Navigating Research
       with the GPS


                Mark Tucker
       www.ThinkGenealogy.com
Introductions

 Me:       You:
            • Professional, CG, AG
            • Employees
               • FamilySearch
  ...
Agenda
• 5 Steps of the Genealogical Proof Standard
• Worth Tucker Case Study
• Genealogy Research Process Map
Brief Timeline



     Genealogy as Pastime and Profession
     Donald Lines Jacobus
  1930             1940              ...
Genealogical Evidence Noel C. Stevenson
 The Genealogical Helper citation article,
        Gary B. & Elizabeth Shown Mills...
Evidence Explained Mills


   Evidence! Mills

    POE              Genealogical Proof Standard
 1990         1997      20...
Where do I start?
What should I research?
                  North Carolina?
 Parents?      Marriage?
          1870?
   Birth?       Militar...
Lost?
1
• Create before research begins
• Identify:
    Principal Person
    Objective
     Known information
     Research St...
• Keeps us focused on our goal
• Tracks the sources searched
• Records information found & not found
• Our long-term “memo...
Research Plan
                Research Log
Research Plan
Principal Person: Worth Tucker

Objective: What is Worth Tucker’s
birth date and place?
Known Information
Known Information:
                                                 Informant /
       Source             Information     ...
Known Information … cont.
                                               Informant /
      Source            Information  ...
Research Strategy Help

• FamilySearch.org
    – Research Guidance by location
    – Research Outlines
•   Genealogy Softw...
Research Guidance: www.FamilySearch.org
Family History Library Catalog: Place Search
Research Strategy
1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History,
   Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File
2. Census Popu...
Research Log
Date     Location   Record/Source          Results                   Doc
7/4/2008 At home    Some Tucker Hist...
Work the Plan

     1 Follow         Update 3
 Research Plan         Log Research Log
   Plan




                  Find
 ...
1                   Research Plan
    1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History,
       Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Reso...
3                              Research Log

Date      Location Record/Source           Results                    Doc
7/5...
1                    Research Plan
    1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History,
       Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Res...
3                             Research Log
Date       Location Record/Source               Results                    Doc
...
1                    Research Plan
    1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History,
       Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Res...
3                                       Research Log
Date       Location              Source                  Results     ...
Research Plan

1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History,
    Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File
2. Census Popula...
Do I really need
to search any
more?
2
“We conduct a reasonably exhaustive
search in reliable sources for all
information that is or may be pertinent
to the iden...
From that already
First oral or written form
                             written or spoken
Tracking of each representation of a
source back to the original.

Original ← D1 ← D2 ← D3

D? → … → Original
Why Source Provenance?
              Independent Origin
Better


          O        O               O


                  ...
Provenance Example

 Original    Derivative 1 Derivative 2 Derivative 3
              Microfilm     Digital
 Census       ...
Research
                          Analysis
Research
  Plan     Research Log
Identify: Original or Derivative

               Research Analysis
Source Analysis:
Source                Type          Do...
Do I need to
keep track of
more than the
information that
I find?
3
“We collect and include in our
compilation a complete, accurate
citation to the source or sources of
each item of informat...
• Credibility to our research
• Confidence in other’s research
• Aids during analysis
Source Citation Guides:


• Evidence! Citation
  & Analysis for the
  Family Historian
• Evidence Explained:
  Citing Hist...
Why special
citation
guidelines?
Citation Model
Derivatives: Church Records Database, Online




Source: Evidence Explained, pg 320
     (also 346-350)
Source Citations
Source                                                                 Doc
Kirtley E. Tucker, Kirtley Elw...
Should there be
one standard
set of citation
guidelines?
Online Source Citation Confusion
 FamilySearch



 Ancestry


 Evidence Explained
How do I
analyze all this
information?
4
“We analyze and correlate the
collected information to assess its
quality as evidence.”
Transcript
Duplicate                         Image
Original         Record           Copy         Extract
(Counterparts)
 ...
Firsthand       Secondhand
 •Participant    •Non-Participant
 •Eyewitness
Partially   Absence of
Completely
               answers     information
answers goal
3 Common Derivatives
1                       2



         Transcript               Extract

          3



              ...
Image Copy




  Source

Original or
Derivative
Record Copy (Clerk’s copy)
              Legal copy made by an official



