) stated that participation can only be achieved when power is shared. This means that citizens, through community organizations, are, with a government, making planning decisions that have meaningful consequences. Since a ‘bottom-up’ approach is adopted widely in integrated coastal zone management, participation in such management activities has increased. This is because the traditional form of ‘public consultation’ is no longer adequate (Hildebrand, 1997). Who are the actors that will participate in coastal management and planning? Players are the actors who participate in the program and initiatives. They are commonly called ‘stakeholders’ to stress that they have a stake in the future of the coast, either because they live there, earn a living from the exploitation of coastal resources, or it is their job to administer the rules and regulations controlling coastal use. Stakeholders also include vicarious users who may never use or access the coast but still value it, and those who may not reside on the coast but use it for recreation (Kay & Alder, 1999). For a general system, the term ‘stakeholder’ might be those who affect, and/or are affected by, the policies, decisions and actions of the system (Grimble & Chan, 1995). Thus, they can be individuals, communities, social groups or institutions of any size, aggregation or level in society; they include policy makers, planners and administrators in government and other organizations, as well as commercial and subsistence groups (Grimble & Chan, 1995; Clark, 1996; Lee, 1998; Kay & Alder, 1999), coastal residents via community-based organizations (CBOs) and local representative authorities; various economic sectors via cooperatives, federations, and chambers of commerce; conservationists via NGOs; and the state of government via its various public agencies (Jorge, 1997). In regard to the community aspect as a part of an integrated perspective, collaborative and community-based management are powerful tools of participation because they have the potential to help and solve coastal problems at the local level. Both are capable of modifying people’s activities at the source of the problem in a way which can help to meet management objectives, and assist in integrating environmental and resource management activities into people’s everyday lives: where a community makes some resource management decisions that affect their activities (Kay & Alder, 1999). It is implied that collaborative management has a number of common elements, including all stakeholders. The stakeholders have a say in the management and sharing of management responsibility which varies according to specific conditions but the government assumes responsibility for the overall policy coordination; and socio-economic and cultural objectives are an integral part of management (Kay & Alder, 1999). Community-based management uses the "empowered people" concept which provides the responsibility to manage resources. In this case, the community, together with the government, business and other interested parties share an interest in co-managing resources with some decision-making devolved to the community. According to Hildebrand (1997), community-based coastal management represents a new form of partnership between government and community-based organizations. In essence,
  31. 31. 19 it is about ‘power sharing’ in the integrated planning and management of the coastal zone. It may be initiated by communities themselves, by government agencies, or with the assistance of non-government organizations (NGOs). However, it is rarely achieved, if the government is reluctant to devolve power. Communities are often viewed as unqualified or too unskilled to take on the responsibility for managing, or communities are reluctant to take on the responsibility for decision-making. • Capacity building Crawford et al. (1993 cf Kay & Alder, 1999) give a definition for capacity building: it is a term used to describe initiatives that aim to increase the capability of those charged with managing the coast to make sound planning and management decisions. Since the term is also used commonly by international organizations, there are two different kinds of capacity building that focus on supporting and improving coastal management decisions, namely ‘human capacity’ and ‘institutional capacity’. In the coastal management perspective, the former focuses on individual decision makers and coastal managers, while the latter is focused on business, governments, non-governmental groups and communities (Crawford et al., 1993 cf Kay & Alder, 1999; Kay & Alder, 1999). The difference in terms of component items set up for capacity-building program can be seen in Table 2.4. Table 2.4 Characteristic of Collaborative and Community-based Management (Jentolft, 1989 cf Kay & Alder, 1999) Characteristics Collaborative management Community-based management Initiative Decentralize Local Organization Formal Informal Leadership Participant Mutual Adjustment Control Decentralize Decentralize Autonomy Some Yes 2.4.3 Technical aspect Technical tools are used for practical approaches, including environmental assessment (environmental impact assessment), risk and hazard assessment, quality criteria and standards, and a potential wastewater treatment (wastewater-fed aquaculture) that are commonly applied in coastal management and planning. • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) One of the most powerful tools in minimizing impacts is a requirement to complete an environmental impact assessment (EIA) (Brown, 1997) for various development activities. Basically, an EIA aims to evaluate the effects of proposed developments and projects on the environment (Hoozemans et al., 1995) by clearly evaluating the environmental consequences of a proposed activity ‘before’ action is taken (Brown, 1997). In this evaluation, the impacts of a single development activity can be estimated and so, they can be prevented in advance.
