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Mt lasut 1999-cyanide-haliotis-pmbc

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  • 1. -t/ Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication no. 19(1): 165-168 (1999) 165 EFFECTS OF SALINITY-CYANIDE INTERACTION ON THE MORTALITY OF ABALONE HALIOTIS UARIA (IIALIOTIDAE : GASTROPODA) Markus T. Lasut. Sub-Laboratory of Toxicology & Marine Pharrnaceutics, Laboratory of Marine Sciences. Faculty of Fisheries & Marine Sciences, Sarn Ratulangi Uniuersity, JI. Kampus Unsrat Bahu, Manado 95 11 5, Indonesia ABSTRACT Effects of salinity (25-35 %o) interaction with cyanide (KCN and NaCN) on survival have been tested on abalone Haliotis uaria. Highest mortality occurred at a salinity of 25 %o and 4 ppm of both forms of cyanide. The lowest salinity could have caused stress, making abalone more sensitive. The effect of cyanide on survival was significant at 1 ppm of KCN and 2 ppm of NaCN Q?<0.05), while the salinity and the interaction with cyanide were not (p>0.05). Seemingly, the KCN was more toxic than the NaCN. INTRODUCTION Cyanide (CN-) occurs in marine environ- The objective of the present study is to ments in combination with ions of saline investigate the effects of salinity-cyanide water, forming potassium sait cyanide acid (KCN & NaCN) interaction on the mortality (KCN) and sodium salt cyanide acid (NaCN) of the intertidal abalone Haliotis uaria. compounds. Cyanide also exists as HCN, a Abalones have rarely been used as test very toxic compound. It is naturally found organisms for toxicity tests, although they in the marine waters in very low have been used to study the interactive concentrations. However, its concentration effects of pentachlorophenol and hypoxia may increase due to pollution by cyanide- (Tjeerdema et al. t99la), the sublethal containing waste. effects of pentachlorophenol (Tjeerdema ef Cyanide is widely used in industries to al.799lb), the effects ofgas supersaturation extract metals, such as gold from ores, in on the behaviour, growth and mortality metal refining, metal cleaning and (Leitman 1992), the interactive effects of electroplating operations, and in certain pentachlorophenol and temperature mineral processing operations. (TJeerdema et al. 1993), and the effects of Around the Minahasa Peninsular (North salinity and diazinon (Kaligis & Lasut Sulawesi, Indonesia) the concentration of L997). cyanide has probably increased due to a contribution from a gold mining company. MATERIALS AND METHODS No specific measurements are available but H. uaria were collected from January to the company has dumped a hundred ton per April 1997 along the Likupang Beach, day of cyanide containing wastewater to the Minahasa, North Sulawesi. The abalones sea below the tropical thermocline were kept in the Marine Sciences (approximately 82 m depth) through a Laboratory. In accordance with Kaligis & pipeline (Anonymous 1994). However, the Lasut (1997) they were acclimated for 2 to depth of the tropical thermocline is a matter 5 days at room temperature (24-25C). The of opinion because no precise data are seawater (salinity 33-34 %o), was well- available. aerated and unfiltered. It was changed