   Original

                                  ...
Duplicate Originals
1                     2
    Fed Copy              Grantor   Grantee
                                De...
Derivatives used as Originals
Duplicate     Image           Image               Image
 Original      Copy            Copy ...
Who can
provide primary
information of
Worth’s birth?
Information & Evidence Analysis
Information & Evidence Analysis:
Doc   Information          Informant

 1 Born: 30 Nov Kir...
Information & Evidence Analysis:
       Information                 Evidence
   (Primary, Secondary)   (Direct, Indirect, ...
From Research Plan
• International Genealogical Index (IGI)
• US Federal Census: Population Schedules
    – North Carolina...
IGI Sources
1. Sealings of children to parents, 1893-
   1942; heir indexes, 1893-1942. Salt
   Lake Temple. 30 Nov 1870, ...
IGI Sources… cont.
3.   Record of members, 1886-1912. Church of
     Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Díaz Ward
     (Ch...
US Federal Census: FHL microfilm
      1900                   1910




 Nov 1869, age 30     calc. 1870, age 39
Grave Marker: www.findagrave.com




                         Nov 30, 1870
Death Certificate
Primary vs.
Secondary
Information

 November
 12th. 1872

 North Carolina
Marriage License
Age 24 on
15 May 1895

Born:
calc. 1870
Birth Certificate

     County    Date Formed   Birth
               Parent        Marriage
               County/ies    D...
Research Completed
• 15 Sources
  – 8 Originals (image copies), 6 Derivatives,
    1 not found
  – 3 databases, 16 records...
What do I do
about conflicts?
5
“We resolve any conflicts caused by
items of evidence that contradict each
other or are contrary to a proposed
(hypothetic...
Compare weights
Usually:
• Sources: Original > Derivatives
• Information: Primary > Secondary
• Evidence: Indirect >= Dire...
All conflicts must be resolved.

Even primary information from an
original source can be wrong.
Resolve Conflicts
Conflicting Evidence:
    Conflict                      Resolution
12 Nov 1872    Grieving son was infor...
Am I done yet?
6
“We arrive at a soundly reasoned,
coherently written conclusion.”
Includes:
• Problem/Goal
• Known sources with citations
• Evidence and analysis
• Conflicting evidence
• Main points
• Con...
There is no such thing as a final
conclusion.

New information can support, question,
or disprove your current conclusion.
Written Conclusion (Proof Argument)
Conclusion:
Worth Tucker was born Nov 1870 (possibly on
the 30th) in Ashe County, Nort...
Next Steps
•   Search church records in NC
•   Search local newspapers in NC
•   Review microfilm for IGI records
•   Read...
SOURCES provide INFORMATION
from which we select EVIDENCE for
ANALYSIS. A sound CONCLUSION
may then be considered “PROOF.”...
Desktop References
Genealogy Research Process Map
 www.thinkgenealogy.com/map
Questions?
Mail:
  mail@ThinkGenealogy.com
Blog:
  www.ThinkGenealogy.com
Twitter:
  http://twitter.com/marktucker
Faceboo...
Navigating Research with the Genealogical Proof Standard - July 2009
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Navigating Research with the Genealogical Proof Standard - July 2009

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(Beginner-Experienced) Do you want to learn to successfully do genealogy research like the professionals? It is easier than you might think. Whether or not you have heard about the Genealogical Proof Standard, this class will help you through the research process by way of a visualization called the Genealogy Research Process map. Each step is explored through case study and uses traditional and online resources.

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Navigating Research with the Genealogical Proof Standard - July 2009