  32. 32. 20 EA, or EIA, has relevance and importance in all activities in coastal development (Hambrey et al., 2000), and it is considered as a management tool rather than as an administrative or regulatory process. In particular it may be used to (1) modify and improve the content or design of a policy, plan or proposal; (2) ensure that resources are used efficiently; (3) enhance the social aspects related to a proposal; (4) identify measures for monitoring and managing impacts; and (5) facilitate informed decision making, especially in relation to sustainability criteria. The essence of EIA is a prediction of the future state of the environment, with and without the development activity (Carpenter & Maragos, 1989). Thus, the EIA is conducted in order to predict the adverse consequences of development on the environment. In Indonesia EIA is compulsory for a development project that has a potential impact on the environment, while it is not in Singapore (Chia, 1998). Since most development projects proceed within a very short time frame, a detailed EIA is often impossible. It is not uncommon that EIA is conducted only a few months before the commencement of work and the development would proceed regardless of the conclusion of the impact assessment (Wu et al., 1998). In coastal waters, like other common development activities, EIA is considered to be a vital tool for sound coral reef conservation to maintain an optimum ecosystem function. Tomascik (1993) has developed a general guideline for such a measure. In addition, there is another evaluation that is always conducted together with or as a complement of EIA; it is ‘cumulative effects’ (CE) assessment. Vestal & Rieser (1995) described the term of CE as the phenomenon of changes in the environment that result from numerous, small-scale alterations. For example, alteration of critical habitats through wetland loss, degradation of water quality from non-point source pollution, and change in salinity of estuarine waters from water dispersion projects. • Risk and Hazard Assessment Risk and Hazard Assessment is considered as one of the control measures to prevent the destruction of coastal areas due to the development of human-generated activities (anthropogenic pressures). However, there are no activities, which have a zero risk. This assessment is concerned with assessing the probability that certain events will take place and assessing the potential adverse impact on people, property, or the environment that these events may have. For example, failures of a chemical refinery on the coast causing damage to the plant itself, and to surrounding residents and the environment through the release of toxic chemicals into near-shore waters. Potential impacts on a coastal region by severe storms are also included (Kay & Alder, 1999). The risk and hazard assessment, like EIA, is always conducted as part of coastal planning and management before the activities are carried out, so all the risks due to the activities are taken into account. Conducting the risk and hazard assessment once it has been identified is called ‘risk management’, and the method of managing risks is called the ‘risk management technique’ (Kay & Alder, 1999). Developing a risk management strategy involves a number of distinct stages. According to Kay & Alder (1999), they are (1) scoping and investigation; (2) analysis; (3) implementation (mitigation); and (4) monitoring.
  33. 33. 21 • Quality Criteria and Standards One of the management approaches to control pollution is an environmental management. Environmental management is the art of conserving and improving the quality of the environment by controlling the quality and quantity of waste-loads discharged into it (Ouano, 1988). The environmental control standards are based on the concept of allocating the Assimilative Capacity to the different users for free. The assimilative capacity could be considered a resource owned by the people as represented by the government of the pollution control agency. Quality criteria and standards are one of the tools in environmental management. The criteria and standards that are discussed here include receiving water quality standards, effluent standards and effluent charges, and the precautionary principle. Receiving Water Quality Standards (RWQS). RWQS vary from one country to another depending on various social, economic, and technical factors. The most well researched and discussed water quality standards are for drinking water, whereas the non- consumptive water quality standards have greater variation especially those developed for the coastal and marine environment. ‘Pollutant’ is usually defined as the quantity of waste-loaded discharge to the environment, which will result in concentrations higher than those allowed by the RWQS. Due to variations in the coastal and marine environment standards, the same quantity of waste-load will have different meaning in different countries (Ouano, 1988). The RWQS is difficult to administer if there are two or more waste discharge sources within the water body. Implementation of the receiving water quality standard calls for extensive monitoring of the waste discharges, the mixing, dilution and purification in the water body. The RWQS favor the waste discharges located upstream as they could utilize completely the assimilative capacity of the water body. The waste discharged down stream will be required to remove all waste-load completely, or relocate or close down. Environmental (Assimilative) Capacity. Environmental (Assimilative) Capacity can be applied both in sea and freshwater and underlies the calculation of safe discharges of sewage waste to the sea and rivers. The concept is that the environment (marine, river, and lake) has the capacity to tolerate an input of man-made waste without suffering significant damage. That level may be quite small for some wastes, and different areas will have different capacities to dilute and disperse waste to harmless levels (Ouano, 1988; Clark, 1997). Effluent Standards (ES) and Effluent Charges (EC). ES is derived by dividing the assimilative capacity among the waste dischargers. The assimilative capacity is treated as a common resource that the effluent standards distribute to the different users. One of the main problems in the development of effluent standards is the tendency to impose the RWQS as ES (Ouano, 1988). For example, the Philippines National Pollution Control Commission implemented the RWQS as ES between 1978 and 1981. As a result waste dischargers were automatically required to remove up to 99.99% of the waste-load. While the effluent standard of 1981 tried to correct the problems related to BOD, the concentration of the other constituents were practically copied from the RWQS of 1978. Even today the required concentrations of copper, zinc, fluoride and
