Making things senseUrban sensing and physical computing           Day 1 (7-8 May 2011)        Markus Rittenbruch        QU...
Schedule - Day 1•   12:00 - 12:20 Introduction•   12:20 - 13:30 Getting started•   13:30 - 13:45 Short Break•   13:45 - 14...
Schedule - Day 2•   12:00 - 12:10 Introduction•   12:10 - 12:30 Analogue sensors•   12:30 - 13:00 Activity•   13:00 - 14:0...
Making things sense - Day 1
Examples
http://www.tangibleinteraction.com
http://www.arduino.cc/playground/Main/CoffeeTronics
http://diydrones.com/profiles/blog/show?   id=705844%3ABlogPost%3A44817
http://www.slq.qld.gov.au/whats-on/lumia
Books
SlidesDay 1 http://www.slideshare.net/markumotoDay 2 http://www.slideshare.net/markumoto
Getting started
Physical computing•   Transduction    •   Transforming energy•   Digital and analog•   Parallel and serial•   Stages of in...
Overview•   Workshop hardware components•   Parts:   http://www.littlebirdelectronics.com/   http://toysdownunder.com/•   ...
Arduino starter kit
Arduino overview                    (Atmega8U2)Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexibl...
Arduino specification•   Arduino Uno (2011)•   Microcontroller    ATmega328                             •   DC Current for ...
Other platforms             PhidgetsI-CubeX                        Wiring     Stamp
Arduino code•   Code in a C-like high-level language (Wiring)•   Inbuilt functions to read and set digital and analog    i...
Arduino IDE
Blink code
Breadboards
Breadboard basics
Blink circuitConnections                      Schematic              LED: Anode / Cathode
Arduino IDE install•   Install Arduino 22 (http://www.arduino.cc/en/    Guide/HomePage)•   (Install USB driver)•   Select ...
Blink modifications     1. Talk to the serial console     2. Experiment with intervals3. Change                            ...
Well done! Take a     break.
Basic electronics
Basic electronics    •   Water analogy
Basic electronics•   Current,Voltage and Power    •   Voltage is measured in Volts (V) → V    •   Current is measured in A...
Basic electronics•   Electricity flow    •   Path of least resistance    •   All electrical energy must        be used•   B...
Basic electronics•   Schematic / Circuit diagram
Basic electronics• Resistor • Conductors, insulators and resistance • Resist the flow of electricity (current) • Precise co...
Basic electronics
Basic electronics    • Types of resistors•   Thermistor•   Photocell (LDR)•   Potentiometer (trim    pot, variable resisto...
Basic electronics•   Resistor and resistance    •   Resistors in series    •   R = R1 + R2    •   Resistors in parallel   ...
Basic electronics• Diodes and LEDs • Diodes are polarised • Electricity flows in one    direction • Anode (+), Cathode (-) ...
Basic electronics    • Ohm’s law and current limiting                                        V                            ...
Adjusting brightnesshttp://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/LEDs.html
Basic electronics• Capacitor •   Store electricity •   Farad (F) (mF or μF, pF, nF) •   Polarised , unpolarised •   Cerami...
Basic electronics•   Capacitors    •   Capacitors in series    •   C = C1 x C2 / (C1 + C2)    •   Capacitors in parallel  ...
The Arduino in detail
Overview•   Digital pins•   Pull-up and pull-down resistors•   Analogue input pins•   Pulse with modulation (PWM)•   Other...
Digital pins•   Pins 0-13 (GPIO pins)•   Either input our output (default to input)•   Can output 40 mA•   pinMode•   digi...
Digital pins•   digitalRead (http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/    lesson5.html)
Digital pins  •   digitalRead/* * Switch test program */int switchPin = 2;              // Switch connected to digital pin...
Digital pins•   Switching
Digital pins•   Pull-up and pull-down resistors                                      Pull-up                      Pull-down
Digital pins•   Arduino schematic / Reset
Digital pins•   What happens if we digitalRead a pin that is not connected?•   20K internal pull-up resistor•   Serial pin...
Analogue input pins•   Pins A0-A5•   6 channel analog-to-digital (A/D) converter•   10 bit resolution (from 0-5V to int 0-...
Analogue input pins•   AnalogRead (use A1 instead of 1)
Pulse with modulation•   PWM used to create analogue output on digital pins•   Simulate voltage between 5V and 0V using sq...
• AnalogWrite
Other pins•   ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programming) directly    program AVR micro-controllers•   I2C / TWI (Two-wire interf...