  • 2. 166 Tbopical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP)every 24 hours. Abalones were fed 7Amacroalgae Gracilarlo sp. during this n25 pptperiod. The pH was about 8 when measured 60 x30 pptbefore and after the experiment. No food r34 pptwas supplied during experiments. ^50 ;SAbalones with shell lengths ranging from33.12-50.18 mm were prepared for each ;40experiment conducted in 3-litres plastic Eso obowls, which contained 1 litre of seawater. 5eoThree abalones were put in each bowl. The 10toxicity of KCN and NaCN in four differentconcentrations (1, 2 and 4 ppm plus one 0control without cyanide) was tested in 0t 24relation to 3 salinities (25, 30 and 34 %"). Concentration of NaCN (ppm)The cyanide concentrations were based ona preliminary test, which showed that7.76 Figure 2. Interactive effect between salinity andand 9.45 ppm were the median lethal cyanide (NaCN) on the mortality of the abaloneconcentration (LCSO) for 96 hours of both H. uaria along 96 hours of experiment.KCN and NaCN. Abalones were scored asbeing dead according to the criteria by At a salinity of 25 Voo, 1007o mortality wasSinghagraiwan et al. (7992) and Kaiigis & recorded in L,2, and 4 ppm (Figs. 1-2). TheLasut 1997). results of the statistical test (ANOVA)A two-way ANOVA (Sokal & Rohlf 1981; showed that the effects of KCN to theFowler & Cohen 1990) was applied to mortality was significant at a concentrationanalyse if different concentrations of of 1 ppm (p<0.05), while the salinity andsalinit5r, cyanide and their interaction were the interaction between salinity and KCNaffecting the mortality. were not affecting mortality (p>0.05). In the interactions between 1,2 and 4 ppm of NaCN and 25 %o S, tlne mortality was 11, RESULTS 44 and 66 7o respectively. In l, 2, and 4 ppmNo mortality occurred in any of the controls. of NaCN and 34 %o S, mortality was 11,22 and 44 % respectively. The NaCN from a t00 n25 ppt x30 ppt concentration of 2 ppm was significantly 90 affecting the mortality (p<0.05), while the 80 r34 ppt saiinity and the interaction between salinity G.70 9eo and NaCN were not affecting mortality E50 (p>0.05). (g E4a DISCUSSION 2A Kaligis & Lasut (1997) reported that the 10 combination between salinity and the 0 -..,, . ! insecticide diazinon resulted in mortality of 0 the abalone H. uaria; especially in low Concentration of KCN {ppm) salinity (25 %"). The same trend was found in the present study. Mortality was highestFigure 1. Interactive effect between salinity and in25 %o and the mortality depended on thecyanide (KCN) on the mortality of the abalone concentration of KCN and NaCN (Figs. 1&H. uaria along 96 hours of experiment. D.
  • 3. phuhet Marine Biological Center Special Publication no. 19(1): 165-168 (1999) 167H. uaria is thriving in salinities of 325 to ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS35 %o (Fuse 1981). The abalone is mode- Special gratitude is extended to Prof. Dr. Rrately tolerant to seawater of 25 %o S M. Rompas for valuable advise. I want towithout acclimation and to a salinity of 20 thank mv colleague Mr. M. R Badu for his7oo S wit]n acclimation (Kaligis & Lasut assistance in all phases of the work I am7gg7). However, 25 %" S is lower than the very indebted to the Tropical Marineoptimum and may cause stress making the Mollusc Programme (TMMP) sponsored byspecies more sensitive to pollutants. DANIDA for the chance to present thisKCN was relatively more toxic than NaCN paper in The Ninth International Workshop/The biochemical action of cyanide is that it Congress of Tropical Marine Molluscdeprives the body ofoxygen by acting as a Programme (TMMP),August 19-29, 1998 atchemical asphyxiant. Cyanide inhibits an Lombok, Indonesia.enzyme involved in the oxidative phospho-rylation by which the body utilises oxygen REFERENCESIt has been found that mitochondriadeprived ofoxygen fail to show significant Anonymous, 1994. Studi analisis dampakoxidative phosphorylation (Edwards & lingkungan (in English: EnvironmentalHassall 1980; Manahan 7992) The impact analyses study). Laporan Utama.inhibited enzyme is ferricytochrome Kegiatan Pertambangan Emas dioxidase, an iron-containing metalloprotein Minahasa dan Bolaang Mongondow,that acts as a frnal acceptor ofelectrons. Sulawesi