  34. 34. 22 other metals are the same as that for ES which makes Philippines standards more stringent than the WHO International Drinking Water Standard of 1972. Some economists involved in environmental management suggested that the allocation of the assimilative capacity would be more efficient if it is carried out using a free market mechanism (Ouano, 1988). The pollution control technology used by the waste generator will not be dictated by the standards but rather by the market forces such as its competitors, demand, and the assimilative capacity available. The pollution control agency monitors the allowable assimilative capacity and sells it to the highest bidder. The winning bidder is allowed to discharge into the water body while the losing bidder will have to store his waste (Ouano, 1988). Precautionary Principle. The Precautionary Principle was proposed by Germany in 1986 (Clark, 1997) to prevent damaging effects of wastes entering the environment. Where there are threats or serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation. The application of the precautionary principle decision should be guided by (a) careful evaluation to avoid, where practicable, serious or irreversible damage to the environment, and (b) an assessment of the risk-weighted consequences of various options (Brown, 1997). In addition, seeking to understand effects of chemicals and pollutants in the environment, requires an understanding of issues that affect and shape the use, regulation, and control of thousands of chemicals of commerce (Jones, 2007).
  35. 35. 23 Chapter 3 General Research Methodology This chapter presents the general research methodology used in this study. The methodology encompasses a research approach, a research framework, a research design, and a data gathering procedure. Detailed research methodology is presented in each topic of the study. 3.1 Research Approach The present study has included a set of research activities, which principally deal with existing available data and information (primary and secondary) obtained from various sources. As a descriptive research method was used and the research topic was analyzed according to some selected aspects, this research is called descriptive (Gay, 1975 cf Sevilla et al., 1988) and analytical research. This descriptive and analytical research used a survey research method (using interviews, questionnaires, and observation techniques) for the collection of data and information with sampling methods. The analytical research method included, for instance, the content analysis method to collect data and information from published and un-published documents, archives, etc. Residential and non-residential buildings, households or persons were used as the basic sampling unit in some aspects of this study. Social part Physical part Source of wastewater Sewer system Treatment system Receiving waters (rivers, marine coastal area) CommunityGovernment Institution Figure 3.1 Scheme of research approach
  36. 36. 24 As mentioned before in Chapter 2, a wastewater system should be analyzed and evaluated from an integrated point of view, taking into consideration all parts of the system, i.e. sources of wastewater, sewer systems, wastewater treatment facilities and receiving waters. These parts constitute the physical measure aspect. Being applied in a management context, this physical measure was combined with various social parts (for example community, government, institution) (Fig. 3.1). An integrated system was used as an approach to develop the present research. 3.2 Research Framework Three groups of data were considered as data sources in this study based on the preliminary observation on wastewater problems in the city of Manado; they are 1) the wastewater discharge-related aspect (WRA); 2) the community-related aspect (CRA); and 3) the governmental/administrative-related aspect (GRA). The WRA relates to wastewater discharge, which comprises aspects from the wastewater-related activities at individual houses (e.g. toilets, and septic tanks) to the entire sewer system including wastewater infrastructures and facilities. Natural characteristics can be included in this aspect. The CRA includes a community which is related (Pompeo, 1999; Hauger et al., 2002) to the problem solving approach of wastewater discharge. It could be an individual person, a household, and/or a group forming a community institution. The GRA relates to a government/administrative institution, as it plays an important role in problem solving measures for wastewater discharge. From those groups of data, three selected aspects were studied, such as 1) the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude, 2) wastewater treatment systems and wastewater infrastructures and facilities, and 3) the water quality in the river system. Those are the main aspects in this study. Three associated aspects were also selected; they are 1) the natural settings, 2) the socio-economic aspects, and 3) institutional arrangement & management measures (Fig. 3.2). All aspects (main and associated aspects) were identified, evaluated, assessed, and analyzed prior to formulating strategic actions. Following are the specifications of the main aspect: 1. Status of community’s environmental knowledge and attitude aspects. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the community’s environmental knowledge and attitude related to wastewater issues. Two indicators were evaluated, i.e.: • Environmental knowledge: knowledge within a community related to general environmental issues and specific environmental issues caused by wastewater. • Environmental attitude: the attitude of the community related to general environmental issues and environmental issues caused by wastewater. This indicator was assessed through two components, such as 1) community concerns related to general environmental issues and environmental issues caused by wastewater, and 2) community preference concerning solutions of environmental problems related to wastewater.