Coffee break
Activity
Activity overview•   Pair up•   Use a switch & LED•   Use a poti & LED•   Design challenges: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/...
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Making things sense - Day 1 (May 2011)

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Making things sense - Day 1 (May 2011)

  1. 1. Making things senseUrban sensing and physical computing Day 1 (7-8 May 2011) Markus Rittenbruch QUT Urban Informatics / FAST & NICTA
  2. 2. Schedule - Day 1• 12:00 - 12:20 Introduction• 12:20 - 13:30 Getting started• 13:30 - 13:45 Short Break• 13:45 - 14:15 Basic electronics• 14:15 - 15:00 Arduino in detail• 15:00 - 15:30 Coffee break (Lumia)• 15:30 - 15:50 Introduction Activity• 15:50 - 16:50 Activity
  3. 3. Schedule - Day 2• 12:00 - 12:10 Introduction• 12:10 - 12:30 Analogue sensors• 12:30 - 13:00 Activity• 13:00 - 14:00 Sharing sensor data• 14:00 - 14:10 Short break• 14:10 - 16:10 Project activity• 16:10 - 16:50 Project presentations• 16:50 - 17:00 Wrap up
  4. 4. Making things sense - Day 1
  5. 5. Examples
  6. 6. http://www.tangibleinteraction.com
  7. 7. http://www.arduino.cc/playground/Main/CoffeeTronics
  8. 8. http://diydrones.com/profiles/blog/show? id=705844%3ABlogPost%3A44817
  9. 9. http://www.slq.qld.gov.au/whats-on/lumia
  10. 10. Books
  11. 11. SlidesDay 1 http://www.slideshare.net/markumotoDay 2 http://www.slideshare.net/markumoto
  12. 12. Getting started
  13. 13. Physical computing• Transduction • Transforming energy• Digital and analog• Parallel and serial• Stages of input, output and processing
  14. 14. Overview• Workshop hardware components• Parts: http://www.littlebirdelectronics.com/ http://toysdownunder.com/• Physical computing• Arduino board• Arduino code• Arduino IDE• Writing a program• Download and install Arduino• Arduino Hello World / Blink• Tutorials: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/index.html http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/tutorials.php
  15. 15. Arduino starter kit
  16. 16. Arduino overview (Atmega8U2)Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware andsoftware. Its intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objectsor environments.The boards can be built by hand or purchased preassembled; the software can be downloaded for free. Thehardware reference designs (CAD files) are available under an open-source license, you are free to adaptthem to your needs.
  17. 17. Arduino specification• Arduino Uno (2011)• Microcontroller ATmega328 • DC Current for 3.3V Pin• Operating Voltage 5V 50 mA• Input Voltage • Flash Memory 32 KB of (recommended) 7-12V which 0.5 KB used by bootloader• Input Voltage (limits) • SRAM 2 KB 6-20V• Digital I/O Pins 14 • EEPROM 1 KB• Analog Input Pins 6 • Clock Speed 16 MHz• DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
  18. 18. Other platforms PhidgetsI-CubeX Wiring Stamp
  19. 19. Arduino code• Code in a C-like high-level language (Wiring)• Inbuilt functions to read and set digital and analog inputs and outputs• Includes libraries to perform common hardware or software tasks• Sketches• Many language bindings: • Flash & Flex, Processing, Python, Ruby, Java,C. C++, Objective-C, .NET
  20. 20. Arduino IDE
  21. 21. Blink code
  22. 22. Breadboards
  23. 23. Breadboard basics
  24. 24. Blink circuitConnections Schematic LED: Anode / Cathode
  25. 25. Arduino IDE install• Install Arduino 22 (http://www.arduino.cc/en/ Guide/HomePage)• (Install USB driver)• Select serial port• Select board• Examples: Blink• Compile and upload process• Write to Serialport
  26. 26. Blink modifications 1. Talk to the serial console 2. Experiment with intervals3. Change 4. Try this!pins
  27. 27. Well done! Take a break.
  28. 28. Basic electronics
  29. 29. Basic electronics • Water analogy
  30. 30. Basic electronics• Current,Voltage and Power • Voltage is measured in Volts (V) → V • Current is measured in Amperes (A) → I • Power is measured in Watts (W) → P • Power = Current x Voltage (P = I x V) • Arduino • 5V (or 3.3V) • 40mA (0.04A) output pin • Direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) • Mains is nasty!