lJtara, Indonesia. PT.Cyanide bonds to the iron (III) of the Newmont Minahasa RaYa. PP. 3-7.ferricytochrome enzyme, preventing its Brachet, J. 1957 . Biochemical cytology.reduction to iron (II). The result is that Academic Press Inc. - Publishers. Newferrouscytochrome oxidase which is York. 535 pp.required to react with oxygen, is not formed Bohinski, R.C. 1987. Modern concept inand utilisation of oxygen in cells is biochemistry. Fifth Edition Chapterprevented., Ieading to rapid cessation of Fifteen: Oxidative phosphorylation.metabolic processes (Edwards & Hassall Allyn and Bacon, Inc. Boston. Pp 567- 1980; Manahan 1983; Bohinski 1987; 604.Manahan t992). Edwards, N. A. & K. A. Hassall. 1980. Brachet (1957) reported that cyanide Biochemistry and physiology of the cell: inhibited respiration in developing sea an introductory text Second edition. - urchin eggs. He, furthermore, stated that McGraw-Hill Book ComPanY (UK) Ltd. many cytologicai abnormalities were found, 448 pp. such as signs of degeneration of the Fuse, D. M. 1981. Notes on the biology of chromosomes. Lasut & Lintong (1998; Hatiotis uaria andH. asinina. - Fisheries unpublished data) found that larvae of sea Research Journal of Philippine 6(1): 39- urchins were malformed if the eggs had 49. been exposed KCN. Fowler, J. & L. Cohen. 1990. Practical Efforts to reduce the toxicity of cyanide in statistics for freld biology. - John Wiley an effluent can be done bY alkaline & Sons. Chichester. 227 PP. chlorination or by catalytic oxidation Kaligis, F. G. & M. T. Lasut 1997. Effects However, cyanide wastewater containing of salinity and diazinon on the abalone nickel or silver is difficult to treat by H aliotis u aria (Gaslropoda : Haliotidae) alkaline chlorination because of the slow - Phuket Marine Biological Center reaction rate of these metal complexes Special Publication 17(1); 115-120. (Lankford 1990).
  • 4. 168 T!"opical Marine Mollusc Programme CMMP)Lankford, P. W. 1990. Removal of metals to Sokal, R. R. & F. J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry. nontoxic levels. Page 98-124 in P. W. The principles and practice ofstatistics Lankford & W. W. Jr. Eckenfelder (eds.). in biological research. Second Edition. - Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents. W. H. Freeman and Company. NewYork. - Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York. 859 pp.Leitman, A. 1992. The effects of gas Tjeerdema, R. S., R. J. Kauten & D. G. supersaturation on the behaviour, Crosby. 1991a. Interactive effects of growth and mortality of red abalone, pentachlorophenol and hypoxia in the Haliotis rufescens (Swainson) . Page 75- abalone (H. rufescens) as measured by 85 ln S. A. Shepherd, M. J. Tegner & S. in vivo super (3I)P-NMR spectroscopy. - A. Guzm6n del Pr6o (eds.).Abalone of the Aquatic Toxicology 2L(3-4): 27 I -294. world: Biology, fisheries and culture - Tjeerdema, R. S., T. W. Fan & D. G. Crosby. Fishing News Books, Oxford. 1991b. Sublethal effects of penta-Manahan, S.E. 1983. Environmental chem- chlorophenol in the abalone (H. rufe- istry. Fourth edition. - Willard Grant scens) as measured by in vivo (31)P-NMR Press, Boston. PP. 612. spectroscopy. - Journal of BiochemistryManahan, S. E. 1992 Toxicological & Toxicology 6(1): 45-56. chemistry. Second edition. - Lewis Tjeerdema, R. S., R. J. Kauten & D. G. Publishers. Boca Raton. PP 449. Crosby. 1993. Interactive effects ofSinghagraiwan, T., M. Doi & M. Sasaki pentachlorophenol and temperature in Lgg2. Salinity tolerance of juvenile the abalone (H. rufescens) as measured donkeys ear abalone, Haliotis asinina by in vivo super (31)P-NMR Linne. - Thailand Marine Fisheries spectroscopy. - Aquatic Toxicology 26(1- Research Bulletin 3: 7 t-7 7 . 2): ll7-132.