  37. 37. 25 Figure 3.2 Conceptual framework of the study on wastewater management in the city of Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Denote: Aspect of study Process Provision Status of water quality (WRA) Status of wastewater treatment system & facilities (WRA) Status of community’s environmental knowledge & attitude (CRA) STRATEGIC ACTIONS WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN Constraints & Potentials • Natural characteristics (WRA) • Socio-economic aspect (CRA) • Institutional arrangement & management (GRA) Identification: Descriptive:Identification, Descriptive, Analytical & Evaluation: Analytical & Formulation: I M P L E M E N T A T I O N Wastewater issues MAIN ASPECT: ASSOCIATED ASPECT: (WRA): wastewater discharge-related aspect (CRA): community-related aspect (GRA): government/administrative-related aspect
  38. 38. 26 2. Status of wastewater treatment system & facilities aspect. This study was conducted to evaluate wastewater treatment systems at household levels. Two indicators were evaluated, i.e.: • Wastewater treatment system: the condition and capacity of the wastewater treatment system (septic tanks) was evaluated. This is related to the ‘black water’ part of wastewater. • Wastewater infrastructure and facilities: the condition of the wastewater infrastructure and facilities was evaluated, including systems for wastewater from kitchens, bathrooms (‘grey water’). In this study, the factor affecting the condition of the wastewater treatment system was also evaluated. Socio-economic factors (monthly income, level of education, and house status) and the community’s environmental knowledge were predicted to influence the condition of the on-site wastewater treatment system (septic tank) in the city. 3. Status of water quality aspect. This study was conducted to measure and evaluate the quality of discharged wastewater in the river system. The following indicators were observed: • Quality of wastewater: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), nitrogen (N) and phosphate (total phosphorous), and an amount of fecal coliform. • Pollutant-containing wastewater: the concentration of mercury (Hg). Mercury was considered in this study because this pollutant is used widely in the upland area around the city of Manado for amalgam gold mining in small-scale industries. The following are the specifications of the associated aspect: 1. Natural characteristic aspect. The following are the components described: • Topography: slope and elevation. • Drainage: rivers, canals and other water-draining areas. • Climate: precipitation and seasons, etc. 2. Socio-economic aspect. Socio-economic characteristics, population, employment, and level of education were described in this study. 3. Institutional arrangement and management measure aspects. Besides the management measures information, the following are the components described: • Government: role and function, responsibility, and coordination (from local level to national level); • Policies, strategies, and actions related to wastewater management. 3.3 Research Design A research protocol was designed for this study. The design considers ensuring that this research can be repeated for monitoring and evaluation purposes or for comparison with other cases.
  39. 39. 27 3.3.1 Study areas The study area covered the area under the administration of Manado City (Fig. 1.1, p. 3). Two types of study areas were identified: • Study Area (SA) I: this study area covered the city level (Manado City with all districts). • Study Area (SA) II: this study area covered the district level. Two districts were selected as specific study sites (SS) because they met the following conditions: 1. The area is close (water-front) to the coastal area, so discharged wastewater can be observed from upland to coastal areas. 2. The area is influenced by the Tondano Watershed. This criterion was used because some parts of the Manado area are included in this watershed and most of the wastewater is brought down to the coastal area through this watershed. The two specific study sites (SS), which were selected, based on those conditions (Table 3.1) are: • Study Site (SS) 1: Molas District. The area is a waterfront area within Manado Bay (Fig. 1.1, p. 2). Approximately 5,988 households of this area are included in the Tondano Watershed (JICA, 2000). • Study Site (SS) 2: Wenang District. The area is a waterfront area within Manado Bay (Fig. 1.1, p. 3). Approximately 15,377 households were included in the Tondano Watershed (JIC,A 2000). Figure 3.3 gives an overview of how the study areas (SA) and study sites (SS) are interrelated. Table 3.1 Selection of the Two Specific Study Sites Condition Districts Molas Mapanget Malalayang Wenang Sario The area is close (water-front) to the coastal area √ X √ √ √ The area is influenced by the Tondano Watershed (No. of sub- districts) 6 2 X 13 1 The area is influenced by the Tondano Watershed (No. of households) 5,988 1,194 X 15,377 3,937 √: yes, X: no 3.3.2 Sample and sampling design Sample size was calculated by using a formula introduced by Slovin (1960, cf Sevilla et al., 1988): n = N / (1 + N e2 ); where n is sample size, N is population size, and e is a preferred critical number. Below, descriptions of sample size and sampling design for each study area and site are provided. Table 3.2 shows the calculated and applied sample size for households, individuals/person, and houses used.