  31. 31. Basic electronics• Electricity flow • Path of least resistance • All electrical energy must be used• Basic electrical circuit • Components in series • Same current, decreasing voltage • Components in parallel • Different current, same voltage • Short circuit
  32. 32. Basic electronics• Schematic / Circuit diagram
  33. 33. Basic electronics• Resistor • Conductors, insulators and resistance • Resist the flow of electricity (current) • Precise control of electrical current • Measured in Ohm (1Ω - 1MΩ) • Symbol • Colour-code
  34. 34. Basic electronics
  35. 35. Basic electronics • Types of resistors• Thermistor• Photocell (LDR)• Potentiometer (trim pot, variable resistor)• Force sensitive resistor (FSR)• Flex sensor
  36. 36. Basic electronics• Resistor and resistance • Resistors in series • R = R1 + R2 • Resistors in parallel • R = R1 x R2 / (R1 + R2)
  37. 37. Basic electronics• Diodes and LEDs • Diodes are polarised • Electricity flows in one direction • Anode (+), Cathode (-) • LED (Light-emitting diode)
  38. 38. Basic electronics • Ohm’s law and current limiting V I R Ohm’s triangle R =V / I I =V / R V=IxR• Data sheets are your friend!
  39. 39. Adjusting brightnesshttp://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/LEDs.html
  40. 40. Basic electronics• Capacitor • Store electricity • Farad (F) (mF or μF, pF, nF) • Polarised , unpolarised • Ceramic, tantalum, electrolytic • Common sizes: • 22pF / 0.01μF / 0.1μF ceramic • 1μF / 10μF electrolytic
  41. 41. Basic electronics• Capacitors • Capacitors in series • C = C1 x C2 / (C1 + C2) • Capacitors in parallel • C = C1 + C2
  42. 42. The Arduino in detail
  43. 43. Overview• Digital pins• Pull-up and pull-down resistors• Analogue input pins• Pulse with modulation (PWM)• Other • ICSP • Interrupts • I2C communication • Analogue reference
  44. 44. Digital pins• Pins 0-13 (GPIO pins)• Either input our output (default to input)• Can output 40 mA• pinMode• digitalWrite
  45. 45. Digital pins• digitalRead (http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/ lesson5.html)
  46. 46. Digital pins • digitalRead/* * Switch test program */int switchPin = 2; // Switch connected to digital pin 2void setup() // run once, when the sketch starts{ Serial.begin(9600); // set up Serial library at 9600 bps pinMode(switchPin, INPUT); // sets the digital pin as input to read switch}void loop() // run over and over again{ Serial.print("Read switch input: "); Serial.println(digitalRead(switchPin)); // Read the pin and display the value delay(100);}
  47. 47. Digital pins• Switching
  48. 48. Digital pins• Pull-up and pull-down resistors Pull-up Pull-down
  49. 49. Digital pins• Arduino schematic / Reset
  50. 50. Digital pins• What happens if we digitalRead a pin that is not connected?• 20K internal pull-up resistor• Serial pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Connected to FTDI USB-to-TTL• Pin 13 is different (input) (RES + LED)• Analogue pins A0-A5 can be used as digital pins 14-19 (GPIO)• Read up to 5V. Don’t fry your pin!
  51. 51. Analogue input pins• Pins A0-A5• 6 channel analog-to-digital (A/D) converter• 10 bit resolution (from 0-5V to int 0-1023)• 100 microseconds (0.0001 s) to read an analog input, maximum reading rate is about 10,000 times a second.• Pull-up resistor same as digital pins• Unexpected readings? • Has pin been set to input? • Check pull-up resistor [digitalWrite(A0, HIGH); ]?
  52. 52. Analogue input pins• AnalogRead (use A1 instead of 1)
  53. 53. Pulse with modulation• PWM used to create analogue output on digital pins• Simulate voltage between 5V and 0V using square waves (signal switching between on and off)• Pins 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11
  54. 54. • AnalogWrite
  55. 55. Other pins• ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programming) directly program AVR micro-controllers• I2C / TWI (Two-wire interface) communication • Inter IC control • Arduino analog input A4 = I2C SDA (serial data line) • Arduino analog input A5 = I2C SCL (serial clock line)• External interrupts • Event-handling without polling • Interrupt 0 (on digital pin 2) and 1 (on digital pin 3)• Analogue reference • Set analogue reference for ADC
  56. 56. Coffee break
  57. 57. Activity
  58. 58. Activity overview• Pair up• Use a switch & LED• Use a poti & LED• Design challenges: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/ lesson5.html• Draw a circuit diagram• Fade 2 LEDs• Use multicolour LED• http://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/HomePage• [Use your digital temperature sensor]
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