  1. 1. Navigating Research with the GPS Mark Tucker www.ThinkGenealogy.com
  2. 2. Introductions Me: You: • Professional, CG, AG • Employees • FamilySearch • Genealogy Software/Service • ThinkGenealogy readers • GPS Steps • Own Evidence! Or Evidence Explained • Want to do professional quality research
  3. 3. Agenda • 5 Steps of the Genealogical Proof Standard • Worth Tucker Case Study • Genealogy Research Process Map
  4. 4. Brief Timeline Genealogy as Pastime and Profession Donald Lines Jacobus 1930 1940 1950 American Society of Genealogists founded (FASG)
  5. 5. Genealogical Evidence Noel C. Stevenson The Genealogical Helper citation article, Gary B. & Elizabeth Shown Mills BCG founded (CG, CGL) POE 1960 1970 1980 Cite Your Sources Richard S. Lackey
  6. 6. Evidence Explained Mills Evidence! Mills POE Genealogical Proof Standard 1990 1997 2000 2007 The BCG Genealogical Standards Manual BCG Professional Genealogy ed. Mills
  7. 7. Where do I start?
  8. 8. What should I research? North Carolina? Parents? Marriage? 1870? Birth? Military Service? Yadkin County? 1869? Death? Land Ownership? Ashe County?
  9. 9. Lost?
  10. 10. 1
  11. 11. • Create before research begins • Identify: Principal Person Objective  Known information  Research Strategy • “Game plan”
  12. 12. • Keeps us focused on our goal • Tracks the sources searched • Records information found & not found • Our long-term “memory”
  13. 13. Research Plan Research Log
  14. 14. Research Plan Principal Person: Worth Tucker Objective: What is Worth Tucker’s birth date and place?
  15. 15. Known Information
  16. 16. Known Information: Informant / Source Information Relationship Pedigree Chart Worth - son of Moses Kirtley E. Tucker – son Tucker and Mary Jane of Worth Tucker & Dollar. Florence Abby AND Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Pulsipher Ashe Co. N. Carolina Family Group Sheet – Married: Florence Worth Tucker & Abby Pulsipher on 22 Florence Abby May 1895 Pulsipher Died: 5 Nov 1927 at Livingston, Montana
  17. 17. Known Information … cont. Informant / Source Information Relationship Family Group Sheet – Worth - son of Moses Andrew Mason Moses Tucker & Mary Tucker and Mary Jane Tucker – son of Jane Dollar Dollar Moses Tucker and Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Emeline Dollar. Ashe Co. N. C. Married: Florence Half brother of Worth Abby Pulsipher on 22 (20 years younger) May 1894 Died: 5 Nov 1927
  18. 18. Research Strategy Help • FamilySearch.org – Research Guidance by location – Research Outlines • Genealogy Software • Personal Experience • Visit a Family History Center • Join a Genealogy Society • Hire a Professional
  19. 19. Research Guidance: www.FamilySearch.org
  20. 20. Family History Library Catalog: Place Search
  21. 21. Research Strategy 1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File 2. Census Population Schedules: North Carolina - 1870, 1880; Utah - 1900, 1910, 1920 3. Tombstone and Sexton Records: Grave Marker … 15. Death Record: Death certificate 16. Birth Record: Birth certificate
  22. 22. Research Log Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Born: 30 Nov 1870 in Ashe 1 Pedigree Chart Co. N. Carolina 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Born: 30 Nov 1870 in 2 Family Group Sheet – Ashe Co. N. C. Moses Tucker & Mary Jane Dollar 7/4/2008 At home Some Tucker History: Born: 30 Nov 1870 in 3 Family Group Sheet – Ashe Co. North Carolina Worth Tucker & Florence Abby Pulsipher
  23. 23. Work the Plan 1 Follow Update 3 Research Plan Log Research Log Plan Find Source 2
  24. 24. 1 Research Plan 1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File 2
  25. 25. 3 Research Log Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.family Ancestral File v4.19 Born: 30 Nov 1870 Yadkin 4 search.org Co., Nc Worth Tucker Individual Record
  26. 26. 1 Research Plan 1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File 2
  27. 27. 3 Research Log Date Location Record/Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 1870, Ashe, 5 search.org No source information North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 30 Nov 1870, 6 search.org Film Number: 457622 Ashe, North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 30 Nov 1870, 7 search.org Source Call No.: 035126 Creston, Ashe, North Record of members … Carolina 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 30 Nov 1870, Of, , 8 search.org Film Number: 1239624 Ashe, North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 30 Nov 1870, 9 search.org Film Number: 170485 Ashe, North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.family IGI v5.0 Born: 30 Nov 1870, 10 search.org Film Number: 170490 Ashe, North Carolina