  40. 40. 28 Each of the study sites (district level) is divided into several sub-districts. The applied samples were distributed into the sub-districts in accordance with a stratified random sampling method (Steel & Torrie, 1980). The sample size for each of the sub-districts is presented in Table 3.3a & b. Table 3.2 Calculated and Applied (*) Sample Size Site Districts Number of Sample Size House- holds Individuals/p ersonals Houses House- holds Individuals/ personals Houses 1 Molas 29,025 113,443 15,498 395 / 300* 100 / 145* 390 / 300* 2 Wenang 21,337 89,424 15,848 393 / 304* 100 / 139* 390 / 304* 3.3.3 Questionnaire design A questionnaire was used as one of the survey/observation instruments to collect primary data. The questionnaire was developed by involving persons (Kumurur, pers. comm.; Polii, pers. comm.) who are experts in this field. 3.3.4 Interview design Interviews, as an instrument to collect primary data, were carried out in this research. Some questions related to a selected topic were presented to persons in order to get responses/answers indicating their knowledge about the topic. In order to get complete answers there were no limitations on the question scope. For practical reasons, to simplify Figure 3.3 Schematic construction of the Study Area and Study Sites The Study Area Study Area (SA) II: Study Site (SS) 1: Molas Study Site (SS) 2: Wenang Study Area (SA) I: Manado City City level District level
  41. 41. 29 this method, the author organized a workshop1 and the key informants and community officials from local government and community were invited as participants. During the workshop, the participants were interviewed regarding their opinion about environmental problems in general and problems related to wastewater. Table 3.3a Distribution of Applied Sample Size in Molas District (n= number of samples) No. Sub-district Sample Size Households Individuals/personals Houses (n=300) (n=145) (n=300) 1. Islam 22 15 22 2. Tuminting 33 13 33 3. Sumompo 30 16 30 4. Mahawu 32 14 32 5. Tumumpa Satu 31 19 31 6. Tumumpa Dua 27 20 27 7. Maasing 36 22 36 8. Bitung Karang ria 58 11 58 9. Sindulang Dua 31 15 31 Table 3.3b Distribution of Applied Sample Size in Wenang District (n= number of samples) No. Sub-district Sample Size Households Individual/personals Houses (n=304) (n=139) (n=304) 1. Istiqlal 24 15 24 2. Wenang Selatan 29 8 29 3. Mahakeret Timur 29 15 29 4. Teling Bawah 28 12 28 5. Komo Luar 26 9 26 6. Pinaesaan 20 15 20 7. Bumi Beringin 19 10 19 8. Mahakeret Barat 31 12 31 9. Wenang Utara 34 10 34 10. Lawangirung 35 15 35 11. Tikala Kumaraka 20 6 20 12. Calaca 9 12 9 3.4 Data Gathering Procedure Two types of data were collected in this research, secondary and primary data. Primary data were collected and obtained directly from the field as the primary source. Secondary data were collected and obtained from other sources (for example charts, reports, statistics, archives, experts, etc.). The main aspect of the study was considered as the primary data, while the associated aspect was the secondary data. 1 The workshop was entitled ‘solid and wastewater management in the city of Manado’; it was conducted on May 13, 2003 in collaboration with Sam Ratulangi University, the government of Manado City, and Natural Resources Management organizations. 35 participants from the government and the community attended.
  42. 42. 30 3.4.1 Secondary data collection Available secondary data and information were collected from various sources. For the collection of adequate and appropriate information, a number of organizations were contacted and visited as sources of information. These included national universities (for example Sam Ratulangi University, Manado); international universities (for example Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand); provincial government agencies of North Sulawesi Province; local government agencies (the city of Manado and the Minahasa Regency), including executive and legislative parties; profit-organizations (private companies); non- profit organizations (non-governmental organizations); and others. Information from Internet sources was used as an additional and worldwide source of information. 3.4.2 Primary data collection This research was conducted in two sequenced stages: Pre-Survey (Stage 1) and Main Survey (Stage 2). The Pre-Survey was conducted as a reconnaissance survey in order to adjust the research designed (for instance the study sites, sampling areas, representative sampling), to conduct a pre-test for the questionnaire, and to request permission. The Main Survey was conducted in order to gather data used to identify, analyze, and formulate specific objectives in each of the studies.

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