  28. 28. 1 Research Plan 1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File 2
  29. 29. 3 Research Log Date Location Source Results Doc 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 1870, North Carolina 11 Disc #89… 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 30 Nov 1870, Yadkin, 12 Disc #129… North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, 13 Disc #117… North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, NC 14 Disc #13… 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 1870, NC 15 Disc #130… 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 1870, NC 16 Disc #101… 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 1870, NC 17 Disc #127… 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File Born: 30 Nov 1870, North 18 Disc #134… Fork, Ashe, North Carolina 7/5/2008 www.familysearch.org Pedigree Resource File 30 Nov 1870, Yadkin Co., NC 19 Disc #135…
  30. 30. Research Plan 1. Previous Research: Some Tucker History, Ancestral File, IGI, Pedigree Resource File 2. Census Population Schedules: North Carolina - 1870, 1880 ; Utah - 1900, 1910, 1920 …
  31. 31. Do I really need to search any more?
  32. 32. 2
  33. 33. “We conduct a reasonably exhaustive search in reliable sources for all information that is or may be pertinent to the identity, relationship, event, or situation in question.”
  34. 34. From that already First oral or written form written or spoken
  35. 35. Tracking of each representation of a source back to the original. Original ← D1 ← D2 ← D3 D? → … → Original
  36. 36. Why Source Provenance? Independent Origin Better O O O D D D D D D D D D D
  37. 37. Provenance Example Original Derivative 1 Derivative 2 Derivative 3 Microfilm Digital Census Printout Copy Copy Enumerator Genealogist
  38. 38. Research Analysis Research Plan Research Log
  39. 39. Identify: Original or Derivative Research Analysis Source Analysis: Source Type Doc Pedigree Chart Derivative 1 Family Group Sheet Derivative 2,3 Ancestral File Derivative 4 IGI Derivative 5-10 Pedigree Resource File Derivative 11-19
  40. 40. Do I need to keep track of more than the information that I find?
  41. 41. 3
  42. 42. “We collect and include in our compilation a complete, accurate citation to the source or sources of each item of information we use.”
  43. 43. • Credibility to our research • Confidence in other’s research • Aids during analysis
  44. 44. Source Citation Guides: • Evidence! Citation & Analysis for the Family Historian • Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to By Elizabeth Shown Mills CG, CGL, FASG Cyberspace Published by Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc.
  45. 45. Why special citation guidelines?
  46. 46. Citation Model Derivatives: Church Records Database, Online Source: Evidence Explained, pg 320 (also 346-350)
  47. 47. Source Citations Source Doc Kirtley E. Tucker, Kirtley Elwood Tucker Pedigree Chart, Some Tucker 1 History; supplied by Kirtley E. Tucker, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Kaysville, Utah, abt. 1977. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "International 7 Genealogical Index," database, FamilySearch (http://www.familysearch.org : accessed 5 Jul 2008), Worth Tucker Individual Record. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Pedigree Resource 11 File," database, FamilySearch (http://www.familysearch.org : accessed 5 Jul 2008), Worth Tucker Individual Record.
  48. 48. Should there be one standard set of citation guidelines?
  49. 49. Online Source Citation Confusion FamilySearch Ancestry Evidence Explained
  50. 50. How do I analyze all this information?
  51. 51. 4
  52. 52. “We analyze and correlate the collected information to assess its quality as evidence.”
  53. 53. Transcript Duplicate Image Original Record Copy Extract (Counterparts) Copy (Clerk’s copy) Abstract
  54. 54. Firsthand Secondhand •Participant •Non-Participant •Eyewitness
  55. 55. Partially Absence of Completely answers information answers goal
  56. 56. 3 Common Derivatives 1 2 Transcript Extract 3 Abstract
  57. 57. Image Copy Source Original or Derivative
  58. 58. Record Copy (Clerk’s copy) Legal copy made by an official Original Register Clerk Informant
  59. 59. Duplicate Originals 1 2 Fed Copy Grantor Grantee Deed 3 Enumerator Local Copy Census Counterpart
  60. 60. Derivatives used as Originals Duplicate Image Image Image Original Copy Copy Copy Census Microfilm Digital Printout Fed Copy Copy Copy Search Census Extract Index Original Similar to an Abstract Original or treat as original Enumerator Derivative
  61. 61. Who can provide primary information of Worth’s birth?
  62. 62. Information & Evidence Analysis Information & Evidence Analysis: Doc Information Informant 1 Born: 30 Nov Kirtley E. Tucker – son of … 1870 in Ashe Worth Tucker & Florence Co. N. Carolina Abby Pulsipher
  63. 63. Information & Evidence Analysis: Information Evidence (Primary, Secondary) (Direct, Indirect, Negative) … Secondary Direct
  64. 64. From Research Plan • International Genealogical Index (IGI) • US Federal Census: Population Schedules – North Carolina: 1870, 1880 – Utah: 1900, 1910, 1920 • Grave Marker • Death Certificate • Marriage License • Birth Certificate
  65. 65. IGI Sources 1. Sealings of children to parents, 1893- 1942; heir indexes, 1893-1942. Salt Lake Temple. 30 Nov 1870, of Ashe, North Carolina 2. Sealings for the dead: couples and children, 1943-1970; heir indexes 1943-1965. Salt Lake Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina
  66. 66. IGI Sources… cont. 3. Record of members, 1886-1912. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Díaz Ward (Chihuahua, Mexico) 30 Nov 1870, Creston, Ashe, North Carolina 4. Endowments of the living, 1888-1956. Manti Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina 5. Sealings of living couples, 1888-1956. Manti Temple. 30 Nov 1870, Ashe, North Carolina
  67. 67. US Federal Census: FHL microfilm 1900 1910 Nov 1869, age 30 calc. 1870, age 39
  68. 68. Grave Marker: www.findagrave.com Nov 30, 1870
  69. 69. Death Certificate Primary vs. Secondary Information November 12th. 1872 North Carolina
  70. 70. Marriage License Age 24 on 15 May 1895 Born: calc. 1870
  71. 71. Birth Certificate County Date Formed Birth Parent Marriage County/ies Death Ashe 1799 1913 Wilkes 1828 1913
  72. 72. Research Completed • 15 Sources – 8 Originals (image copies), 6 Derivatives, 1 not found – 3 databases, 16 records • Information – 0 Primary, 27 Secondary • Evidence – 15 Direct, 11 Indirect, 1 Negative • 4 Conflicts
  73. 73. What do I do about conflicts?
  74. 74. 5
  75. 75. “We resolve any conflicts caused by items of evidence that contradict each other or are contrary to a proposed (hypothetical) solution to the question.”
  76. 76. Compare weights Usually: • Sources: Original > Derivatives • Information: Primary > Secondary • Evidence: Indirect >= Direct
  77. 77. All conflicts must be resolved. Even primary information from an original source can be wrong.
  78. 78. Resolve Conflicts Conflicting Evidence: Conflict Resolution 12 Nov 1872 Grieving son was informant. 1869 or 1870 Calculated dates either 1869 or 1870. Worth not in June 1870 Census. Unknown informant for 1900 Census which stated 1869. Ashe or Yadkin Family in Ashe Co. in 1870 & 1880. IGI lists Ashe. Yadkin 50 miles away. Creston, North Family in Laurel in 1870 & 1880. Each place Fork, or Laurel within 5 miles of each other.
  79. 79. Am I done yet?
  80. 80. 6
  81. 81. “We arrive at a soundly reasoned, coherently written conclusion.”
  82. 82. Includes: • Problem/Goal • Known sources with citations • Evidence and analysis • Conflicting evidence • Main points • Conclusion
  83. 83. There is no such thing as a final conclusion. New information can support, question, or disprove your current conclusion.
  84. 84. Written Conclusion (Proof Argument) Conclusion: Worth Tucker was born Nov 1870 (possibly on the 30th) in Ashe County, North Carolina. The exact location is likely Laurel Township where his parents (Moses Tucker and Mary Jane Dollar) were living in 1870 & 1880. Other locations within a 5 mile area that are also mentioned are Creston and North Fork.
  85. 85. Next Steps • Search church records in NC • Search local newspapers in NC • Review microfilm for IGI records • Read Worth’s journal (1903-1907) Why? Conclusions are never final.
  86. 86. SOURCES provide INFORMATION from which we select EVIDENCE for ANALYSIS. A sound CONCLUSION may then be considered “PROOF.” - Elizabeth Shown Mills
  87. 87. Desktop References
  88. 88. Genealogy Research Process Map www.thinkgenealogy.com/map
  89. 89. Questions? Mail: mail@ThinkGenealogy.com Blog: www.ThinkGenealogy.com Twitter: http://twitter.com/marktucker Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/marktucker1
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